S factor

See Slope-steepness factor. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

SA

See subarea. (US Dept of HUD)

sacred site

Any specific, discrete, narrowly delineated location on Federal land that is identified by an Indian Tribe, or Indian individual determined to be an appropriately authoritative representative of an Indian religion, as sacred. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sacrificial anode

A metal rod placed in a water heater tank to protect the tank from corrosion. Anodes of aluminum, magnesium, or zinc are the more frequently metals. The anode creates a galvanic cell in which magnesium or zinc will be corroded more quickly than the metal of the tank giving the tank a negative charge and preventing corrosion. (US Dept of Energy)

saddle dam

A subsidiary dam of any type constructed across a saddle or low point on the perimeter of a reservoir. See dike. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

SAES

State Agricultural Experiment Stations. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

safe (or safety) deposit box

A type of safe usually located in groups inside a bank vault and rented to customers for their use in storing valuable items. (Help With My Bank)

Safe Drinking Water Act

Passed in 1974, SDWA is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water. See Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

safe yield

The annual quantity of water that can be taken from a source of supply over a period of years without depleting the source beyond its ability to be replenished naturally in wet years. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

safekeeping

A service provided by banks where securities and valuables are protected in the vaults of the bank for customers. (Help With My Bank)

safer pesticides

Pesticides designated as �safer� (or �reduced-risk�) by EPA due to favorable characteristics affecting health or environmental risks, resistance management and integrated pest management. Safer pesticides may be conventional pesticides posing less risk or be biopesticides with unique modes of action, low use volume, lower toxicity, target species specificity or natural occurrence. (US EPA- Pesticides)

safety disconnect

An electronic (automatic or manual) switch that disconnects one circuit from another circuit. These are used to isolate power generation or storage equipment from conditions such as voltage spikes or surges, thus avoiding potential damage to equipment. (US Dept of Energy)

Safety Evaluation Earthquake

(aka SEE) The earthquake expressed in terms of magnitude and closest distance from the damsite or in terms of the characteristics of the time history of free-field ground motions for which the safety of the dam and critical structures associated with the dam are to be evaluated. In many cases, this earthquake will be the maximum credible earthquake to which the dam will be exposed. However, in other cases where the possible sources of ground motion are not easily apparent, it may be a motion with prescribed characteristics selected on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the ground motions that may occur in the vicinity of the dam. To be considered safe, it should be demonstrated that the dam can withstand this level of earthquake shaking without release of water from the reservoir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Safety evaluation flood

(aka SEF) The largest flood for which the safety of a dam and appurtenant structure(s) are to be evaluated. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Safety Evaluation of Existing Dams examination

(aka SEED examination) The onsite examination performed initially and at predetermined intervals (approximately every 6 years). The design, construction, operation, performance, and existing condition of all features are evaluated in accordance with state-of-the-art criteria. See overall safety of dams classification. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Safety Evaluation of Existing Dams report

(aka SEED Report) A compilation of independent technical reports that evaluate the design, construction, and performance of a dam for its structural and hydraulic integrity using available data; identify existing or potential dam safety deficiencies; and recommend future actions appropriate for the safety of the dam. Evaluation includes review of hydrology, geology, seismicity, seepage, structural adequacy, design criteria, construction, operation, instrumentation records, existing field conditions, and past performance. See evaluation report. See overall safety of dams classification. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Safety Management System

A systematic process that has the goal of reducing the number and severity of transportation related accidents by ensuring that all opportunities to improve safety are identified, considered and implemented as appropriate. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

safety net

A policy that ensures a minimum income, consumption, or wage level for everyone in a society or subgroup. It may also provide persons (including businesses) with protection against risks, such as lost income, limited access to credit, or devastation from natural disasters. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

sale leaseback

When a seller deeds property to a buyer for a payment, and the buyer simultaneously leases the property back to the seller. (US Dept of HUD)

sale price

The actual price a property sells for, exclusive of any special financing concessions. (HardwickAssociates)

sale-leaseback

A transaction in which the buyer leases the property back to the seller for a specified period of time. (Federal Trade Commission)

sales agreement

The contract signed by a buyer and the seller stating the terms and conditions under which a property will be sold. It may also be called an �Agreement of Sale� or �Purchase Contract.� (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

sales comparison approach

An appraisal practice which estimates the value of a property by comparing it to comparable properties which have sold recently. (HardwickAssociates)

sales concessions

A cash or noncash contribution that is provided by the seller or other party to the transaction and reduces the purchaser�s cost to acquire the real property. A sales concession may include, but is not limited to, the seller paying all or some portion of the purchaser's closing costs (such as prepaid expenses or discount points) or the seller conveying to the purchaser personal property which is typically not conveyed with the real property. Sales concessions do not include fees that a seller is customarily required to pay under state or local laws. In developing an opinion of market value, an appraiser must take into consideration the effect of any sales concessions on the market value of the real property. (See "market value" above and USPAP Standards Rule 1-2(c).) (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A cash or noncash contribution that is provided by the seller or other party to the transaction and reduces the purchaser�s cost to acquire the real property. A sales concession may include, but is not limited to, the seller paying all or some portion of the purchaser's closing costs (such as prepaid expenses or discount points) or the seller conveying to the purchaser personal property which is typically not conveyed with the real property. Sales concessions do not include fees that a seller is customarily required to pay under state or local laws. In developing an opinion of market value, an appraiser must take into consideration the effect of any sales concessions on the market value of the real property. (See "market value" above and USPAP Standards Rule 1-2(c).) (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

sales history and pending sales

According to USPAP Standards Rule 1-5, when the value opinion to be developed is market value, an appraiser must, if such information is available to the appraiser in the normal course of business, analyze: (1) all current agreements of sale, options, and listings of the subject property as of the effective date of the appraisal, and (2) all sales of the subject property that occurred within three years prior to the effective date of the appraisal. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) According to USPAP Standards Rule 1-5, when the value opinion to be developed is market value, an appraiser must, if such information is available to the appraiser in the normal course of business, analyze: (1) all current agreements of sale, options, and listings of the subject property as of the effective date of the appraisal, and (2) all sales of the subject property that occurred within three years prior to the effective date of the appraisal. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

saline�

General term for waters containing various dissolved salts. We restrict the term to inland waters where the ratios of the salts often vary; the term haline is applied to coastal waters where the salts are roughly in the same proportion as found in undiluted sea water. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

saline

The condition of containing dissolved or soluble salts. Saline soils are those whose productivity is impaired by high soluble salt content. Saline water is that which would impair production if used to irrigate sensitive crops without adequate leaching to prevent soil salinization. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

saline sodic land

Soil that contains soluble salts in amounts that impair plant growth but not an excess of exchangeable sodium. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

saline water

Water that contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

salinity

Saltiness. The relative concentration of dissolved salts, usually sodium chloride, in a given water supply. A measure of the concentration of dissolved mineral substances in water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

salmonids

Family of fish that includes salmon and steelhead. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

salt gradient solar ponds

Consist of three main layers. The top layer is near ambient and has low salt content. The bottom layer is hot, typically 160 F to 212 F (71 C to 100 C), and is very salty. The important gradient zone separates these zones. The gradient zone acts as a transparent insulator, permitting the sunlight to be trapped in the hot bottom layer (from which useful heat is withdrawn). This is because the salt gradient, which increases the brine density with depth, counteracts the buoyancy effect of the warmer water below (which would otherwise rise to the surface and lose its heat to the air). An organic Rankine cycle engine is used to convert the thermal energy to electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

saltation

The movement of sand or fine sediment by short jumps above a streambed under the influence of a water current too weak to keep it permanently suspended in the moving water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sample error

Random variation reflecting the inherent variability within a population being counted. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sample point

The second-stage sample unit in the NRI two-stage sampling scheme. See also Segment. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

sand

As a soil separate, individual rock or mineral fragments from 0.05 millimeter to 2.0 millimeters in diameter. Most sand grains consist of quartz. As a soil textural class, a soil that is 85% or more sand and not more than 10% clay. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Mineral grains whose particle size vary from a No. 4 sieve to a No. 200 sieve. A loose soil composed of particles between 1/16 mm and 2 mm in diameter. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sand�

Composed predominantly of coarse-grained mineral sediments with diameters larger than 0.074 mm (Black 1968) and smaller than 2 mm (Liu 1970; Weber 1973). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

sand backfill

Material which has a particle size which varies from a No. 4 sieve to a No. 200 sieve and is used for refilling an excavation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sand boil

Seepage characterized by a boiling action at the surface surrounded by a cone of material from deposition of foundation and/or embankment material carried by the seepage. A swirling upheaval of sand or soil on the surface of or downstream from an embankment caused by water leaking through the embankment. The ejection of sand and water resulting from piping. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sand dunes

A Land cover/use subcategory under Barren land. A sand area with less than 5 percent vegetative cover. An accumulation of loose sand heaped by the wind, commonly found along low-lying seashores above high-tide level, more rarely on the border of large lakes or river valleys, as well as in various desert regions, where there is abundant dry surface sand during some part of the year. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

sandstone

Sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized grains (usually quartz) cemented together. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sandwich panel

A panel with plastic, paper, or other material enclosed between two layers of a different material. (Publications- USA.gov)

sanitizer

One of three groups of antimicrobials registered by EPA for public health uses. EPA considers an anti-microbial to be a sanitizer when it reduces but does not necessarily eliminate all the microorganisms on a treated surface. To be a registered sanitizer, the test results for a product must show a reduction of at least 99.9% in the number of each test microorganism over the parallel control. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

saprophytic fungi

Fungi that decompose dead organic matter. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

SARA Title III

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

SAS

Originally called statistical analysis software, SAS is software that allows users to perform a range of statistical analyses. Some of the HUD USER data sets are available in SAS. (US Dept of HUD)

sash

The movable part of a window-the frame in which panes of glass are set in a window or door. (Publications- USA.gov)

satisfaction of mortgage

A document issued by a mortgagee (the lender) when a mortgage is paid in full. (Help With My Bank)

saturated unit weight

The wet unit weight of soil when saturated. See unit weight. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

saturated zone

The underground area below the water table where all open spaces are filled with water. A well placed in this zone will be able to pump ground water. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) A zone in which all voids are filled with water. The area below the water table where all open spaces are filled with water. See ground water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

saturation (and internal vibration)

A method of compacting soil using water added to soil and internal vibrators (such as a concrete vibrator) are worked down through the depth of soil placed. The condition of being filled to capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Savings account

A service depository institutions offer whereby people can deposit their money for future use and earn interest. (Federal Reserve Education)

Savings and Loan Association

(aka S&L) A state or federally chartered financial institution that accepts savings and checkable deposits from the public and invests them primarily in mortgage loans. A savings and loan association may be either a mutual or capital stock institution and may also make loans to businesses and consumers. (Federal Reserve Education) Historically, a depository institution that accepted deposits mainly from individuals and invested heavily in residential mortgage loans. Although still primarily residential lenders, S&Ls may now offer checking-type deposits and make a wider range of loans. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) An association chartered to hold savings and make real estate loans. Active in long-term financing (mortgages) rather than construction loans. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Savings bank

Depository institution historically engaged primarily in accepting consumer savings deposits and in originating and investing in securities and residential mortgage loans; now may offer checking-type deposits and make a wider range of loans. (Federal Reserve Education)

