W

Watt (Energy Star.gov) Watt (Energycodes.gov)

wafer

A thin sheet of semiconductor (photovoltaic material) made by cutting it from a single crystal or ingot. (US Dept of Energy)

wainscoting

The lower three or four feet of an interior wall when lined with paneling, tile or other material different from the rest of the wall. (Publications- USA.gov)

waiting period

The time between the date of application and the policy effective date. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

walk-through

An inspection of a property by the prospective buyer prior to closing on a mortgage. (Ginnie Mae) A common clause in a sales contract that allows the buyer to examine the property being purchased at a specified time immediately before the closing, for example, within the 24 hours before closing. (Federal Trade Commission) The final inspection of a property being sold by the buyer to confirm that any contingencies specified in the purchase agreement such as repairs have been completed, fixture and non-fixture property is in place and confirm the electrical, mechanical, and plumbing systems are in working order. (US Dept of HUD)

walk-through inspection

A process whereby an appraiser examines a property in preparation for estimating its value. Also, the process of inspecting a property for any damage prior to that property being bought or sold. (HardwickAssociates)

wall

Opaque portion of the building envelope. (Energycodes.gov) A vertical structural element that holds up a roof, encloses part or all of a room, or stands by itself to hold back soil. (US Dept of Energy)

wall friction

Frictional resistance mobilized between a wall and the soil or rock in contact with the wall. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wall orientation

The geographical direction that the primary or largest exterior wall of a building faces. (US Dept of Energy)

wall sheathing

Sheets of plywood, gypsum board, or other material nailed to the outside face of studs as a base for exterior siding. (Publications- USA.gov)

wall washer

Any fixture installed close to a wall and designed to project most of its light onto that wall. (Energy Star.gov)

walled and roofed

A building that has two or more exterior rigid walls and a fully secured roof and that is affixed to a permanent site. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

warehouse (loan)

In mortgage lending, warehouse loans are loans that are funded and awaiting sale or delivery to an investor. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

warehouse financing

Short-term borrowing of funds by a mortgage banker based on the collateral of warehoused loans. This form of interim financing is used until the warehoused loans are sold to a permanent investor. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

warehouse lender

A short-term lender for mortgage bankers. Using mortgage loans as collateral, the warehouse lender provides interim financing until the loans are sold to a permanent investor. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

warm white

(aka WW) The designation for a phosphor with a CCT of approximately 3,000 kelvin and a CRI of about 52. (Energy Star.gov)

warm-up

Increase in space temperature to occupied set point after a period of shutdown or setback. (Energycodes.gov)

warm-water fishery

Generally, water or water system that has an environment suitable for species of fish other than salmonids. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

warning

The fourth of five Early Warning System components consisting of the processes (including the media) and equipment necessary to make the public aware of potential, probable, or imminent danger or risk. A warning should be designed to prompt the population at risk to take protective action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

warning stage

The depth of water in a river at which the National Weather Service (NWS) reviews basin conditions for potential flooding. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

warning time

(aka WT) The amount of time between detection of failure or incipient failure and arrival of dam failure flood. It is a function of, and related to, detection, response, breach formation, travel time, evacuation capability, and breach formation time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

warranties

Written guarantees of the quality of a product and the promise to repair or replace defective parts free of charge. (Freddie Mac) Written guarantees of the quality of a product and the promise to repair or replace defective parts free of charge. (Federal Trade Commission)

warranty

A promise by the grantor of real property that he or she is the owner and will be responsible to the buyer if title is other than as represented. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) An affidavit given to stipulate the condition of a property. The person giving the warranty assumes liability if the condition turns out to be untrue. (HardwickAssociates)

warranty deed

A document protecting a homebuyer against any and all claims to the property. (Ginnie Mae) A deed warranting that the grantor has a title free and clear of all encumbrances and will defend the grantee against all claims against the property. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A legal document that includes the guarantee the seller is the true owner of the property, has the right to sell the property and there are no claims against the property. (US Dept of HUD)

wash load

That part of the total sediment discharge which is composed of particle sizes finer than those found in appreciable quantities in the bed material, and is determined by available bank and upslope supply rate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

waste

Digging, hauling and dumping of valueless material to get it out of the way; or the valueless material itself. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wastebank

A bank made of excess or unstable material excavated from a construction site. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water areas