SBCCI

The Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc. (Energycodes.gov)

scale

Ratio of map distance to Earth distance. Thus, in a 1:24,000 scale map, one centimeter, inch, or foot equals 24,000 centimeters, inches, or feet on the ground. Graphic scales typically show equivalent map and ground distance in the form of a line or bar. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

scaling

Prying loose pieces of rock off a face or roof to avoid danger of their falling unexpectedly. An adjustment to an earthquake time history or response spectrum where the amplitude of acceleration, velocity, and/or displacement is increased or decreased, usually without change to the frequency content of the ground motion. The earthquake time history or response spectrum can be scaled based on ground motion parameters of peak acceleration, peak velocity, peak displacement, spectrum intensity, or other appropriate parameters. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

scarcity

An economic principal that dictates the price of a good or service through the interaction of supply and demand. When an item is scarce, its price tends to rise, given a constant demand. Real Estate is a classic example of scarcity. (HardwickAssociates)

scatter

A concentration of artifacts. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

scheduled building policy

A policy that requires a specific amount of insurance to be designated for each building and its contents. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

scheduled outage

Shutdown of a generating unit, or other facility, for inspection or maintenance, in accordance with an advance schedule. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

schedules

Detailed lists filed by the debtor along with (or shortly after filing) the petition showing the debtor's assets, liabilities, and other financial information. (There are official forms a debtor must use.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

schist

Metamorphic rock composed of platy mica minerals aligned in the same direction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

school breakfast program

Provides nutritional meals to students at participating schools (and to children in a few residential child care institutions). Certified low-income students receive free or reduced-price breakfasts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

school bus

A passenger motor vehicle that is designed or used to carry more than 10 passengers, in addition to the driver, and, as determined by the Secretary of Transportation, is likely to be significantly used for the purpose of transporting pre-primary, primary, or secondary school students between home and school. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

science reviews

OPP reviews various pesticide studies, such as toxicology, environmental fate and groundwater, ecological effects, and product chemistry.� See Cleared Reviews, DERs.� (US EPA- Pesticides)

sconce

Wall-mounted fixture providing indirect light from a wall and ceiling as well as direct light through a lens. (Energy Star.gov)

scope of work

The type and extent of research and analyses in an assignment (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) According to USPAP Scope of Work Rule, the type and extent of research and analyses in an appraisal assignment. (See the Scope of Work Rule in USPAP.) (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) According to USPAP Scope of Work Rule, the type and extent of research and analyses in an appraisal assignment. (See the Scope of Work Rule in USPAP.) (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

scoring function

A standardization procedure used to convert measured values or subjective ratings to unitless values usually between 0 and 1. This allows all soil property measurements to be integrated into one value or index for soil quality. The four general types of scoring functions used in soil quality assessments are: more is better (higher measurements mean higher soil quality, e.g. SOM); less is better (lower measurements mean higher soil quality, e.g. salinity); optimum range (a moderate range of values is desirable, e.g. pH); undesirable range (a specific range of values is undesirable) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

scotia

A concave molding. (Publications- USA.gov)

scotopic vision

Vision mediated essentially or exclusively by the rods. It is generally associated with adaptation to a luminance below about 0.034 candelas per square meter. See also photopic vision. (Energy Star.gov)

scour

Erosion in a stream bed, particularly if caused or increased by channel changes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

scrape

A nest made from scratching in the ground. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

screen

A mesh or bar surface used for separating pieces or particles of different sizes. A filter. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

screw lamp holders

A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type light such as an incandescent or tungsten-halogen bulb. (Energycodes.gov)

scribing

The cutting of a grid pattern of grooves in a semiconductor material, generally for the purpose of making interconnections. (US Dept of Energy)

scrub shrub

Scrub shrub areas must have at least 30 percent canopy cover of woody plants that grow to a height of less than 4 meters at maturity and less than 25 percent canopy cover of trees that grow to a height of more than 4 meters at maturity. The minimum area for classification of scrub shrub land is 1 acre, and the area must be at least 100 feet wide. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

scuttle hole

A small opening either to the attic, to the crawl space or to the plumbing pipes. (Publications- USA.gov)

sealed bid sale

A �silent auction� in which investors independently value an asset and submit bids by a certain date. Information on bids or bidders is not released before a sale closes. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

sealed combustion heating system

A heating system that uses only outside air for combustion and vents combustion gases directly to the outdoors. These systems are less likely to backdraft and to negatively affect indoor air quality. (US Dept of Energy)

seam

A layer of rock, coal, or ore. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seasonal coefficient of performance (cooling)

The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period for cooling divided by the total electric energy input during the same period in consistent units (analogous to the HSPF but for IP or other consistent units). (Energycodes.gov)

seasonal coefficient of performance (heating)

The total heating output of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating divided by the total electric energy input during the same period in consistent units (analogous to the HSPF but for IP or other consistent units). (Energycodes.gov)

seasonal energy efficiency ratio

(aka SEER) The total cooling output of an air conditioner during its normal annual usage period for cooling, in Btu/h (W), divided by the total electric energy input during the same period, in watt-hours, as determined by DOE 10 CFR Part 430, Subpart B, Test Procedures. New equipment ranges from about 10 to 16 SEER. Higher SEER ratings indicate more efficient equipment. (Energycodes.gov) A measure of seasonal or annual efficiency of a central air conditioner or air conditioning heat pump. It takes into account the variations in temperature that can occur within a season and is the average number of Btu of cooling delivered for every watt-hour of electricity used by the heat pump over a cooling season. (US Dept of Energy)

seasonal performance factor

(aka SPF) Ratio of useful energy output of a device to the energy input, averaged over an entire heating season. (US Dept of Energy)

seasonal stream

See intermittent stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seasoned wood

Wood, used for fuel, that has been air dried so that it contains 15 to 20 percent moisture content (wet basis). (US Dept of Energy)

secchi depth

A measure of water clarity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

second foot

(aka sec ft) Shortened term for cubic foot per second (cfs or ft3/s). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

second home

A residence that is not one's principal (primary) residence; for example, a vacation home. See also "primary residence." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

second law efficiency

The ratio of the minimum amount of work or energy required to perform a task to the amount actually used. (US Dept of Energy)

second law of thermodynamics

This law states that no device can completely and continuously transform all of the energy supplied to it into useful energy. (US Dept of Energy)

second lien modification program

(aka 2MP) Program that provides homeowners a way to modify their second mortgages to make them more affordable when their first mortgage is modified under the HAMP. (Making Home Affordable)

second mortgage

A loan that is junior to a primary or first mortgage and often has a higher interest rate and a shorter term. (Ginnie Mae) A mortgage that has a lien position subordinate to the first mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission) A loan with a second-priority claim against a property in the event that the homeowner defaults. The lender who holds the second mortgage gets paid only after the lender holding the first mortgage is paid. (Making Home Affordable) Similar to a "mortgage." See "second mortgage" under "mortgage." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) An additional mortgage on property. In case of a default the first mortgage must be paid before the second mortgage. Second loans are more risky for the lender and usually carry a higher interest rate. (US Dept of HUD) A second loan on real estate that a l ready has a mortgage. It is subordinate to the first mortgage. Usually of shorter term and often at a higher interest rate. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A loan secured by the equity in a home, when a primary mortgage already exists. (HardwickAssociates)

secondary market

A market comprising investors like Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae who buy large numbers of mortgages from the primary lenders and resell them to other investors. (Ginnie Mae) The buying and selling of existing mortgage loans, usually as part of a "pool" of loans. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

secondary mortgage market

The market in which mortgage loan and mortgage-backed securities are bought and sold. (Federal Trade Commission) The buying and selling of first mortgages or trust deeds by banks, insurance companies, government agencies, and other mortgagees. This enables lenders to keep an adequate supply of money for new loans. The mortgages may be sold at full value (par) or above, but are usually sold at a discount. The secondary mortgage market should not be confused with second mortgages. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The buying and selling of mortgage loans. Investors purchase residential mortgages originated by lenders, which in turn provides the lenders with capital for additional lending. (US Dept of HUD) An economic marketplace where mortgage bankers buy and sell existing mortgages. (HardwickAssociates)

second-foot

Same as cfs. This term is no longer used in published reports of the U.S. Geological Survey. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

Secretary's Award Program

Awards from the HUD Secretary for best in residential housing design, excellence in historic preservation, and excellence produced through cooperative public/private efforts that expand homeownership opportunities for underserved American families. (US Dept of HUD)

section

An area equal to 640 acres or 1 square mile. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Section 1316

Section of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, which states that no new flood insurance coverage shall be provided for any property that FEMA finds has been declared by a duly constituted state or local zoning authority or other authorized public body to be in violation of state or local laws, regulations, or ordinances that are intended to discourage or otherwise restrict land development or occupancy in flood-prone areas. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Section 202

Provides capital advances to finance the construction, rehabilitation or acquisition (with or without rehabilitation) of structures that will serve as supportive housing for very-low-income elderly persons, including the frail elderly, and provides rent subsidies for the projects to help make them affordable. (US Dept of HUD)

Section 32

Section 32 of Agricultural Adjustment Act Amendment of 1935 was enacted to widen market outlets for surplus agricultural commodities as one means of strengthening farm prices. Section 32 programs are financed by a permanent appropriation equal to 30 percent of the import duties collected on all items entering the United States under the customs laws, plus any unused balances up to $300 million. Most funds are annually transferred by appropriators to pay for child nutrition programs. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Section 416

Section 416 of the Agricultural Act of 1949 provides for the disposition of agricultural commodities held by the Commodity Credit Corporation to prevent waste. Disposal is usually carried out by donation of commodities to charitable groups and foreign governments. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Section 8

A program of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) that provides rental assistance to low- and very low-income families. HUD pays the difference between the market rent of a unit and the amount that the tenant is able to pay. (Federal Reserve Education)

Section 8 Exisisting Rental Assistance

Provides rental assistance to low-income families who are unable to afford market rents. Assistance may be in the form of vouchers or certificates. (US Dept of HUD)

Section 8 Homeownership Program

Allows low-income families who qualify for Section 8 rental assistance to use their certificates or vouchers to pay for homeownership costs under a mortgage. (US Dept of HUD)

section or section of land

A parcel of land comprising one square mile or 640 acres. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

Secure and Fair Enforcement Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008

(aka SAFE Act) Legislation designed to enhance consumer protection and reduce fraud by encouraging states to establish minimum standards for the licensing and registration of state-licensed mortgage loan originators and for the Conference of State Bank Supervisors and the American Association of Residential Mortgage Regulators to establish and maintain a nationwide mortgage licensing system and registry for the residential mortgage industry. The S.A.F.E. Act further requires the federal agencies to establish similar requirements for the registration of depository institution loan originators. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

secured creditor

A creditor holding a claim against the debtor who has the right to take and hold or sell certain property of the debtor in satisfaction of some or all of the claim. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

secured debt

Debt backed by a mortgage, pledge of collateral, or other lien; debt for which the creditor has the right to pursue specific pledged property upon default. Examples include home mortgages, auto loans and tax liens. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

secured loan

A loan that is backed by property such as a house, car, jewelry, etc. (Federal Trade Commission) A loan backed by collateral such as property. (US Dept of HUD) A loan that is backed by collateral. In the case of a mortgage loan, the collateral is the house. (HardwickAssociates)

securities

A financial form that shows the holder owns a share or shares of a company (stock) or has loaned money to a company or government organization (bond). (Freddie Mac) A financial form that shows the holder owns a share or shares of a company (stock) or has loaned money to a company or government organization (bond). (Federal Trade Commission) Financial forms that shows the holder owns a share or shares of a company (stocks) or has loaned money to a company or government organization (bonds). (Federal Trade Commission) Paper certificates (definitive securities) or electronic records (book-entry securities) evidencing ownership of equity (stocks) or debt obligations (bonds). (Federal Reserve Education)

Securities and Exchange Commission

(aka SEC) An independent, nonpartisan, quasi-judicial regulatory agency with responsibility for administering the federal securities laws. The purpose of these laws is to protect investors and to ensure that investors have access to disclosure of all material information concerning publicly traded securities. The Commission also regulates firms engaged in the purchase or sale of securities, people who provide investment advice, and investment companies. (Federal Reserve Education)

securitization

Securitization is a process in structured finance designed to distribute risk by pooling assets and issuing new securities backed by the cash flows from the asset pool. Conceptually, it is similar to spinning off a profitable business into a separate entity. The owner trades all future profits/losses for cash today. Buyers invest in the success and/or failure of the unit and receive a premium (usually in the form of interest) in return. In most securitizations, investor rights to cash flows are divided into tranches: investors in senior tranches accept lower risk of default in return for lower interest payments while junior tranche investors assume a higher risk in return for higher interest. (National Credit Union Administration) The process by which generally illiquid assets with similar features are pooled into interest-bearing securities with marketable investment characteristics. In the securitization of commercial and multi-family residential mortgages, the cash flow associated with the mortgage payments is placed into the most appropriate legal package (for example, CMO and REMIC), techniques are used to reshape the mortgage cash flow, a credit enhancement feature is added, and a mortgage-backed security is created. From 1991 to 1997, 72 RTC and 2 FDIC securitizations were closed, disposing of conservatorship and receivership assets with a total book value of approximately $44 billion. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Securitization Trust

Trust established for the purpose of securitizing legacy asset cash flows. The asset management estates will transfer their legacy assets to newly formed trusts or other special purpose entities (SPEs), each of which will issue and sell fixed income securities to investors. The asset management estates will receive the net proceeds realized from the issues of these securities in consideration for their transfer of legacy assets to the SPEs. Cash flows generated by the legacy assets transferred to each SPE will be used to make principal and interest payments on the securities issued by the SPE to investors. To the extent that the legacy assets do not generate sufficient funds to cover interest and principal obligations on the securities, the NCUA will guarantee the timely payment of interest and principal on such securities. (National Credit Union Administration)

security

The property that will be given or pledged as collateral for a loan. (Federal Trade Commission) The property that will be pledged as collateral for a loan. (US Dept of HUD) The property used as collateral for a loan. (HardwickAssociates)

security interest

The creditor's right to take property or a portion of property offered as security. (Federal Reserve Education) An interest in property that secures performance of a consumer credit obligation and that is recognized by state or federal law. It does not include incidental interests such as interests in proceeds, accessions, additions, fixtures, insurance proceeds (whether or not the creditor is a loss payee or beneficiary), premium rebates, or interests in after-acquired property. For purposes of disclosures under ��226.6 and ��226.18, the term does not include an interest that arises solely by operation of law. However, for purposes of the right of rescission under ��226.15 and ��226.23, the term does include interests that arise solely by operation of law. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

sediment

Topsoil, sand, and minerals washed from the land into water, usually after rain or snow melt. Sediments collecting in rivers, reservoirs, and harbors can destroy fish and wildlife habitat and cloud the water so that sunlight cannot reach aquatic plants. Loss of topsoil from farming, mining, or building activities can be prevented through a variety of erosion-control techniques. (US EPA- Pesticides) Fragmental material that originates from weathering of rocks and is transported by, suspended in, or deposited by water or air or is accumulated in beds by other natural agencies. (Colby, Hembree, and Jochens, 1953, p. 24.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Any finely divided organic and/or mineral matter deposited by air or water in nonturbulent areas. Unconsolidated solid material that comes from weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or deposited by water or wind. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sediment concentration

The quantity of sediment relative to the quantity of transporting fluid, or fluid-sediment misture. The concentration may be by weight or by volume. When expressed in ppm, the concentration is always in ratio by weight. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sediment discharge

The rate at which dry weight of sediment passes a section of a stream or is the quantity of sediment, as measured by dry weight, or by volume, that is discharged in a given time. (Colby, Hembree, and Jochens, 1953, p. 24.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Rate at which sediment passes a stream cross-section in a given period of time, expressed in millions of tons per day (mtd). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sediment load

Mass of sediment passing through a stream cross section in a specified period of time, expressed in millions of tons (mt). Amount of sediment carried by running water. The sediment that is being moved by a stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sediment yield

Amount of mineral or organic soil material that is in suspension, is being transported, or has been moved from its site of origin. The portion of eroded material that does travel through the drainage network to a downstream measuring or control point. The dry weight of sediment per unit volume of water-sediment mixture in place, or the ratio of the dry weight of sediment to the total weight of water-sediment mixture in a sample or a unit volume of the mixture. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sediment yield rate

The sediment yield per unit of drainage area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sedimentary

Rock resulting from the consolidation of loose eroded sediment, remains of organisms, or crystals forming directly from water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sedimentation

Deposition of waterborne sediments due to a decrease in velocity and corresponding reduction in the size and amount of sediment which can be carried. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

see also surface runoff

The terms base runoff and direct runoff are time classifications of runoff. The terms ground-water runoff and surface runoff are classifications according to source. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

seebeck effect

The generation of an electric current, when two conductors of different metals are joined at their ends to form a circuit, with the two junctions kept at different temperatures. (US Dept of Energy)

seep

A spot where ground water oozes slowly to the surface, usually forming a pool. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seepage

The slow movement or percolation of water through soil or rock. Movement of water through soil without formation of definite channels. The movement of water into and through the soil from unlined canals, ditches, and water storage facilities. The slow movement or percolation of water through small cracks, pores, interstices, etc., from an embankment, abutment, or foundation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seepage collar

A projecting collar of concrete built around the outside of a tunnel or conduit, within an embankment dam, to reduce seepage along the outer surface of the conduit. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seepage force

The force transmitted to the soil or rock grains by seepage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seepage loss

Water loss by capillary action and slow percolation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seepage pit

A sewage disposal system composed of a septic tank and a connected cesspool. (Publications- USA.gov)

seepage velocity

The rate of discharge of seepage water through a porous medium per unit area of void space perpendicular to the direction of the flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

segment

An area of land, typically square to rectangular in shape, that is approximately 40, 100, 160, or 640 acres in size. Within the segment, sample points are assigned. Certain data elements are collected for the entire segment, while others are collected at the segment points. The size of the segment is based on the shape, size, and complexity of the resources being inventoried. In 34 States, segments are often 160-acre square parcels measuring 0.5 mile on each side. In the western United States, segments are often 40-acre or 640-acre square areas; the 40-acre units are used in most irrigated areas, and the larger segments are used in relatively homogeneous areas containing large tracts of rangeland, forest land, or barren land. In the 13 northeastern States, segments are defined to be 20 seconds of latitude by 30 seconds of longitude, ranging from 97 acres in Maine to 114 acres in southern Virginia. In Louisiana and parts of northwestern Maine, segments are 0.5 kilometer squares (61.8 acres). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

seiche

The free oscillation of the bulk of water in a lake and the motion caused by it on the surface of the lake. (Bergsten, 1926, p. 1.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

seiche wave

A wave generated by either a landslide into a reservoir or by a sudden displacement or deformation of a fault line in a reservoir floor during a major earthquake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seigniorage

The profit which results from the difference between the cost of making coins and currency and the exchange value of coin and currency in the market. (Federal Reserve Education)

seismic

Of or related to movement in the earth's crust caused by natural relief of rock stresses. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seismic evaluation criteria

A guideline for determining which faults or seismic sources need to be assigned MCE's. For high hazard structures, faults with Holocene or latest Pleistocene displacement are included and probabilistic assessments are based on an annual probability of occurrence of 2 x 10-5. For significant hazard structures, faults with Holocene displacement are included and probabilistic assessments are based on an annual probability of occurrence of 1 x 10-4. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seismic intensity

Subjective measurement of the degree of shaking at a specified place by an experienced observer using a descriptive scale. See intensity scale. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seismic parameters

Descriptors of earthquake loading or earthquake size, such as magnitude, peak acceleration, location (distance and focal depth), spectrum intensity, or any of many other parameters useful in characterizing earthquake loadings. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seismo- pertains to earthquakes

#VALUE!

seismotectonic

Of, relating to, or designating structural features of the earth which are associated with or revealed by earthquakes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seismotectonic province

A geographic area characterized by a combination of geology and seismic history. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

seize

To bind wire rope with soft wire, to prevent it from ravelling when cut. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

select material

Backfill materials specially selected and segregated from excavated materials. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

selectable load

Any device, such as lights, televisions, and power tools, which is plugged into your central power source and used only intermittently. (US Dept of Energy)

selective absorber

A solar absorber surface that has high absorbence at wavelengths corresponding to that of the solar spectrum and low emittance in the infrared range. (US Dept of Energy)

selective surface coating

A material with high absorbence and low emittance properties applied to or on solar absorber surfaces. (US Dept of Energy)

self-amortizing mortgage

One that will retire itself through regular principal and interest payments. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

self-contained appraisal report

According to USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(a), a self-contained appraisal report is the most complete and detailed appraisal report option. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) According to USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(a), a self-contained appraisal report is the most complete and detailed appraisal report option. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

self-propelled vessel

A vessel that has its own means of propulsion. Includes tankers, containerships, dry bulk cargo ships, and general cargo vessels. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Self-Regulatory Organizations

(aka SRO) Nongovernment organizations that have statutory responsibility to regulate their own members such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and National Association Of Securities Dealers (NASD). (Federal Reserve Education)

seller

Person offering to sell a piece of real estate. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

seller concessions

Seller concessions allow the buyer to avoid out of pocket expenses in a purchase transaction on a USDA loan. In essence the seller is allowing the buyer to roll closing costs into the loan (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans)

seller financing

A purchase money mortgage provided to buyers by the FDIC and the RTC to facilitate the sale of hard-to-sell assets and to maximize the value of assets sold. Seller financing was used primarily to facilitate the sale of owned real estate. Seller financing was also offered by the RTC in the disposition of nonperforming loans in structured transactions. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

seller name

The entity that delivered the mortgage loan to Fannie Mae. In instances of mergers or acquisitions, the seller name may reflect the acquiring entity. (Fannie Mae)

seller take back

An agreement where the owner of a property provides second mortgage financing. These are often combined with an assumed mortgage instead of a portion of the seller's equity. (US Dept of HUD)

seller take-back

An agreement in which the seller of a property provides financing to the buyer for the home purchase. See also �Owner Financing.� (Federal Trade Commission)

seller�s points

In reference to a loan, seller�s points consist of a lump sum paid by the seller to the buyer�s creditor to reduce the cost of the loan to the buyer. This payment is either required by the creditor or volunteered by the seller, usually in a loan to buy real estate. Generally, one point equals one percent of the loan amount. See also points. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

seller's points

In reference to a loan, seller's points consist of a lump sum paid by the seller to the buyer's creditor to reduce the cost of the loan to the buyer. This payment is either required by the creditor or volunteered by the seller, usually in a loan to buy real estate. Generally, one point equals one percent of the loan amount. See also points. (Federal Reserve Education)

semiconductor

Any material that has a limited capacity for conducting an electric current. Certain semiconductors, including silicon, gallium arsenide, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride, are uniquely suited to the photovoltaic conversion process. (US Dept of Energy)

semidetached housing

Two residences which share a common wall. (HardwickAssociates)

semiheated space

An enclosed space within a building that is heated by a heating system whose output capacity is greater than or equal to 3.4 Btu/ft2 of floor area but is not a conditioned space. (Energycodes.gov)

semipervious zone

See transition zone. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program

Program providing low-income seniors with coupons that can be exchanged for eligible foods at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community-supported agriculture programs through grants awarded to States, U.S. territories, and federally recognized Indian tribal organizations. Participants receive nutrition education and a Federal food benefit of $20-$50 per year. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

sensible cooling effect

The difference between the total cooling effect and the dehumidifying effect. (US Dept of Energy)

sensible cooling load

The interior heat gain due to heat conduction, convection, and radiation from the exterior into the interior, and from occupants and appliances. (US Dept of Energy)

sensible heat

The heat absorbed or released when a substance undergoes a change in temperature. (US Dept of Energy)

sensible heat storage

A heat storage system that uses a heat storage medium, and where the additional or removal of heat results in a change in temperature. (US Dept of Energy)

sensitive species

Species not yet officially listed but undergoing status review for listing on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) official threatened and endangered list; species whose populations are small and widely dispersed or restricted to a few localities; and species whose numbers are declining so rapidly that official listing may be necessary. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

separation deposit

Sand deposit located at the upstream end of a recirculation zone, where downstream flow becomes separated from the channel bank. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

septic tank

A sewage settling tank in which part of the sewage is converted into gas and sludge before the remaining waste is discharged by gravity into a leaching bed underground. (Publications- USA.gov)

sequential bidding

The FDIC�s practice of reviewing bids for failing banks in the 1980s. On December 30, 1986, the FDIC Board of Directors established an order of priority for six alternative methods of passing assets to acquirers under authority delegated by the FDIC Board of Directors to staff prior to the receipt of the bids. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

series

A configuration of an electrical circuit in which the positive lead is connected to the negative lead of another energy producing, conducting, or consuming device. The voltages of each device are additive, whereas the current is not. (US Dept of Energy)

series connection

A way of joining photovoltaic cells by connecting positive leads to negative leads; such a configuration increases the voltage. (US Dept of Energy)

series resistance

Parasitic resistance to current flow in a cell due to mechanisms such as resistance from the bulk of the semiconductor material, metallic contacts, and interconnections. (US Dept of Energy)

serious delinquency

A mortgage that is 90 days or more past due. (US Dept of HUD)

serious injury (air carrier/general aviation)

An injury that requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days from the date when the injury was received; results in a bone fracture (except simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose); involves lacerations that cause severe hemorrhages, or nerve, muscle, or tendon damage; involves injury to any internal organ; or involves second- or third-degree burns or any burns affecting more than 5 percent of the body surface. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

service agency

An agency capable of providing calibration, testing, or manufacture of equipment, instrumentation, metering, or control apparatus, such as a contractor, laboratory or manufacturer. (Energycodes.gov)

service charge

A component of some finance charges, such as the fee for triggering an overdraft checking account into use. (Federal Reserve Education) A charge assessed by a depository institution for processing transactions and maintaining accounts. (Help With My Bank)

service coordinator program

Provides funding for the employment of Service Coordinators in insured and assisted apartment housing that is designed for the elderly and persons with disabilities. A service coordinator is a social service staff person hired or contracted by the development's owner or management company. The Service Coordinator is responsible for assuring that elderly residents, especially those who are frail or at risk, and those nonelderly residents with disabilities are linked to the specific supportive services they need to continue living independently in that housing development. (US Dept of HUD)

service equipment

The necessary equipment, usually consisting of a circuit breaker or switch and fuses and accessories, located near the point of entrance of supply conductors to a building or other structure (or an otherwise defined area) and intended to constitute the main control and means of cutoff of the supply. Service equipment may consist of circuit breakers or fused switches provided to disconnect all underground conductors in a building or other structure from the service-entrance conductors. (Energycodes.gov)

service spillway (primary spillway)

A structure located on or adjacent to a storage or detention dam over or through which surplus or floodwaters which cannot be contained in the allotted storage space are passed, and at diversion dams to bypass flows exceeding those which are turned into the diversion system. Included as part of the spillway would be the intake and/or control structure, discharge channel, terminal structure, and entrance and outlet channels. A spillway that is designed to provide continuous or frequent regulated or unregulated releases from a reservoir without significant damage to either the dam or its appurtenant structures. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

service water heating

Heating water for domestic or commercial purposes other than space heating and process requirements. (Energycodes.gov)