A Land cover/use category comprising water bodies and streams that are permanent water. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

water balance

See Hydrologic budget. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water body

A type of permanent water area that includes ponds, lakes, reservoirs, bays or gulfs, and estuaries. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

water budget

(aka water balance model) An analytical tool whereby the sum of the system inflows equals the sum of the system outflows. A summation of inputs, outputs, and net changes to a particular water resource system over a fixed period. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water content

See moisture content (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water content of snow

See Water equivalent of snow. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water conveyance efficiency

Ratio of the volume of irrigation water delivered by a distribution system to the water introduced into the system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water conveyance structure

Any structure that conveys water from one location to another. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water crop

See Water yield. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water cycle

The movement of water from the air to and below the Earth's surface and back into the air. See hydrologic cycle. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water delivery system

Reservoirs, canals, ditches, pumps, and other facilities to move water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water demand

Water requirements for a particular purpose, as for irrigation, power, municipal supply, plant transpiration or storage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water economizer

A system by which the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling. (Energycodes.gov)

water equivalent of snow

Amount of water that would be obtained if the snow should be completely melted. Water content may be merely the amount of liquid water in the snow at the time of observation. (Wilson, 1942a, p. 153-154.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water hammer

(aka hydraulic transient) Refers to pressure fluctuations caused by a sudden increase or decrease in flow velocity, usually associated with a rapid closure or opening of a valve in a pipeline. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water heater

Vessel in which water is heated and is withdrawn for use external to the system. (Energycodes.gov)

water heating

The process or system used to heat service water. (Energycodes.gov)

water holding capacity

The amount of water that can be held in soil against the pull of gravity. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Amount of soil water available to plants. See available capacity. The smallest value to which the moisture content of a soil can be reduced by gravity drainage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water jacket

A heat exchanger element enclosed in a boiler. Water is circulated with a pump through the jacket where it picks up heat from the combustion chamber after which the heated water circulates to heat distribution devices. A water jacket is also an enclosed water-filled chamber in a tankless coiled water heater. When a faucet is turned on water flows into the water heater heat exchanger. The water in the chamber is heated and transfers heat to the cooler water in the heat exchanger and is sent through the hot water outlet to the appropriate faucet. (US Dept of Energy)

water loss

The difference between the average precipitation over a drainage basin and the water yield from the basin for a given period. (After Williams and others, 1940, p. 3. ) The basic concept is that water loss is equal to evapotranspiration, that is, water that returns to the atmosphere and thus is no longer available for use. However, the term is also applied to differences between measured inflow and outflow even where part of the difference may be seepage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water management plan

A plan developed during construction to help assure water quality compliance for both point and nonpoint pollution sources. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water measurement manual

The Bureau of Reclamation's Water Measurement Manual is available on line at the Water Resources Research Laboratory's website. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water purveyor

An agency or person that supplies water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water quality

The condition of water as it relates to impurities. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water quality standard

(aka WQS) The combination of a designated use and the maximum concentration of a pollutant which will protect that use for any given body of water. For example, in a trout stream, the concentration of iron should not exceed 1 mg/l. (US EPA- Pesticides)

water requirement

The quantity of water, regardless of its source, required by a crop in a given period of time, for its normal growth under field conditions. It includes surface evaporation and other economically unavoidable wastes. (Blaney, 1951a, p. 4.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water saturation

That point at which a material will no longer absorb water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water source heat pump

A type of (geothermal) heat pump that uses well (ground) or surface water as a heat source. Water has a more stable seasonal temperature than air thus making for a more efficient heat source. (US Dept of Energy)

water spreading

Diverting or collecting runoff from natural channels, gullies, or streams with a system of dams, dikes, ditches, or other means, and spreading it over a relatively flat area. (See Irrigated land.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

water supplier

A person who owns or operates a public water system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water surface elevation (stage)

The elevation of a water surface above or below an established reference level, such as sea level. See datum. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water table

The upper level of the saturated zone. This level varies greatly in different parts of the country and also varies seasonally depending on the amount of rain and snowmelt. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) The boundary between the saturated and unsaturated zones. Generally, the level to which water will rise in a well (except artesian wells). (US EPA- Pesticides) The upper surface of a zone of saturation. No water table exists where that surface is formed by an impermeable body. (Meinzer ,1923, p. 22.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The surface of underground, gravity-controlled water. The level of ground water. The boundary in the ground between where the ground is saturated with water (zone of saturation) and where the ground is filled with water and air (zone of aeration). The upper surface of the zone of saturation of ground water above an impermeable layer of soil or rock (through which water cannot move) as in an unconfined aquifer. This level can be very near the surface of the ground or far below it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water table�

The upper surface of a zone of saturation. No water table exists where that surface is formed by an impermeable body (Langbein and Iseri 1960:21). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

water transfers

Selling or exchanging water or water rights among individuals or agencies. Artificial conveyance of water from one area to another. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water turbine

A turbine that uses water pressure to rotate its blades; the primary types are the Pelton wheel, for high heads (pressure); the Francis turbine, for low to medium heads; and the Kaplan for a wide range of heads. Primarily used to power an electric generator. (US Dept of Energy)

water user

Any individual, district, association, government agency, or other entity that uses water supplied from a Reclamation project. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water wall

An interior wall made of water filled containers for absorbing and storing solar energy. (US Dept of Energy)

water wheel

A wheel that is designed to use the weight and/or force of moving water to turn it, primarily to operate machinery or grind grain. (US Dept of Energy)

water year

In Geological Survey reports dealing with surface-water supply, the 12-month period, October 1 through September 30. The water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends and which includes 9 of the 12 months. Thus, the year ended September 30, 1959, is called the "1959 water year." (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

water year (WY)

Period of time beginning October 1 of one year and ending September 30 of the following year and designated by the calendar year in which it ends. A calendar year used for water calculations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

water yield (water crop or runout)

The runoff from the drainage basin, including ground-water outflow that appears in the stream plus ground-water outflow that bypasses the gaging station and leaves the basin underground. Water yield is the precipitation minus the evpotranspiration. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

waterborne transportation

Transport of freight and/or people by commercial vessels under U.S. Coast Guard jurisdiction. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

watershed

The land area that catches rain or snow and drains it into a local water body (such as a river, stream, lake, marsh, or aquifer) and affects its flow, and the local water level. Also called a recharge area. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) The divide separating one drainage basin from another and in the past has been generally used to convey this meaning. However, over the years, use of the term to signify drainage basin or catchment area has come to predominate, although drainage basin is preferred. Drainage divide, or just divide, is used to denote the boundary between one drainage area and another. Used alone, the term "watershed" is ambiguous and should not be used unless the intended meaning is made clear. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

watershed (drainage area)

Surface drainage area above a specified point on a stream. Area which drains into or past a point. A geographical portion of the Earth's surface from which water drains or runs off to a single place like a river. The area of land that drains its water into a stream or river. All the land and water within the confines of a certain drainage area. Vertically, it extends from the top of the vegetation to the underlying rock layers that confine water movement. An area of land that contributes runoff to one specific delivery point. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

watershed divide

The divide or boundary between catchment areas (or drainage areas). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

waterstage recorder

A motor-driven (spring wound or electric) instrument for monitoring water surface elevation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

waterstop (water bar)

A continuous strip of waterproof material placed at concrete joints designed to control cracking and limit moisture penetration. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

waterways

Spillways and outlet works. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

watt

An expression of amount of electrical power. Volt times amps equals watts. (HardwickAssociates) The rate of energy transfer equivalent to one ampere under an electrical pressure of one volt. One watt equals 1/746 horsepower, or one joule per second. It is the product of Voltage and Current (amperage). (US Dept of Energy) Basic unit of electrical power produced at one time. One watt equals one joule per second. The power of a current of one ampere flowing across a potential difference of one volt. See kilowatt, megawatt, and gigawatt. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

watt hour

(aka Wh) An electrical energy unit of measure equal to one watt of power supplied to, or taken from, an electrical circuit steadily for one hour. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

watt-hour

A unit of electricity consumption of one Watt over the period of one hour. (US Dept of Energy)

wattmeter

A device for measuring power consumption. (US Dept of Energy)

watts

Measure of power, or energy consumed per unit of time. (Energy Star.gov)

wave form

The shape of the phase power at a certain frequency and amplitude. (US Dept of Energy)

wave height adjustment

A measurement that is added to the base flood elevation for V Zones shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map published prior to 1981. For coastal communities, the base flood elevation shown on Flood Insurance Rate Maps published prior to 1981 are still-water elevations, which include only the effects of tide and storm surge, and not the height of wind-generated waves. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

wave power

The concept of capturing and converting the energy available in the motion of ocean waves to energy. (US Dept of Energy)

wave runup

Vertical height above the sill water level to which water from a specific wave will run up the face of a structure or embankment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wave wall

See parapet wall. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wavelength

The distance between similar points on successive waves. (US Dept of Energy)

waybill

A document that lists goods and shipping instructions relative to a shipment. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

wear and tear

A term used to indicate the normal damage inflicted on a property through every-day use. (HardwickAssociates)

weather stripping

Metal, wood, plastic or other material installed around door and window openings to prevent air infiltration. (Publications- USA.gov) Material used around windows and doors to prevent drafts. (HardwickAssociates)

weatherization

Caulking and weatherstripping to reduce air infiltration and exfiltration into/out of a building. (US Dept of Energy)

weatherstripping

A material used to seal gaps around windows and exterior doors. (US Dept of Energy)

web mapping service (wms)

Standard protocol for serving georeferenced map images over the Internet that are generated by a map server using data from a GIS database. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

wedge

A piece that tapers from a thick end to a chisel point. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

weep hole

A small hole in a wall which permits water to drain off. (Publications- USA.gov) Drainage hole that allows water to escape. (HardwickAssociates) A drain embedded in a concrete or masonry structure intended to relieve pressure caused by seepage behind the structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

weighted average life

(aka WAL) Average number of years for which each dollar of unpaid principal on a loan or mortgage remains outstanding. (Making Home Affordable) A financial term. The weighted?average life (WAL) of an amortizing loan or amortizing bond, is the average time until a dollar of principal is repaid. (National Credit Union Administration)

weighting of a slope

Additional material placed on the slope of an embankment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

weir

An overflow structure built across an open channel to raise the upstream water level and/or to measure the flow of water. A measuring or gaging weir is calibrated for depth of flow over the crest. A weir generally consists of a rectangular, trapezoidal, triangular, or other shaped notch, located in a vertical, thin plate over which water flows. The height of water above the weir crest is used to determine the rate of flow. See Cipolletti weir, rectangular weir, and v-notch weir. Other types of weirs include broad-crested weir, sharp-crested weir, drowned weir or submerged weir. See contracted weir and suppressed weir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

weld

To build up or fasten together metals by bonding on molten metal. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

well

A hole or shaft drilled into the earth to get water or other underground substances. A bored, drilled, or driven shaft, or a dug hole, whose depth is greater than the largest surface dimension and whose purpose is to reach underground water supplies or oil, or to store or bury fluids below ground. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

well cap

A tight-fitting, vermin-proof seal designed to prevent contaminants from flowing down inside of the well casing. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary)

well casing

The tubular lining of a well. Also a steel or plastic pipe installed during construction to prevent collapse of the well hole. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary)

well field

Area containing one or more wells that produces usable amounts of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

well graded

A good representation in the material of all particle sizes present from the largest to smallest. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wellhead

��The point at which the crude (and/or natural gas) exits the ground. Following historical precedent, the volume and price for crude oil production are labeled as "wellhead, "even though the cost and volume are now generally measured at the lease boundary. In the context of domestic crude price data, the term "wellhead" is the generic term used to reference the production site or lease property. (US Energy Information Administration) The top of a structure built over a well. Term also used for the source of a well or stream. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary)

wellhead price

��The value at the mouth of the well. In general, the wellhead price is considered to be the sales price obtainable from a third party in an arm's length transaction. Posted prices, requested prices, or prices as defined by lease agreements, contracts, or tax regulations should be used where applicable. (US Energy Information Administration)

wellhead protection area

A protected surface and subsurface zone surrounding a well or well field that supplies a public water system and through which contaminants could likely reach well water. (US EPA- Pesticides)

wellpoint

A pipe fitted with a driving point and a fine mesh screen used to remove underground water. A complete set of equipment for drying up ground including wellpoints, connecting pipe and pump. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wet unit weight

The unit weight of solids plus water per unit volume, irrespective of the degree of saturation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wetland classification��

In support of maintaining an ecological perspective, wetlands are defined as below, based upon the FWS Wetlands Classification System (Cowardin et al., 1979). This definition is the national classification standard for wetland mapping, monitoring, and data reporting as recognized by the FGDC on December 17, 1996. Wetlands are lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. For purposes of this classification wetlands must have one or more of the following three attributes: (1) at least periodically, the land supports predominantly hydrophytes, (2) the substrate is predominantly undrained hydric soil, and (3) the substrate is nonsoil and is saturated with water or covered by shallow water at some time during the growing season of each year.� (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

wetland losses

Wetland losses are described in terms of gross and net. Net change is defined as the gross gain minus the gross loss, and can be either positive (net gain) or negative (net loss) for a given region. Wetland losses were attributed to one of the following categories: a. Development. Loss occurring on land cover/use category of urban and built-up or rural transportation. b. Agriculture. Loss occurring on land cover/use category of cropland, pastureland, CRP land, farmsteads or other farmland. c. Silviculture. Loss occurring on forest land. d. Miscellaneous. Loss occurring on all other land cover/use categories including mined land, rangeland, and other barren lands. Natural variations in climatic cycles and hydrology are responsible for the majority of these losses. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

wetlands

Areas that are soaked or flooded by surface or ground water frequently enough or for sufficient duration to support plants, birds, animals, and aquatic life. Wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bogs, estuaries, and other inland and coastal areas, and are federally protected. Wetlands frequently serve as recharge/discharge areas and are known as "nature's kidneys" since they help purify water. Wetlands also have been referred to as natural sponges that absorb flood waters, functioning like natural tubs to collect overflow. Wetlands are important wildlife habitats, breeding grounds, and nurseries because of their biodiversity. Many endangered species as well as countless estuarine and marine fish and shellfish, mammals, waterfowl, and other migratory birds use wetland habitat for growth, reproduction, food, and shelter. Wetlands are among the most fertile, natural ecosystems in the world since they produce great volumes of food (plant material). (US EPA- Pesticides) Lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water. For purposes of this classification wetlands must have one or more of the following three attributes: (1) at least periodically, the land supports predominantly hydrophytes; (2) the substrate is predominantly undrained hydric soil; and (3) the substrate is nonsoil and is saturated with water or covered by shallow water at some time during the growing season of each year. (Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Lands including swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as wet meadows, river overflows, mudflats, and natural ponds. An area characterized by periodic inundation or saturation, hydric soils, and vegetation adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. Any number of tidal and nontidal areas characterized by saturated or nearly saturated soils most of the year that form an interface between terrestrial and aquatic environments; including freshwater marshes around ponds and channels, and brackish and salt marshes. A jurisdictional wetland is subject to regulation under the Clean Water Act. A nonjurisdictional is subject to consideration under the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wetlands conservation

See� Swampbuster. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

wetlands inventory mapping��

More detailed mapping and classification of wetlands beyond distinguishing wetland from non-wetland or between simple categories of forested and non-forested or vegetated and nonvegetated. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

Wetlands Reserve Program

(aka WRP) Established in 1985 Farm Act and administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service in consultation with USDA's Farm Service Agency and other Federal agencies. WRP is funded through Commodity Credit Corporation and has an acreage enrollment cap. All landowners who choose to participate in WRP must implement an approved wetlands restoration and protection plan. They may sell a permanent or 30-year conservation easement to USDA and receive payments, or enter into a 10-year cost-share restoration agreement to restore and protect wetlands. The landowner voluntarily limits future use of the land yet retains private ownership. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

wetted perimeter

The distance along the bottom and sides of a stream, creek, or channel in contact with the water. Length of the wetted contact between a conveyed liguid and the open channel or closed conduit conveying it, measured in a plane at right angles to the direction of flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wh

Watt-hour. (Energycodes.gov)

whaler

A horizontal beam in a bracing structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wheeling

The process of transmitting electricity over one or more separately owned electric transmission and distribution systems. (See Wholesale and Retail Wheeling.) (US Dept of Energy) The transmission of electricity by an entity that does not own or directly use the power it is transmitting. Wholesale wheeling is used to indicate bulk transactions in the wholesale market, whereas retail wheeling allows power producers direct access to retail customers. This term is often used colloquially as meaning transmission. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

white noise

Random energy containing all frequency components in equal proportions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

whole bank p&a

A type of purchase and assumption transaction in which the FDIC or the RTC as receiver sells to an insured institution all or substantially all of the assets of a closed bank or thrift in consideration for the assumption of all deposits and sometimes other liabilities. Prospective bidders are invited to analyze a failing institution�s assets and submit bids to purchase essentially all of the assets �as is� on a discounted basis and to assume the outstanding deposits. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

whole house fan

A mechanical/electrical device used to pull air out of an interior space; usually located in the highest location of a building, in the ceiling, and venting to the attic or directly to the outside. (US Dept of Energy)

wholesale corporate

A corporate credit union serving retail corporate credit unions. (National Credit Union Administration)

wholesale customers

Any entity that purchases electricity at the wholesale level, including municipal utilities, private utilities, rural electric cooperatives, or government-owned utility districts. Wholesale customers purchase electricity from other wholesale suppliers to resell to their own retail customers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wholesale power market