Servicemembers Civil Relief Act

A federal law that restricts the enforcement of civilian debts against certain military personnel who may not be able to pay because of active military service. It also provides other protections to certain military personel. (Federal Trade Commission)

servicer

A firm that performs servicing functions, including collecting mortgage payments, paying the borrower�s taxes and insurance and generally managing borrower escrow accounts. (Federal Trade Commission) A firm that works on behalf of the lender in support of a mortgage, including collecting mortgage payments, ensuring payment of taxes and insurance, managing escrow accounts, managing communications with the homeowner, and loss mitigation or foreclosure when necessary. (Making Home Affordable) The entity that performs mortgage servicing. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The person responsible for the servicing of a mortgage loan (including the person who makes or holds a mortgage loan if such person also services the mortgage loan). The term does not include: (1) The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) or the Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC), in connection with assets acquired, assigned, sold, or transferred pursuant to section 13(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or as receiver or conservator of an insured depository institution; and (2) The Federal National Mortgage Corporation (FNMA); the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac); the RTC; the FDIC; HUD, including the Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) (including cases in which a mortgage insured under the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.) is assigned to HUD); the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA); the Farmers Home Administration or its successor agency under Public Law 103�354 (FmHA); and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), in any case in which the assignment, sale, or transfer of the servicing of the mortgage loan is preceded by termination of the contract for servicing the loan for cause, commencement of proceedings for bankruptcy of the servicer, or commencement of proceedings by the FDIC or RTC for conservatorship or receivership of the servicer (or an entity by which the servicer is owned or controlled). (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) A business that collects mortgage payments from borrowers and manages the borrower's escrow accounts. (US Dept of HUD) A financial institution which collects mortgage payments from borrowers and applies the appropriate portions to principal, interest and any escrow accounts. (HardwickAssociates)

servicer name

The name of the entity that serves as the primary servicer of the mortgage loan. (Fannie Mae)

servicing

The responsibility of collecting monthly mortgage payments and properly crediting them to the principal, taxes and insurance, as well as keeping the borrower informed of any changes in the status of the loan. (Ginnie Mae) The tasks a lender performs to protect the mortgage investment, including the collection of mortgage payments, escrow administration, and delinquency management. (Federal Trade Commission) Same as "mortgage servicing." See also "mortgage servicing." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Receiving any scheduled periodic payments from a borrower pursuant to the terms of any mortgage loan, including amounts for escrow accounts under section 10 of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2609), and making the payments to the owner of the loan or other third parties of principal and interest and such other payments with respect to the amounts received from the borrower as may be required pursuant to the terms of the mortgage servicing loan documents or servicing contract. In the case of a home equity conversion mortgage or reverse mortgage as referenced in this section, servicing includes making payments to the borrower. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) The collection of mortgage payments from borrowers and related responsibilities of a loan servicer. (US Dept of HUD) The broad scope of activities undertaken to manage the performance of a loan throughout its term and to assure compliance with the program requirements. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) The processing of payments, mailing of monthly statements, management and disbursement of escrow funds etc Typically carried out by the company you make payments to. (HardwickAssociates)

servicing lender

A lender or other entity approved to service a permanent guaranteed loan. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

servicing transfer

When one servicer is replaced by another. (Making Home Affordable)

session

The period set by law during which Congress or a state legislature assembles and carries on its regular business. At the federal level, each Congress generally has two regular sessions (a first session and a second session), based on the constitutional mandate that Congress assemble at least once each year. At the state level, a session may be held during a set time every one or two years, or the legislature may meet continuously. The legislature may call a special session to deal with specific matters. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

session law

A law that is published in an annual or other periodic volume that presents laws enacted during a particular session or sitting of the legislature in the order in which they were passed. Session laws at the federal level are designated public laws or private laws and are published in Statutes at Large. Session laws at the state level are published in volumes printed by the state or by a private legal publisher. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

set back lines

Those lines which delineate the required distances for the location of structures in relation to the perimeter of the property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

set point

Point at which the desired temperature (�F) of the heated or cooled space is set. (Energycodes.gov)

setback

The distance between a property line and the area where building can take place. Setbacks are used to assure space between buildings and from roads for a many of purposes including drainage and utilities. (US Dept of HUD) Reduction of heating (by reducing the set point) or cooling (by increasing the set point) during hours when a building is unoccupied or during periods when lesser demand is acceptable. (Energycodes.gov)

setback thermostat

A thermostat that can be set to automatically lower temperatures in an unoccupied house and raise them again before the occupant returns. (US Dept of Energy)

settlement

The process of completing a loan transaction at which time the mortgage documents are signed and then recorded, funds are disbursed, and the property is transferred to the buyer (if applicable). Also called closing or escrow in different jurisdictions. See also �Closing� (Federal Trade Commission) Usually, the final disposition of accounts between a receiver and a failed bank acquirer. It is a process that normally takes place after closing a sales transaction with an acquirer. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) The time at which the property is formally sold and transferred from the seller to the buyer. It is at this time that the borrower takes on the loan obligation, pays all closing costs and receives title from the seller. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) The process of executing legally binding documents regarding a lien on property that is subject to a federally related mortgage loan. This process may also be called ��closing�� or ��escrow�� in different jurisdictions. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) Another name for closing. (US Dept of HUD) The sinking of land surfaces because of subsurface compaction, usually occuring when moisture, added deliberately or by nature, causes a reduction in void volumes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

settlement (or closing) costs

Fees paid at a loan closing. May include application fees; title examination, abstract of title, title insurance, and property survey fees; fees for preparing deeds, mortgages, and settlement documents; attorneys� fees; recording fees; estimated costs of taxes and insurance; and notary, appraisal, and credit report fees. Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act, the borrower receives a �good faith� estimate of closing costs within three days of application. The good faith estimate lists each expected cost either as an amount or a range. (Federal Trade Commission- Shopping for a Mortgage)

settlement costs

See also: Closing Costs (Ginnie Mae)

settlement costs/closing costs

The customary costs above and beyond the sales price of the property that must be paid to cover the transfer of ownership at closing; these costs generally vary by geographic location and are typically detailed to the borrower at the time the GFE is given. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

settlement service

Any service provided in connection with a prospective or actual settlement, including, but not limited to, any one or more of the following: (1) Origination of a federally related mortgage loan (including, but not limited to, the taking of loan applications, loan processing, and the underwriting and funding of such loans); (2) Rendering of services by a mortgage broker (including counseling, taking of applications, obtaining verifications and appraisals, and other loan processing and origination services, and communicating with the borrower and lender); (3) Provision of any services related to the origination, processing or funding of a federally related mortgage loan; (4) Provision of title services, including title searches, title examinations, abstract preparation, insurability determinations, and the issuance of title commitments and title insurance policies; (5) Rendering of services by an attorney; (6) Preparation of documents, including notarization, delivery, and recordation; (7) Rendering of credit reports and appraisals; (8) Rendering of inspections, including inspections required by applicable law or any inspections required by the sales contract or mortgage documents prior to transfer of title; (9) Conducting of settlement by a settlement agent and any related services; (10) Provision of services involving mortgage insurance; (11) Provision of services involving hazard, flood, or other casualty insurance or homeowner�s warranties; (12) Provision of services involving mortgage life, disability, or similar insurance designed to pay a mortgage loan upon disability or death of a borrower, but only if such insurance is required by the lender as a condition of the loan; (13) Provision of services involving real property taxes or any other assessments or charges on the real property; (14) Rendering of services by a real estate agent or real estate broker; and (15) Provision of any other services for which a settlement service provider requires a borrower or seller to pay. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

settlement statement

A document that lists all closing costs on a consumer mortgage transaction. (Federal Trade Commission) A document required by the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA). It is an itemized statement of services and charges relating to the closing of a property transfer. The buyer has the right to examine the settlement statement 1 day before the closing. This is called the HUD 1 Settlement Statement. (US Dept of HUD)

settlement/closing agent

In some states, a settlement agent, or closing agent, handles the real estate transaction when you buy or sell a home. It may also be an attorney or a title agent. He or she oversees all legal documents, fee payments, and other details of transferring the property to ensure that the conditions of the contract have been met and appropriate real estate taxes have been paid. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

setup

The vertical rise in the stillwater level at the upstream face of a dam caused by wind stresses on the water surface. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

severe repetitive loss (SRL) properties

NFIP-insured buildings that, on the basis of paid flood losses since 1978, meet either of the loss criteria described on page SRL 1. SRL properties with policy effective dates of January 1, 2007, and later will be afforded coverage (new business or renewal) only through the NFIP Servicing Agent�s Special Direct Facility so that they can be considered for possible mitigation activities. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

sewer

A channel or conduit that carries wastewater and stormwater to a treatment plant or receiving waters. "Sanitary" sewers carry household, industrial, and commercial waste. "Storm" sewers carry runoff from rain or snow. (US EPA- Pesticides)

sewer tile

Glazed waterproof clay pipe with bell joints. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

SF

Single Family (Fannie Mae)

shading coefficient

(aka SC) The ratio of solar heat gain through fenestration, with or without integral shading devices, to that occurring through unshaded 1/8-in.-thick double-strength glass. (Energycodes.gov) A measure of window glazing performance that is the ratio of the total solar heat gain through a specific window to the total solar heat gain through a single sheet of double-strength glass under the same set of conditions; expressed as a number between 0 and 1. (US Dept of Energy)

shaft

A round bar that rotates or provides an axis of revolution. A vertical or steeply inclined tunnel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shaft house

House at top of the access shaft to gate chamber, which secures access to the gates. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shaft spillway

A vertical or inclined shaft into which water spills and then is conveyed through, under, or around a dam by means of a conduit or tunnel. If the upper part of the shaft is splayed out and terminates in a circular horizontal weir, it is termed a bellmouth, glory hole, or morning glory spillway. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shakes

Handcut wood shingles. (Publications- USA.gov)

shale

A rock formed of consolidated mud. Fine-grained sedimentary rock formed from hardened clay and silt that typically splits into thin layers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shale gas

��Natural gas produced from wells that are open to shale formations. Shale is a fine-grained, sedimentary rock composed of mud from flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other materials. The shale acts as both the source and the reservoir for the natural gas. See natural gas. (US Energy Information Administration)

shared equity mortgage

A home loan in which the lender is granted a share of the equity in the property, there by allowing the lender to participate in the proceeds from resale. Shared equity plans often require the lender to buy a portion of the equity by providing a portion of the down payment. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

shear

A structural break where differential movement has occurred along a surface or zone of failure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shear strength

The maximum resistance of a soil or rock to shearing stresses. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shear wall

A vertical lateral-force-resisting element in a structure assigned to resist wind or earthquake generated lateral forces. Depending on detailing and transfer mechanisms, a shear wall can be load-bearing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shear walls

Walls used for structural support but not structurally joined or enclosed at the ends (except by breakaway walls). Shear walls are parallel, or nearly parallel, to the flow of the water and can be used in any flood zone. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

shear zone

An area where the rock mass has moved along the plane of contact which often becomes a channel for ground water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sheath

Tubular structure formed around a chain of cells or around a bundle of filaments. The fine, polysaccharide sheaths formed by some filamentous cyanobacteria help bind soil particles together and can be seen dangling from soil surface fragments. Ectomycorrhizal fungi form a sheath of hyphae around plant roots. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

sheathing

The covering on outside walls beneath the siding or exterior finish such as stucco. (HardwickAssociates) A construction element used to cover the exterior of wall framing and roof trusses. (US Dept of Energy)

sheathing (see wall sheathing)

The first covering of boards or material on the outside wall or roof prior to installing the finished siding or roof covering. (Publications- USA.gov)

sheepsfoot roller

A tamping roller having lugs with feet extending at their outer tips. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sheet and rill erosion

The removal of layers of soil from the land surface by the action of rainfall and runoff. It is the first stage in water erosion. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

sheet flow hazard

A type of flood hazard with flooding depths of 1 to 3 feet that occurs in areas of sloping land. The sheet flow hazard is represented by the zone designation AO on the FIRM. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

sheet piling

Steel strips shaped to interlock with each other when driven into the ground. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sheet wash

A flow of rainwater that covers the entire ground surface with a thin film and is not concentrated into streams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sheetrock

Also called drywall, the gypsum board commonly used on interior walls. (HardwickAssociates)

shell

See shoulder. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shelterbelt

A natural or planned barrier of trees or shrubs to reduce erosion and provide shelter from winds or storms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation) A natural or planned barrier of trees or shrubs to reduce erosion and provide shelter from winds or storms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sheltering (in-place)

A protective action that involves taking cover in upper levels of a building that is able to withstand high flood levels. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shifting control