The purchase and sale of electricity from generators to resellers (who sell to retail customers) along with the ancillary services needed to maintain reliability and power quality at the transmission level. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wholesale transmission services

The transmission of electric energy sold, or to be sold, at wholesale in interstate commerce. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wholesale wheeling

The wheeling of electric power in amounts and at prices that generally have been negotiated in long term contracts between the power provider and a distributor or very large power customer. (US Dept of Energy) The process of sending electricity from one utility to another wholesale purchaser over the transmission lines of an intermediate utility. Under the Energy Policy Act of 1992, utilities are required to provide wholesale transmission wheeling services to any electric utility, federal power marketing agency, or other company generating electric energy for sale in the wholesale market. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wicket gate

In hydropower applications a gate which pivots open around the periphery of a turbine or pump to allow water to enter. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act

(aka Public Law 90-542) The Wild and Scenic Rivers Act selects certain rivers possessing remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, or other similar values, for preservation in free-flowing conditions. Those selected under recreational criteria may have undergone some diversion or impoundment in the past. Selected rivers and streams have been placed into the National Rivers Inventory by Acts of Congress; others are proposed for inclusion into the system. See Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wilderness

Tract or region of land uncultivated and uninhabited by human beings, or unoccupied by human settlements. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wilderness act

See the wilderness act. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wilderness resource

Resources identified in officially designated wilderness areas on Forest Service or Bureau of Land Management administered land. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program

(aka WHIP) Established in 1985 Farm Act and administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Service in consultation with USDA's Farm Service Agency and other Federal agencies. WRP is funded through Commodity Credit Corporation and has an acreage enrollment cap. All landowners who choose to participate in WRP must implement an approved wetlands restoration and protection plan. They may sell a permanent or 30-year conservation easement to USDA and receive payments, or enter into a 10-year cost-share restoration agreement to restore and protect wetlands. The landowner voluntarily limits future use of the land yet retains private ownership. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

wildlife refuge

An area designated for the protection of wild animals, within which hunting and fishing are either prohibited or strictly controlled. (US EPA- Pesticides)

will

A document, also called testament, that, when signed and witnessed, gives legal effect to the wishes of a person, called a testator, with respect to disposal of property upon death. (Federal Reserve Education) A written document providing for the distribution of property owned by a person after his or her death. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

willingness to pay

Method of estimating the value of activities, services, or other goods, where value is defined as the maximum amount a consumer would be willing to pay for the opportunity rather than do without. The total willingness to pay, minus the user's costs of participating in the opportunity, defines the consumer surplus and benefits. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wilting point

The soil water content below which plants growing in that soil will remain wilted even when transpiration is nearly eliminated. See permanent wilting point. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

winch

A drum that can be rotated so as to exert a strong pull while winding in a line. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wind energy

Energy available from the movement of the wind across a landscape caused by the heating of the atmosphere, earth, and oceans by the sun. (US Dept of Energy)

Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) or device

(aka WECS) An apparatus for converting the energy available in the wind to mechanical energy that can be used to power machinery (grain mills, water pumps) and to operate an electrical generator. (US Dept of Energy)

wind erosion

The process of detachment, transport, and deposition of soil by wind. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

wind erosion equation

(aka WEQ) An erosion model designed to predict long-term average annual soil losses from a field having specific characteristics. The equation is: E = f(IKCLV) where E = Estimated average annual soil loss expressed in tons per acre per year I = Soil erodibility index K = Soil ridge roughness factor C = Climatic factor L = Equivalent unsheltered distance across the field along the prevailing wind erosion direction V = Equivalent vegetative cover (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

wind generator

A WECS designed to produce electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

wind power plant

A group of wind turbines interconnected to a common power provider system through a system of transformers, distribution lines, and (usually) one substation. Operation, control, and maintenance functions are often centralized through a network of computerized monitoring systems, supplemented by visual inspection. This is a term commonly used in the United States. In Europe, it is called a generating station. (US Dept of Energy)

wind resource assessment

The process of characterizing the wind resource, and its energy potential, for a specific site or geographical area. (US Dept of Energy)

wind rose

A diagram that indicates the average percentage of time that the wind blows from different directions, on a monthly or annual basis. (US Dept of Energy)

wind setup

The vertical rise in the still water level at the face of a structure or embankment caused by wind stresses on the surface of the water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wind speed

The rate of flow of the wind undisturbed by obstacles. (US Dept of Energy)

wind speed duration curve

A graph that indicates the distribution of wind speeds as a function of the cumulative number of hours that the wind speed exceeds a given wind speed in a year. (US Dept of Energy)

wind speed frequency curve

A curve that indicates the number of hours per year that specific wind speeds occur. (US Dept of Energy)

wind speed profile

A profile of how the wind speed changes with height above the surface of the ground or water. (US Dept of Energy)

wind turbine

A term used for a wind energy conversion device that produces electricity; typically having one, two, or three blades. (US Dept of Energy)

wind turbine rated capacity

The amount of power a wind turbine can produce at its rated wind speed, e.g., 100 kW at 20 mph. The rated wind speed generally corresponds to the point at which the conversion efficiency is near its maximum. Because of the variability of the wind, the amount of energy a wind turbine actually produces is a function of the capacity factor (e.g., a wind turbine produces 20% to 35% of its rated capacity over a year). (US Dept of Energy)

wind velocity

The wind speed and direction in an undisturbed flow. (US Dept of Energy)

windmill

A WECS that is used to grind grain, and that typically has a high-solidity rotor; commonly used to refer to all types of WECS. (US Dept of Energy)

window

The terms "fenestration", "window", and "glazing" are often used interchangeably. However, window actually describes a system of several components. Window is the term given to an entire assembly comprised of the sash, glazing, and frame. (Energycodes.gov) A generic term for a glazed opening that allows daylight to enter into a building and can be opened for ventilation. (US Dept of Energy)

window projection factor

A measure of the portion of glazing that is shaded by an eave or overhang. (Energycodes.gov)

window-wall ratio

The window-wall ratio is the percentage that results from dividing the total glazed area of the building by the total wall area. (Energycodes.gov)

windpower curve

A graph representing the relationship between the power available from the wind and the wind speed. The power from the wind increases proportionally with the cube of the wind speed. (US Dept of Energy)

windpower profile

The change in the power available in the wind due to changes in the wind speed or velocity profile; the windpower profile is proportional to the cube of the wind speed profile. (US Dept of Energy)

windrow

A ridge of loose material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wing wall

A wall that guides a water into a conveyance structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wingwall

A building structural element that is built onto a building's exterior along the inner edges of all the windows, and extending from the ground to the eaves. Wingwalls help ventilate rooms that have only one exterior wall which leads to poor cross ventilation. Wingwalls cause fluctuations in the natural wind direction to create moderate pressure differences across the windows. They are only effective on the windward side of the building. (US Dept of Energy)

winters doctrine

Provides that the establishment of a Indian Reservation impliedly reserves the amount of water necessary for the purposes of the reservation. Upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

wire (electrical)

A generic term for an electrical conductor. (US Dept of Energy)

wire transfer

Electronic transfer of funds; usually involves large dollar payments. (Federal Reserve Education) Electronic transfer of funds; usually involves large dollar payments. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) A transfer of funds from one point to another by wire or network such the Federal Reserve Wire Network (also known as FedWire). (Help With My Bank)

wire-to-water efficiency (overall efficiency)

The efficiency of a pump and motor together. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

withdrawal

Water removed from the ground or diverted from a surface-water source for use. The process of taking water from a source and conveying it to a place for a particular type of use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

withdrawal use of water

The water removed from the ground or diverted from a stream or lake for use. (MacKichan, 1957, p. 2.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

woman-owned business

A business in which more than 50 percent of the ownership or control is held by one or more women; and more than 50 percent of the net profit or loss of which accrues to one or more women; and a significant percentage of senior management positions of which are held by women. (US Dept of HUD)