See Control. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

shim

Thin tapered piece of wood used for leveling or tightening a stair or other building element. (Publications- USA.gov)

shingles

Pieces of wood, asbestos or other material used as an overlapping outer covering on walls or roofs. (Publications- USA.gov)

shiplap

Boards with rabbeted edges overlapping. (Publications- USA.gov) Siding Boards of special design nailed horizontally to vertical studs with or without intervening sheathing to form the exposed surface of outside walls of frame buildings. (Publications- USA.gov)

shoring

Temporary bracing to hold the sides of an excavation from caving. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

short circuit

An electric current taking a shorter or different path than intended. (US Dept of Energy)

short circuit current

The current flowing freely through an external circuit that has no load or resistance; the maximum current possible. (US Dept of Energy)

short payoff

If you can sell your house but the sale proceeds are less than the total amount you owe on your mortgage, your mortgage company may agree to a short payoff and write off the portion of your mortgage that exceeds the net proceeds from the sale. (Freddie Mac)

short sale

Sale of the mortgaged property at a price that nets less than the total amount due on the mortgage loan. Servicers and borrowers negotiate repayment programs, forbearance, and/or forgiveness for any remaining deficiency on the debt to lessen the adverse impact on borrowers� credit records. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) When the servicer allows the homeowner to list and sell the mortgaged property with the understanding that the net proceeds from the sale may be less than the total amount due on the first mortgage. (Making Home Affordable) Short sale homes are properties that are in foreclosure but do not have the foreclosure process completed yet. Short sales often take 6 to 9 months to complete (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans)

short-circuiting

Situation that occurs when the supply air flows to return or exhaust grilles before entering the breathing zone (area of a room where people are). To avoid short-circuiting, the supply air must be delivered at a temperature and velocity that results in mixing throughout the space. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

shortline railroad

Freight railroads which are not Class I or Regional Railroads, that operate less than 350 miles of track and earn less than $40 million. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

short-term interest rates

Interest rates on loan contracts-or debt instruments such as Treasury bills, bank certificates of deposit or commercial paper-having maturities of less than one year. Often called money market rates. (Federal Reserve Education)

short-throated flumes

Short-throated flumes are considered short because they control flow in a region that produces curvilinear flow. While they may be termed shortthroated, the overall specified length of the finished structure, including transitions, may be relatively long. The Parshall flume is the main example of this kind of flume. These flumes would require detailed accuracy and accurate knowledge of the individual streamline curvatures for calculated ratings which is usually considered impractical. Thus short-throated flumes are determined empirically by comparison with other more precise and accurate water measuring systems. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shoulder (shell)

The upstream and downstream parts of the cross section of an embankment dam on each side of the core or core wall. Hence the expression upstream shoulder or downstream shoulder. The graded part of a road on each side of the pavement. The side of a horizontal pipe, at the level of the center line. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shrinkage

Loss of bulk of soil when compacted in a fill. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

shrub�

A woody plant which at maturity is usually less than 6 m (20 feet) tall and generally exhibits several erect, spreading, or prostrate stems and has a bushy appearance; e.g., speckled alder (Alnus rugosa) or buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

shunt load

An electrical load used to safely use excess generated power when not needed for its primary uses. A shunt load in a residential photovoltaic system might be domestic water heating, such that when power is not needed for typical building loads, such as operating lights or running HVAC system fans and pumps, it still provides value and is used in a constructive, safe manner. (US Dept of Energy)

shutter

An interior or exterior movable panel that operates on hinges or slides into place, used to protect windows or provide privacy. (US Dept of Energy)

SI

International System of Units, abbreviated from the French name: Syst�me International d'Unit�s. (Energy Star.gov)

sick building syndrome

(aka SBS) Term that refers to a set of symptoms that affect some number of building occupants during the time they spend in the building and diminish or go away during periods when they leave the building. Cannot be traced to specific pollutants or sources within the building. (Contrast with "Building related illness"). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

siding

A construction element applied to the outermost surface of an exterior wall. (US Dept of Energy)

sigma heat

The sum of sensible heat and latent heat in a substance above a base temperature, typically 32 degrees Fahrenheit. (US Dept of Energy)

signature

Personalized evidence indicating authentication of the work performed by the appraiser and the acceptance of the responsibility for content, analyses, and the conclusions in the report. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

signature card

A card signed by each depositor and customer of a bank which may be used as a means of identification. The signature card represents a contract between the bank and the depositor. (Help With My Bank)

significant hazard

A downstream hazard classification for dams in which 1-6 lives are in jeopardy and appreciable economic loss (rural area with notable agriculture, industry, or worksites, or outstanding natural resources) would occur as a result of failure of the dam. This classification also applies to structures other than dams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

significant wave height

The average height of the one-third highest waves of a given wave group. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

silicon

A chemical element, of atomic number 14, that is semi-metallic, and an excellent semiconductor material used in solar photovoltaic devices; commonly found in sand. (US Dept of Energy)

sill

A submerged structure across a river to control the water level upstream. The crest of a spillway. The horizontal gate seating, made of wood, stone, concrete, or metal at the invert of any opening or gap in a structure. Hence, the expressions: gate sill, stoplog sill. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sill cock

Garden hose pipe connection. (HardwickAssociates)

sill plate

The lowest member of the house framing resting on top of the foundation wall. Also called the mud sill. (Publications- USA.gov) The lumber used around the foundation to support exterior wall framing. (HardwickAssociates) A wood plank that lays flat on top of a concrete or masonry foundation or wall that supports a floor or ceiling joist. (Energy Star.gov)

silt

As a soil separate, individual mineral particles that range in diameter from the upper limit of clay (0.002 mm) to the lower limit of very fine sand (0.05 mm). As soil textural class, soil that is 80% or more silt and less than 12% clay. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

silt (rock flour)

The fine-grained portion of soil that is nonplastic or very slightly plastic and that exhibits little or no strength when air dry. Nonplastic soil which passes a No. 200 United States Standard sieve. A soil composed of particles between 1/256 mm and 1/16 mm in diameter. A heavy soil intermediate between clay and sand. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

silting

Filling with soil or mud deposited by water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

siltstone

Fine-grained sedimentary rock composed mainly of silt-sized particles. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

silviculture

A branch of forestry dealing with the management and cultivation of forest trees. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

simple cs (caulk and seal)

A technique for insulating and sealing exterior walls that reduces vapor diffusion through air leakage points by installing pre-cut blocks of rigid foam insulation over floor joists, sheet subfloor, and top plates before drywall is installed. (US Dept of Energy)

simple interest

Interest that is paid only on the original amount borrowed for the length of time the borrower has use of the credit. The amount borrowed is referred to as the principal. In the simple interest rate calculation, interest is computed only on that portion of the original principal still owed. (Federal Reserve Education)

simple negligence

A civil, as opposed to a criminal, standard of negligence. Under simple or ordinary negligence, (1) a person acts negligently when he fails to perceive a substantial and unjustifiable risk that a particular result will occur, and (2) the risk must be of such a nature and degree that the failure to perceive it constitutes a deviation from the standard of care that a reasonable person would observe in such a situation. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

simplified reporting

A State food stamp option that allows States to minimize the information that food stamp recipients must provide to the food stamp office during the food stamp certification period. Households report only those changes in circumstances that result in income exceeding the food stamp eligibility limit of 130 percent of the Federal poverty level. At 6 months, a State must recertify the household or, if it uses a 12-month certification period, require the household to submit a semiannual report that will be used to update its eligibility and benefit level. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

simulation program

A computer program that is capable of simulating the energy performance of building systems. (Energycodes.gov)

simulid

Group of two-winged flying insects who live their larval stage underwater and emerge to fly about as adults. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sine wave

The type of alternative current generated by alternating current generators, rotary inverters, and solid-state inverters. (US Dept of Energy)

single adjuster program

A procedure implemented among the NFIP, various wind pools, and WYO Companies to allow one adjuster to represent both carriers in adjusting a combined wind-water loss where the NFIP has the flood coverage and another carrier has the wind coverage. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

single asset ownership

A limitation on the real estate assets that may be owned by a borrower. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

single building

A building that is separated from other buildings by intervening clear space or solid, vertical, load-bearing division walls. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

single family

A detached residential building, irrespective of height, including duplexes. (Energycodes.gov)

single family property

A single-unit family residence, detached or attached to other housing structures. (US Dept of HUD)

single glaze or pane

One layer of glass in a window frame. It has very little insulating value (R-1) and provides only a thin barrier to the outside and can account for considerable heat loss and gain. (US Dept of Energy)

single-crystal material

In reference to solar photovoltaic devices, a material that is composed of a single crystal or a few large crystals. (US Dept of Energy)

single-family house

A type of residential structure designed to include one housing unit. Adjacent units may share walls and other structural components, but each unit has separate access to the outside and does not share kitchen facilities or plumbing or heating equipment. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

single-family properties

One- to four-unit properties including detached homes, townhouses, condominiums, and cooperatives, and manufactured homes attached to a permanent foundation and classified as real property under applicable state law. (Federal Trade Commission)

single-family property

A property designed and built to support the habitation of one family. (HardwickAssociates)

single-family residence

A residential single family dwelling. Incidental office, professional, private school, or studio occupancies, including a small service operation, are permitted if such incidental occupancies are limited to less than 50 percent of the building's total floor area. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

single-package system

A year 'round heating and air conditioning system that has all the components completely encased in one unit outside the home. Proper matching of components can mean more energy-efficient operation compared to components purchased separately. (US Dept of Energy)

single-phase

A generator with a single armature coil, which may have many turns and the alternating current output consists of a succession of cycles. (US Dept of Energy)

single-rafter roof

A subcategory of attic roofs where the roof above and the ceiling below are both attached to the same wood rafter and where insulation is located in the space between these wood rafters. (Energycodes.gov)

single-stage pump

A pump that has only one impeller. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

single-zone system

An HVAC system serving a single HVAC zone. (Energycodes.gov)

single-zone units

Unitary HVAC systems that serve a single zone. Single-zone systems can provide either heating or cooling, but they provide supply air at the same volume and temperature to the entire zone that they serve. (Energycodes.gov)

sink

Depression in the land surface, especially one having a central playa or saline lake with no outlet. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sinkhole

A steep-sided depression formed when removal of subsurface embankment or foundation material causes overlying material to collapse into the resulting void. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation) A steep-sided depression formed when removal of subsurface embankment or foundation material causes overlying material to collapse into the resulting void. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sinuosity

The ratio of the length of a river's thalweg to the length of the valley proper. A measure of a river's meandering. Rivers with a sinuosity less than 1.5 are usually considered straight. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

siphon

A pipe connecting two canals. A tube or pipe through which water flows over a high point by gravity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

siphon tube

Relatively short, light-weight, curved tube used to convey water over ditch banks to irrigate furrows or borders. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

siphonage

A partial vacuum created by the flow of liquids in pipes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

site

In archeology, any location of past human activity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

site manager

The managing agent, financial institution specialist, or other employee responsible for overseeing the operation of a conservatorship or receivership. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

site-recovered energy

Waste energy recovered at the building site that is used to offset consumption of purchased fuel or electrical energy supplies. (Energycodes.gov)

site-solar energy

Thermal, chemical, or electrical energy derived from direct conversion of incident solar radiation at the building site and used to offset consumption of purchased fuel or electrical energy supplies. For the purposes of applying this standard, site-solar energy shall not include passive heat gain through fenestration systems. (Energycodes.gov)

sizing

The process of designing a solar system to meet a specified load given the solar resource and the nominal or rated energy output of the solar energy collection or conversion device. (US Dept of Energy)

skewed

On a horizontal angle, or in an oblique course or direction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

skimmer gate

A gate at the spillway crest whose prime purpose is to control the release of debris and logs with a limited amount of water. It is usually a bottom hinged flap or bascule gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

skimming

The diversion of water from a stream or conduit by a shallow overflow used to avoid diversion of sand, silt, or other debris carried as bottom load. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

skip

A non-digging bucket or tray that hoists material (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

skirtings

Narrow boards around the margin of a floor; baseboards. (Publications- USA.gov)

skiving

To dig in thin layers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

skylight

A fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60� from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on the roof of a building, is considered vertical fenestration. (Energycodes.gov) A window located on the roof of a structure to provide interior building spaces with natural daylight, warmth, and ventilation. (US Dept of Energy)

skylight well

The shaft from the skylight to the ceiling. (Energycodes.gov)

sl

Standby loss. (Energycodes.gov)

slab

Concrete floor placed directly on earth or a gravel base and usually about four inches thick. (Publications- USA.gov) A concrete pad that sits on gravel or crushed rock, well-compacted soil either level with the ground or above the ground. (US Dept of Energy) The deck or floor of a concrete bridge. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slab edge