wood preservatives

Pesticide active ingredients used in treatment of wood to protect it from insects, fungi and other pests. In this report, a total is presented for usage of wood preservative chemicals in industrial plants, the bulk of which is for pressure treatment. The major categories of pesticide chemicals included in this report as industrial wood preservatives are water borne preservatives (primarily arsenicals), oil borne preservatives (such as copper naphthenate and pentachlorophenol), creosote, creosote-coal tar and creosote petroleum. (US EPA- Pesticides)

wood stove

A wood-burning appliance for space and/or water heating and/or cooking. (US Dept of Energy)

wood treatment facility

An industrial facility which treats lumber and other wood products for outdoor use. The process involves use of chromated copper arsenate and other toxic chemicals which are regulated as hazardous materials. (US EPA- Pesticides)

woody plant�

A seed plant (gymnosperm or angiosperm) that develops persistent, hard, fibrous tissues, basically xylem; e.g., trees and shrubs. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

work out

A way to resolve or restructure a loan to prevent a homeowner from going into foreclosure through a loan modification, forbearance or short sale. (Making Home Affordable)

work plan

Plans that are prepared which detail the scope, direction, and purpose of a proposed Resource Management Plan. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

worker protection standards

Standards designed to reduce the risks of illness or injury resulting from workers' and handlers' occupational exposures to pesticides used in the production of agricultural plants on farms or in nurseries, greenhouses, and forests and also from the accidental exposure of workers and other persons to such pesticides. They require workplace practices designed to reduce or eliminate exposure to pesticides and establish procedures for responding to exposure-related emergencies. (US EPA- Pesticides)

workfile

Documentation necessary to support an appraiser�s analyses, opinions, and conclusions (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

working capital

The excess of current assets over current liabilities, representing the liquid assets immediately available to fund the continued operation of the business. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

working fluid

A fluid used to absorb and transfer heat energy. (US Dept of Energy)

working gas

��The quantity of natural gas in the reservoir that is in addition to the cushion or base gas. It may or may not be completely withdrawn during any particular withdrawal season. Conditions permitting, the total working capacity could be used more than once during any season. Volumes of working gas are reported in thousand cubic feet at standard temperature and pressure. (US Energy Information Administration)

world price (cotton)

See� Adjusted world price, cotton. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

world price (rice)

See� Adjusted world price, rice. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

World Trade Organization

(aka WTO) An international organization established by the Uruguay Round trade agreement to replace the institution created by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, known as the GATT. The Uruguay Round trade agreement modified the code and the framework and established the WTO on January 1, 1995. The WTO provides a code of conduct for international commerce and a framework for periodic multilateral negotiations on trade liberalization and expansion. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

worst case housing needs

Needs experienced by unassisted very low-income renters who either (1) pay more than one-half of their monthly income for rent; or (2) live in severely inadequate conditions, or both. (US Dept of HUD)

wound rotor motors

A type of motor that has a rotor with electrical windings connected through slip rings to the external power circuit. An external resistance controller in the rotor circuit allows the performance of the motor to be tailored to the needs of the system and to be changed with relative ease to accommodate system changes or to vary the speed of the motor. (US Dept of Energy)

wrack

Seaweed or other vegetation cast on the shore (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

wraparound

A financing device that permits an existing loan to be refinanced and new money to be advanced at an interest rate between the rate charged on the old loan and the current market interest rate. The creditor combines or "wraps" the remainder of the old loan with the new loan at the intermediate rate. (Federal Reserve Education) A financing device that permits an existing loan to be refinanced and new money to be advanced at an interest rate between the rate charged on the old loan and the current market interest rate. The creditor combines or �wraps� the remainder of the old loan with the new loan at the intermediate rate. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

wraparound mortgage

A loan arrangement in which an existing loan is retained and an additional loan is combined with the existing loan. The new lender accepts the obligation to make payments on the old loan. The existing loan generally carries an interest rate below the rate on new loans. Sellers are the most common wraparound lenders. (Technically, a wraparound is a second or junior mortgage, but for this survey, it is treated as a first mortgage.) (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

write your own (WYO) program

(aka WYO) A cooperative undertaking of the insurance industry and FEMA begun in October 1983. The WYO Program operates within the context of the NFIP and involves private insurance carriers who issue and service NFIP policies. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

WW

Warm white (Energy Star.gov)

wye branch (y branch)

(aka y branch) A section of pipe that joins the main run of pipe at an angle. The fitting that makes the joint is in the shape of the letter Y. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)