Slab edge refers to the perimeter of a slab-on-grade floor, where the top edge of the slab floor is above the finished grade or 12 in. or less below the finished grade. The slab perimeter should include the length of all edges of a slab foundation that are part of the building envelope and are less than 12 in. below grade (i.e., all edges separating conditioned space from unconditioned space). (Energycodes.gov)

slab on grade

A slab floor that sits directly on top of the surrounding ground. (US Dept of Energy)

slab on grade floor insulation

Insulation around the perimeter of the floor slab or its supporting foundation when the top edge of the floor perimeter slab is above the finished grade or 12 in. (305 mm) or less below the finished grade. (Energycodes.gov)

slab-on-grade floor

That portion of a slab floor of the building envelope that is in contact with the ground and is either above grade or is less than or equal to 24 in. below the final elevation of the nearest exterior grade. (Energycodes.gov)

slake test

A measure of disintegration of soil aggregates when exposed to rapid wetting. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

slaking

The process of breaking up or sloughing when an indurated soil is immersed in water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slate

Fine-grained metamorphic rock formed by "baking" and recrystallizing shale or mudstone and which splits easily along flat, parallel planes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sleeper

Strip of wood laid over concrete floor to which the finished wood floor is nailed or glued. (Publications- USA.gov)

sleet

Precipitation that consists of clear pellets of ice; sleet is formed when raindrops fall through a layer of cold air and freeze. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slide

A small landslide. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slide gate

A steel gate that upon opening or closing slides on its bearings in edge guide slots. A gate that can be opened or closed by sliding in supporting guides. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slinkytm ground loop

In this type of closed-loop, horizontal geothermal heat pump installation, the fluid-filled plastic heat exchanger pipes are coiled like a SlinkyTM to allow more pipe in a shorter trench. This type of installation cuts down on installation costs and makes horizontal installation possible in areas it would not be with conventional horizontal applications. Also see closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems. (US Dept of Energy)

slope

The inclination of the soil surface from the horizontal. Slope percent is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance, then multiplied by 100. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) An inclined surface usually defined by the ratio of the horizontal distance to the vertical distance, i.e. 2:1 (2 horizontal units to 1 vertical unit). Change in elevation per unit of horizontal distance. Side of a hill or a mountain. The inclined face of a cut, canal, or embankment. Inclination from the horizontal. Expressed in percent when the slope is gentle; in this case also termed gradient. Degree of deviation of a surface from the horizontal, usually expressed in percent or degrees. Sometimes referred to as batter when measured from vertical. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slope length

The distance from the point of origin of overland flow to the point where either the slope gradient decreases enough that deposition begins, or the runoff water enters a well-defined channel that may be part of a drainage network or a constructed channel. For the NRI, length of slope is taken through the sample point. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

slope protection

The protection of an embankment slope against wave action or erosion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slope-length factor (L factor - USLE)

The ratio of soil loss from the field slope length to that from a 72.6-foot length under identical conditions. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

slope-steepness factor (S factor - USLE)

The ratio of soil loss from the field slope gradient to that from a 9 percent slope under otherwise identical conditions. Used in Universal soil loss equation (USLE) calculations of sheet and rill erosion. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

slough

Movement of a soil mass downward along a slope because of a slope angle too great to support the soil, wetness reducing internal friction among particles, or seismic activity. It is also called a slope failure, usually a rather shallow failure. A wet place of deep mud or mire, or a temporary or permanent lake; ordinarily found on or at the edge of the flood plain or a river. Also refers to a creek or sluggish body of water in a bottomland. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slug

Large initial amount. A unit of mass which will undergo an acceleration of 1 foot per second squared when a force of 1 pound is applied to it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sluice

An opening for releasing water from below the static head elevation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sluice gate

A gate that can be opened or closed by sliding in supporting guides. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sluiceway

An opening in a diversion dam used to discharge heavy floating debris safely past the dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sluicing

A method of compacting soil where the soil is washed into placed with a high velocity stream of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slurry

A pumpable mixture of solids and fluid. (US EPA- Pesticides) Watery mixture of insoluble matter which is pumped beneath a dam to form an impervious barrier. Cement grout. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

slurry trench

A narrow excavation whose sides are supported by a mud slurry filling the excavation. Sometimes used incorrectly to describe the cutoff itself. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

smacna

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association. (Energycodes.gov)

small built-up areas

A Land cover/use category consisting of developed land units of 0.25 to 10 acres, which meet the definition of Urban and built-up areas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

Small Business Administration (SBA)

A federal agency authorized to make loans to small businesses, including loans for land purchase and construction. To be eligible, the borrower must have been refused the loan by a private lender. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

small business case

A special type of chapter 11 case in which there is no creditors' committee (or the creditors' committee is deemed inactive by the court) and in which the debtor is subject to more oversight by the U.S. trustee than other chapter 11 debtors. The Bankruptcy Code contains certain provisions designed to reduce the time a small business debtor is in bankruptcy. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Small Investor Program

A target marketing plan that was designed to meet the needs of small investors who wanted to buy or invest in RTC assets one at a time or in small pools. The Small Investor Program arranged for the marketing and sale of individual real estate assets (with a value of less than $5 million) and relatively small pools of loans (up to $10 million in value). (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

small particulate matter (PM-10)

Particulate matter which is less than 10 microns in size. A micron is one millionth of a meter. Particulate matter this size is too small to be filtered by the nose and lungs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

small power producer (SPP)

Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), a small power production facility (or small power producer) generates electricity using waste, renewable (water, wind and solar), or geothermal energy as a primary energy source. Fossil fuels can be used, but renewable resource must provide at least 75 percent of the total energy input. (See Code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 292.) (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

smart growth

A set of policies and programs design to protect, preserve, and economically develop established communities and valuable natural and cultural resources. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

smart window

A term used to describe a technologically advanced window system that contains glazing that can change or switch its optical qualities when a low voltage electrical signal is applied to it, or in response to changes in heat or light. (US Dept of Energy)

Smith-Lever 3(b) and 3(c) extension funds

Federal funds for USDA cooperative extension activities. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Smith-Lever 3(d) special emphasis extension funds

Smith-Lever 3(d) funds provide support to State and territory programs in Integrated Pest Management (IPM); Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Farm Safety funds, which support health and safety efforts in the agricultural sector; and National Children, Youth, and Families at Risk, Federally Recognized Tribes Extension Program and Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program, which support the nutritional education needs of the underserved, targeting citizens with limited incomes. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

smolts

Adolescent salmon 3 to 7 inches long. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

snow

A form of precipitation composed of ice crystals. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Precipitation that consists of frozen flakes formed when water vapor accumulates on ice crystals, going directly to the ice phase. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

snow course

A line or series of connecting lines along which snow samples are taken at regularly spaced points. (U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Soil Conserv. Service and Nevada State Engineer, 1948, p. 2.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

snow density

Ratio between the volume of melt water derived from a sample of snow and the initial volume of the sample. This is numerically equal to the specific gravity of the snow. (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, 1949, p. 127.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

snow, quality of

The ratio of heat of melting of snow, in calories per gram to the 80 calories per gram for melting pure ice at 0 degrees C. (Bernard and Wilson, 1941, p., 178-179.) (See also Wilson, 1942b, p. 553-556.) Percentage by weight which is ice (Linsley, Kohler, and Paulhus, 1949, p. 129). (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

snowline

The general altitude to which the continuous snow cover of high mountains retreats in summer, chiefly controlled by the depth of the winter snowfall and by the temperature of the summer. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

snowline, temporary

A line sometimes drawn on a weather map during the winter showing the southern limit of the snow cover. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

SN-Series

An RTC equity partnership created for both large and small investors. Like the N-Series and S-Series transactions, portfolios generally consisted of nonperforming and subperforming commercial mortgages. However, an SN-series pool was larger than an S-Series but smaller than an N-Series portfolio. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

social value (psychological value)

Concept that the existence of wilderness provides a condition that could allow an individual to achieve control over stressful conditions, thus contributing to the psychological health of many off-site users. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

socially disadvantaged farmer or rancher (SDA)

(aka SDA) A farmer or rancher who is a member of a group whose members have been subjected to racial or ethnic or (in some cases) gender prejudice because of his or her identity as a member of the group. The definition of SDA farmers varies by Title. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

sodbuster

Requires producers who began cropping highly erodible land (HEL) after December 23, 1985 to implement a soil conservation plan or risk losing their Federal farm program benefits, including most commodity, conservation, and disaster payments. Sodbuster requirements are similar to those of conservation compliance, but tend to be less stringent. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

sodic soil

Contains sufficient exchangeable sodium to interfere with the growth of most crop plants. The sodium-adsorption ratio of the saturation extract is 15 or more. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sodicity

The exchangeable-sodium content of the soil. High sodium content. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sodium lights

A type of high intensity discharge light that has the most lumens per watt of any light source. (US Dept of Energy)

soffit

The visible underwide of structural members such as staircases, cornices, beams, a roof overhang or eave. (Publications- USA.gov) The underside of a cornice at the eaves. (HardwickAssociates) The underside of a building overhang, beam, or arch, especially the underside of a stair or roof overhang. (Energy Star.gov) A panel which covers the underside of an roof overhang, cantilever, or mansard. (US Dept of Energy)

soffit vent

A screened vent in a house soffit that allows air to flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing. This helps keep the attic cool in the summer and allows moisture in the attic to evaporate. (Energy Star.gov)

soft second loan

A second mortgage whose payment is forgiven or is deferred until resale of the property. (Federal Trade Commission)

softwood

Easily worked wood or wood from a conebearing tree. (Publications- USA.gov)

soil

(i)The unconsolidated mineral or organic material on the immediate surface of the Earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants. (ii) The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the Earth that has been subjected to and shows effects of genetic and environmental factors of: climate (including water and temperature effects) , and macro- and microorganisms, conditioned by relief, acting on parent material over a period of time. A product-soil differs from the material from which it is derived in many physical, chemical, biological, and morphological properties and characteristics.� A hydric soil is a soil that formed under conditions of saturation, flooding or ponding long enough during the growing season to develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part. (US Fish & Wildlife Service) A naturally occurring mixture of minerals, organic matter, water and air which has definite structure and composition and forms on the surface of the land. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations of solid particles produced by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks, and which may or may not contain organic matter. Soil components may consist of clay, silt, sand, or gravel. The loose surface material of the earth's crust. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil cement

A mixture of water, cement, and natural soil, usually processed in a tumble and mixed to a specific consistency, then placed in lifts and rolled to compact to provide slope protection. A mixture of Portland cement and pulverized soil placed in layers on the upstream face of a dam to provide slope protection. A tightly compacted mixture of pulverized soil, Portland cement, and water that, as the cement hydrates, forms a hard, durable, low-cost paving material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil change

Temporal variation in soil at various time scales at a specific location. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil classification

Systematic arrangement of soils into classes of one or more categories or levels of classification for a specific objective. Broad groupings are made on the basis of general characteristics and subdivisions are made on the basis of more detailed differences in specific properties. See Unified Soil Classification System. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil color

The color of a sample of soil (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil conservation

Protection of soil against physical loss by erosion and chemical deterioration by the application of management and land-use methods that safeguard the soil against all natural and human-induced factors. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil ecology

The study of interrelations among soil organisms and between organisms and the soil environment. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil erodibility factor (K factor - USLE)

An erodibility factor which quantifies the susceptibility of soil particles to detachment and movement by water. This factor is used in the Universal soil loss equation (USLE) to calculate soil loss by water. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil erodibility index (I factor - WEQ)

The potential soil loss, in tons per acre per year, from a wide, level, unsheltered, isolated field with a bare, smooth, loose, and noncrusted surface, under climatic conditions like those in the vicinity of Garden City, Kansas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil function

Any service, role, or task that soil performs, especially: 1) sustaining biological activity, diversity, and productivity; 2) regulating and partitioning water and solute flow; 3) filtering, buffering, degrading, and detoxifying potential pollutants; 4) storing and cycling nutrients; and 5) providing support for buildings and other structures and to protect archaeological treasures. (Compare to function, functional capacity.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil gas

The gas present in soil which may contain radon. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

soil health or soil quality

The capacity of a specific kind of soil to function, within natural or managed ecosystem boundaries, to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain or enhance water and air quality, and support human health and habitation. In short, the capacity of the soil to function. There are two aspects of the definition: inherent soil quality and dynamic soil quality. (Compare to functional capacity.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil health, dynamic

That aspect of soil quality relating to soil properties that change as a result of soil use and management or over the human time scale. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil health, inherent

That aspect of soil quality relating to a soil�s natural composition and properties as influenced by the factors and processes of soil formation, in the absence of human impacts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil horizon

A layer of soil that is nearly parallel to the land surface and is different from layers above and below. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil loss tolerance factor (T factor - USLE)

The maximum rate of annual soil loss that will permit crop productivity to be sustained economically and indefinitely on a given soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil mineral

That portion of the soil that is inorganic and neither air nor water. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil moisture

Water stored in soils. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil moisture (soil water)

Water diffused in the soil, the upper part of the zone of aeration from which water is discharged by the transpiration of plants or by soil evaporation. See Field-moisture capacity and Field-moisture deficiency. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

soil organic matter

The total organic matter in the soil. It can be divided into three general pools: living biomass of microorganisms, fresh and partially decomposed residues (the active fraction), and the well-decomposed and highly stable organic material. Surface litter is generally not included as part of soil organic matter. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil resilience

The capacity of a soil to recover its functional capacity after a disturbance. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil resistance

The capacity of the soil to maintain its functional capacity through a disturbance. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil respiration

The amount of carbon dioxide given off by living organisms and roots in the soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil respiration, basal

The level of carbon dioxide given off by a soil sample. Basal respiration is a measure of the total biological activity of microorganisms, macroorganisms, and roots. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil respiration, substrate-induced

A measure of the carbon dioxide given off by a soil sample after adding sugar or other food. It is used to estimate microbial biomass in the sample. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil stack

Vertical plumbing pipe for waste water. (Publications- USA.gov)

soil structure

The arrangement of soil particles into aggregates which form structural units. Size, shape, and distinctness are used to describe soil structure. Farmers often describe soil structure with words such as crumbly or cloddy. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil subsidence

The lowering of the normal level of the ground, usually due to overpumping of water from wells. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil survey

The systematic examination, description, classification, and mapping of soils in an area. The USDA- NRCS Soil Survey Program produces Soil Survey Reports, which generally consist of four principal parts: (1) maps, (2) a map legend, (3) a description of the soils in the survey area, and (4) a use and management report. The survey area commonly is a single county but may comprise parts of counties, physiographic regions, or other management areas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) The identification, classification, mapping interpretation and explanation of the soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil texture

The relative amounts of sand, sift, and clay in a given soil sample. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

soil-cement bedding

A mixture of soil, portland cement, and water placed for pipe bedding. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

soil-gas-retarder

A continuous membrane or other comparable material used to retard the flow of soil gases into a building. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

solar access or rights

The legal issues related to protecting or ensuring access to sunlight to operate a solar energy system, or use solar energy for heating and cooling. (US Dept of Energy)

solar air heater

A type of solar thermal system where air is heated in a collector and either transferred directly to the interior space or to a storage medium, such as a rock bin. (US Dept of Energy)

solar altitude angle

The angle between a line from a point on the earth's surface to the center of the solar disc, and a line extending horizontally from the point. (US Dept of Energy)

solar array

A group of solar collectors or solar modules connected together. (US Dept of Energy)

solar azimuth

The angle between the sun's apparent position in the sky and true south, as measured on a horizontal plane. (US Dept of Energy)

solar cell

A solar photovoltaic device with a specified area. (US Dept of Energy)

solar collector

A device used to collect, absorb, and transfer solar energy to a working fluid. Flat plate collectors are the most common type of collectors used for solar water or pool heating systems. In the case of a photovoltaics system, the solar collector could be crystalline silicon panels or thin-film roof shingles, for example. (US Dept of Energy)

solar constant

The average amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth's upper atmosphere on a surface perpendicular to the sun's rays; equal to 1353 Watts per square meter or 492 Btu per square foot. (US Dept of Energy)

solar cooling

The use of solar thermal energy or solar electricity to power a cooling appliance. There are five basic types of solar cooling technologies: absorption cooling, which can use solar thermal energy to vaporize the refrigerant; desiccant cooling, which can use solar thermal energy to regenerate (dry) the desiccant; vapor compression cooling, which can use solar thermal energy to operate a Rankine-cycle heat engine; and evaporative coolers ("swamp" coolers), and heat-pumps and air conditioners that can by powered by solar photovoltaic systems. (US Dept of Energy)

solar declination

The apparent angle of the sun north or south of the earth's equatorial plane. The earth's rotation on its axis causes a daily change in the declination. (US Dept of Energy)

solar distillation

The process of distilling (purifying) water using solar energy. Water can be placed in an air tight solar collector with a sloped glazing material, and as it heats and evaporates, distilled water condenses on the collector glazing, and runs down where it can be collected in a tray. (US Dept of Energy)

solar energy

Electromagnetic energy transmitted from the sun (solar radiation). The amount that reaches the earth is equal to one billionth of total solar energy generated, or the equivalent of about 420 trillion kilowatt-hours. (US Dept of Energy)

solar energy collector

See solar collector. (US Dept of Energy)

Solar Energy Industries Association

(aka SEIA) A national trade association of solar energy equipment manufacturers, retailers, suppliers, installers, and consultants. (US Dept of Energy)

Solar Energy Research Institute

(aka SERI) A federally funded institute, created by the Solar Energy Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1974, that conducted research and development of solar energy technologies. Became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 1991. (US Dept of Energy)

solar energy source

Source of thermal, chemical, or electrical energy derived from direct conversion of incident solar radiation at the building site. (Energycodes.gov)

solar film

A window glazing coating, usually tinted bronze or gray, used to reduce building cooling loads, glare, and fabric fading. (US Dept of Energy)

solar fraction

The percentage of a building's seasonal energy requirements that can be met by a solar energy device(s) or system(s). (US Dept of Energy)

solar furnace

A device that achieves very high temperatures by the use of reflectors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a small receiver. (US Dept of Energy)

solar gain

The amount of energy that a building absorbs due to solar energy striking its exterior and conducting to the interior or passing through windows and being absorbed by materials in the building. (US Dept of Energy)

solar heat gain coefficient

Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) is the glazing's effectiveness in rejecting solar heat gain. SHGC is part of a system for rating window performance used by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC). SHGC has replaced the older index, shading coefficient (SC), in product literature and design standards. If you are using glass whose performance is listed in terms of SC, you may convert to SHGC by multiplying the SC value by 0.87. (Energycodes.gov)

solar irradiation

The amount of solar radiation, both direct and diffuse, received at any location. (US Dept of Energy)

solar mass

A term used for materials used to absorb and store solar energy. (US Dept of Energy)

solar module (panel)

A solar photovoltaic device that produces a specified power output under defined test conditions, usually composed of groups of solar cells connected in series, in parallel, or in series-parallel combinations. (US Dept of Energy)

solar noon

The time of the day, at a specific location, when the sun reaches its highest, apparent point in the sky; equal to true or due, geographic south. (US Dept of Energy)

Solar One

A solar thermal electric central receiver power plant ("power tower") located in Barstow, California, and completed in 1981. The Solar One had a design capacity of 10,000 peak kilowatts, and was composed of a receiver located on the top of a tower surrounded by a field of reflectors. The concentrated sunlight created steam to drive a steam turbine and electric generator located on the ground. (US Dept of Energy)

solar panel

See Photovoltaic Module. (US Dept of Energy)

solar pond

A body of water that contains brackish (highly saline) water that forms layers of differing salinity (stratifies) that absorb and trap solar energy. Solar ponds can be used to provide heat for industrial or agricultural processes, building heating and cooling, and to generate electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

solar power satellite

A solar power station investigated by NASA that entailed a satellite in geosynchronous orbit that would consist of a very large array of solar photovoltaic modules that would convert solar generated electricity to microwaves and beam them to a fixed point on the earth. (US Dept of Energy)

solar radiation

A general term for the visible and near visible (ultraviolet and near-infrared) electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by the sun. It has a spectral, or wavelength, distribution that corresponds to different energy levels; short wavelength radiation has a higher energy than long-wavelength radiation. (US Dept of Energy)

solar simulator

An apparatus that replicates the solar spectrum, and used for testing solar energy conversion devices. (US Dept of Energy)

solar space heater

A solar energy system designed to provide heat to individual rooms in a building. (US Dept of Energy)

solar spectrum

The total distribution of electromagnetic radiation emanating from the sun. The different regions of the solar spectrum are described by their wavelength range. The visible region extends from about 390 to 780 nanometers (a nanometer is one billionth of one meter). About 99 percent of solar radiation is contained in a wavelength region from 300 nm (ultraviolet) to 3,000 nm (near-infrared). The combined radiation in the wavelength region from 280 nm to 4,000 nm is called the broadband, or total, solar radiation. (US Dept of Energy)

solar thermal electric systems

Solar energy conversion technologies that convert solar energy to electricity, by heating a working fluid to power a turbine that drives a generator. Examples of these systems include central receiver systems, parabolic dish, and solar trough. (US Dept of Energy)

solar thermal parabolic dishes

A solar thermal technology that uses a modular mirror system that approximates a parabola and incorporates two-axis tracking to focus the sunlight onto receivers located at the focal point of each dish. The mirror system typically is made from a number of mirror facets, either glass or polymer mirror, or can consist of a single stretched membrane using a polymer mirror. The concentrated sunlight may be used directly by a Stirling, Rankine, or Brayton cycle heat engine at the focal point of the receiver or to heat a working fluid that is piped to a central engine. The primary applications include remote electrification, water pumping, and grid-connected generation. (US Dept of Energy)

solar thermal systems

Solar energy systems that collect or absorb solar energy for useful purposes. Can be used to generate high temperature heat (for electricity production and/or process heat), medium temperature heat (for process and space/water heating and electricity generation), and low temperature heat (for water and space heating and cooling). (US Dept of Energy)

solar time

The period marked by successive crossing of the earth's meridian by the sun; the hour angle of the sun at a point of observance (apparent time) is corrected to true (solar) time by taking into account the variation in the earth's orbit and rate of rotation. Solar time and local standard time are usually different for any specific location. (US Dept of Energy)

solar transmittance

The amount of solar energy that passes through a glazing material, expressed as a percentage. (US Dept of Energy)

solar trough systems (see also parabolic trough, above)

A type of solar thermal system where sunlight is concentrated by a curved reflector onto a pipe containing a working fluid that can be used for process heat or to produce electricity. The world's largest solar thermal electric power plants use solar trough technology. They are located in California, and have a combined electricity generating capacity of 240,000 kilowatts. (US Dept of Energy)

Solar Two

Solar Two is a retrofit of the Solar One project (see above). It is demonstrating the technical feasibility and power potential of a solar power tower using advanced molten-salt technology to store energy. Solar Two retains several of the main components of Solar One, including the receiver tower, turbine, generator, and the 1,818 heliostats. (US Dept of Energy)

solarium

A glazed structure, such as greenhouse or "sunspace." (US Dept of Energy)

solenoid

An electromechanical device composed of a coil of wire wound around a cylinder containing a bar or plunger, that when a current is applied to the coil, the electromotive force causes the plunger to move; a series of coils or wires used to produce a magnetic field. (US Dept of Energy)

solenoid valve

An automatic valve that is opened or closed by an electromagnet. (US Dept of Energy)

solid fuels

Any fuel that is in solid form, such as wood, peat, lignite, coal, and manufactured fuels such as pulverized coal, coke, charcoal, briquettes, pellets, etc. (US Dept of Energy)

solid head buttress dam

A buttress dam in which the upstream end of each buttress is enlarged to span the gap between buttresses. The terms "round head," "diamond head," "tee head" refer to the shape of the upstream enlargement. See massive head buttress dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

solid perimeter foundation walls

Walls that are used as a means of elevating a building in A Zones and that must contain sufficient openings to allow for the unimpeded flow of floodwaters more than 1 foot deep. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

solid waste

As defined under RCRA, any solid, semi-solid, liquid, or contained gaseous materials discarded from industrial, commercial, mining, or agricultural operations, and from community activities. Solid waste includes garbage, construction debris, commercial refuse, sludge from water supply or waste treatment plants, or air pollution control facilities, and other discarded materials. (US EPA- Pesticides)

solidity

In reference to a wind energy conversion device, the ratio of rotor blade surface area to the frontal, swept area that the rotor passes through. (US Dept of Energy)

solstice

The two times of the year when the sun is apparently farthest north and south of the earth's equator; usually occurring on or around June 21 (summer solstice in northern hemisphere, winter solstice for southern hemisphere) and December 21 (winter solstice in northern hemisphere, summer solstice for the southern hemisphere). (US Dept of Energy)

sones

The sone is a linear unit (measure) of loudness which allows a simplified comparison of fan loudness. For example, a fan which is 3.0 sones is three times as loud as a fan at 1.0 sones. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

sound�

A body of water that is usually broad, elongate, and parallel to the shore between the mainland and one or more islands. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

source imagery

Source Imagery is the imagery used to identify and interpret the wetland and deepwater habitat features. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

source reduction

The design, manufacture, purchase, or use of materials (such as products and packaging) to reduce the amount or toxicity of garbage generated. Source reduction can help reduce waste disposal and handling charges because the costs of recycling, municipal composting, landfilling, and combustion are avoided. Source reduction conserves resources and reduces pollution. (US EPA- Pesticides)

sources

Sources of indoor air pollutants. Indoor air pollutants can originate within the building or be drawn in from outdoors. Common sources include people, room furnishings such as carpeting, photocopiers, art supplies, etc. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Refers to the origin of air contaminants. Can be point (coming from a defined site) or non-point (coming from many diffuse sources).[Stationary sources include relatively large, fixed facilities such as power plants, chemical process industries, and petroleum refineries. Area sources are small, stationary, non-transportation sources that collectively contribute to air pollution, and include such sources as dry cleaners and bakeries, surface coating operations, home furnaces, and crop burning. Mobile sources include on-road vehicles such as cars, trucks, and buses; and off-road sources such as trains, ships, airplanes, boats, lawnmowers, and construction equipment. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

space

An enclosed space within a building. (Energycodes.gov)

space heater

A movable or fixed heater used to heat individual rooms. (US Dept of Energy)

spacer (window)

Strips of material used to separate multiple panes of glass within the windows. (US Dept of Energy)

spacing

In blasting, the distance between holes in a row. Apparent spacing is the spacing as outlined by the delay pattern. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spalling (spall)

The loss of surface concrete usually caused by impact, abrasion, or compression. To break off from a surface in sheets or pieces. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spatial concentration

The dry weight of sediment per unit volume of water-sediment mixture in place, or the ratio of the dry weight of sediment to the total weight of water-sediment mixture in a sample or a unit volume of the mixture. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spatial resolution��

The detail with which a map depicts the location and shape of geographic features. The larger the map scale, the higher the possible resolution. As scale decreases, resolution diminishes and feature boundaries shall be smoothed, simplified, or not shown at all. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

spawn

To lay eggs, refers mostly to fish. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spawning beds

Places in which eggs of aquatic animals lodge or are placed during or after fertilization. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

special appointing authorities

Numerous special appointment authorities are available. Check out our bureaus� web sites, read the vacancy announcement, or go to https://www.opm.gov/employ/html/sroa2.asp�for more information. (Ginnie Mae)

special assessment

A lien assessed against real property by a public authority to pay costs of public improvements (for example, sewers, street lights) that directly benefit the assessed property. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

special examination

A field review performed on a high- or significant-hazard dam to address an identified visible dam safety deficiency or to investigate significant changes in operating or loading conditions. Participation in these reviews may be by either the Denver, regional, and/or area offices depending on the nature of the concern. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

special features

Most CFLs are designed to operate on an on/off switch. However, some CFLs have been designed with features to perform in specialized applications, such as on dimmers or three-way fixtures. This should be clearly marked on the box of any CFL designed for that application. (Energy Star.gov) Area containing ecological, geological, or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Special Flood Hazard Area

(aka SFHA) An area defined on a Flood Insurance Rate Map with an associated risk of flooding. (Help With My Bank) An area having special flood, mudflow, or flood-related erosion hazards, and shown on a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or a Flood Insurance Rate Map as Zone A, AO, A1-A30, AE, A99, AH, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/AH, AR/AO, AR/A1-A30, V1-V30, VE, or V. For the purpose of determining Community Rating System premium discounts, all AR and A99 zones are treated as non-SFHAs. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

special forbearance

A loss mitigation option where the lender arranges a revised repayment plan for the borrower that may include a temporary reduction or suspension of monthly loan payments. (US Dept of HUD)

special grants

The Special Research Grants Act of 1965 created a mechanism outside the competitive grants process for the distribution of funds to State Agricultural Experiment Stations, public institutions, and individuals to study specific problems of concern to USDA, as defined by Congress. (See also definition for earmarks.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

special information booklet

The booklet prepared by the Secretary pursuant to section 5 of RESPA (12 U.S.C. 2604) to help persons understand the nature and costs of settlement services. The Secretary publishes the form of the special information booklet in the FEDERAL REGISTER. The Secretary may issue or approve additional booklets or alternative booklets by publication of a Notice in the FEDERAL REGISTER. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

special populations

Those individuals or groups that may be institutionalized and have needs that require special consideration in emergencies. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

specialist

A species that consumes only one or a few types of food sources or forms associations with a narrow range of hosts. For example, certain collembola (tiny insects called springtails) specialize in eating specific species of fungi. (See generalist) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

specialty biocides

In this report, estimates are provided for end uses as follows: swimming pools, spas and industrial water treatment (excludes chlorine/hypochlorites which are reported separately); disinfectants and sanitizers (including industrial/institutional applications and household cleaning products); and other specialty biocides (including biocides for adhesives and sealants, leather, synthetic latex polymers, metal working fluids, paints and coatings, petroleum products, plastics and textiles). These are categories of end usage which are covered by FIFRA. There are other end uses of specialty biocides which are regulated under FFDCA and are not covered in this report. (such as hospital/medical antiseptics, food/feed preservatives and for cosmetics/toiletries). (US EPA- Pesticides)

specialty crops

Fruits, vegetables, tree nuts, dried fruits, nursery crops, and floriculture. Also referred to as horticulture crops. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

specie

Any monetary gold or silver, whether in the form of bullion (bars) or coins. (Federal Reserve Education)

species

Basic category of biological classification intended to designate a single kind of animal or plant. See candidate species, endangered species, exotic species, extirpated species, obligate riparian species, sensitive species, and threatened species. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

specific gravity

The ratio of the mass of a body to an equal volume of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

specific heat

The amount of heat required to raise a unit mass of a substance through one degree, expressed as a ratio of the amount of heat required to raise an equal mass of water through the same range. (US Dept of Energy)

specific heat capacity

The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of one unit weight of a material by one degree. (US Dept of Energy)

specific humidity

The weight of water vapor, per unit weight of dry air. (US Dept of Energy)

specific volume

The volume of a unit weight of a substance at a specific temperature and pressure. (US Dept of Energy)

specific weight

The weight per unit volume. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spectral energy distribution

A curve illustrating the variation or spectral irradiance with wavelength. (US Dept of Energy)

spectral irradiance

The monochromatic irradiance of a surface per unit bandwidth at a particular wavelength, usually expressed in Watts per square meter-nanometer bandwidth. (US Dept of Energy)

spectral reflectance

The ratio of energy reflected from a surface in a given waveband to the energy incident in that waveband. (US Dept of Energy)

spectrally selective coatings

A type of window glazing films used to block the infrared (heat) portion of the solar spectrum but admit a higher portion of visible light. (US Dept of Energy)

spectrum

See Solar Spectrum above. (US Dept of Energy)

spectrum intensity

The integral of the pseudo-velocity response spectrum taken over the range of significant structural vibration periods of the structure being analyzed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

specular reflector

Reflector that directs light out at the same angle and in the same plane as it arrived at the reflector. (Energy Star.gov)

speculation

The practice of buying or selling stocks, commodities, land or other types of assets hoping to take advantage of an expected rise or fall in price. (Federal Reserve Education)

spigot

The plain end of a cast-iron pipe. The spigot is inserted into the bell end of the next pipe to make a water tight joint. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spile (forepole)

A plank driven ahead of a tunnel face for roof support. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spills

Water releases that cannot be put to use for project purposes (includes floodflows). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spillway

A passage for surplus water to flow over or around a dam. (US Dept of Energy) A structure that passes normal and/or flood flows in a manner that protects the structural integrity of the dam. Overflow channel of a dam or impoundment structure. A structure over or through which flow is discharged from a reservoir. If the rate of flow is controlled by mechanical means such as gates, it is considered a controlled spillway. If the geometry of the spillway is the only control, it is considered an uncontrolled spillway. Any passageway, channel, or structure designed to discharge surplus water from a reservoir. See auxiliary spillway, emergency spillway, service spillway, morning glory spillway, shaft spillway, and fuse plug spillway. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spillway channel

An open channel or conduit conveying water from the spillway inlet downstream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spillway chute

A steeply sloping spillway channel that conveys discharges at super-critical velocities. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spillway crest

The lowest level at which water can flow over or through a spillway. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spinning reserve

Electric power provider capacity on line and running at low power in excess of actual load. (US Dept of Energy)

spinning reserves

Available capacity of generating facilities synchronized to the interconnected electric system where it can be called upon for immediate use in response to system problems or sudden load changes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

split spectrum photovoltaic cell

A photovoltaic device where incident sunlight is split into different spectral regions, with an optical apparatus, that are directed to individual photovoltaic cells that are optimized for converting that spectrum to electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

split system

Split-system HVAC equipment has the indoor and outdoor coils within separate cabinets. For a cooling only system, the outdoor cabinet would contain the condenser coil and the indoor cabinet would contain the evaporator coil. (Energycodes.gov)

split system air conditioner

An air conditioning system that comes in two to five pieces: one piece contains the compressor, condenser, and a fan; the others have an evaporator and a fan. The condenser, installed outside the house, connects to several evaporators, one in each room to be cooled, mounted inside the house. Each evaporator is individually controlled, allowing different rooms or zones to be cooled to varying degrees. (US Dept of Energy)

splitter wall

A wall or pier parallel to the direction of flow in a channel that separates flows released from different sources as a means of energy dissipation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spoil

Dirt or rock which has been removed from its original location. Excavated material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sponsor

Any private owner of a public-use airport or any public agency (either individually or jointly with other public agencies) that submit to the Secretary of Transportation, in accordance with the Airport & Airway Improvement Act of 1982, an application for financial assistance. (FAA2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

spore

The means by which molds reproduce. Spores are microscopic. They vary in shape and range from 2 to 100 microns in size. Spores travel in several ways: passively moved by a breeze or water drop, mechanically disturbed (by a person or animal passing by), or actively discharged by the mold (usually under moist conditions or high humidity). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

spot transaction

A foreign exchange transaction in which each party promises to pay a certain amount of currency to the other on the same day or within one or two days. (Federal Reserve Education)

spot value (or spot price)

The value or price at which current transactions of goods and services take place. The spot market is the market in which goods and services are traded for immediate delivery and payment. Purchased or sold "on the spot" as opposed to some later time. (Federal Reserve Education)

sprawl

Urban form that connotatively depicts the movement of people from the central city to the suburbs. Concerns associated with sprawl include loss of farmland and open space due to low-density land development, increased public service costs, and environmental degradation as well as other concerns associated with transportation. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

spray pyrolysis

A deposition process whereby heat is used to break molecules into elemental sources that are then spray deposited on a substrate. (US Dept of Energy)

spreader stocker

A type of furnace in which fuel is spread, automatically or mechanically, across the furnace grate. (US Dept of Energy)

spring

Ground water seeping or flowing out of the earth where the water table intersects the ground surface. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

spring tide�

The highest high and lowest low tides during the lunar month. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

springline

An imaginary horizontal reference line located at midheight, or halfway point, of a circular conduit, pipe, tunnel, or the point at which the side walls are vertical on a horseshoe-shaped conduit. Also the maximum horizontal dimension or diameter of a circular conduit, pipe, or tunnel. The meeting of the roof arch and the sides of a tunnel. The guideline for laying a course of bricks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sprinkler irrigation

A method of irrigation in which the water is sprayed, or sprinkled, through the air to the ground surface. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sputtering

A process used to apply photovoltaic semi-conductor material to a substrate by a physical vapor deposition process where high-energy ions are used to bombard elemental sources of semiconductor material, which eject vapors of atoms that are then deposited in thin layers on a substrate. (US Dept of Energy)

square wave inverter

A type of inverter that produces square wave output.; consists of a DC source, four switches, and the load. The switches are power semiconductors that can carry a large current and withstand a high voltage rating. The switches are turned on and off at a correct sequence, at a certain frequency. The square wave inverter is the simplest and the least expensive to purchase, but it produces the lowest quality of power. (US Dept of Energy)

squirrel cage motor

This is another name for an induction motor. The motors consist of a rotor inside a stator. The rotor has laminated, thin flat steel discs, stacked with channels along the length. If the casting composed of bars and attached end rings were viewed without the laminations the casting would appear similar to a squirrel cage. (US Dept of Energy)

S-series

An RTC equity partnership created specifically for the smaller investor. The SSeries transactions consisted of relatively small portfolios of nonperforming and subperforming commercial mortgages, similar to the composition of N-Series pools; however, the S-Series pools were smaller in size to permit relatively small investors to participate. Savings Association Insurance Fund (SAIF): One of the two federal deposit insurance funds created by FIRREA in 1989 and placed under the FDIC�s administrative control. Created for the thrift industry, SAIF succeeded the FSLIC as the insurer of deposits to specified limits at savings associations (also called S&Ls) and many savings banks. (Also see Bank Insurance Fund; Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act; and Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

stability

Reliability; dependability (Federal Reserve Education) Tendency of systems, especially ecosystems, to persist, relatively unchanged, through time; also, persistence of a component of a system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stabilization fund

A borrowing facility and assessment authority authorized under the 2009 Helping Families Save Their Homes Act, to allow the NCUA Board the ability to segregate costs associated with stabilizing the corporate credit union system. Segregating the costs into one fund improves the transparency of NCUA's stabilization actions. The effect is that natural person credit unions will pay for the costs of stabilizing the corporate credit union system over time. (National Credit Union Administration)

stack

A smokestack or flue for exhausting the products of combustion from a combustion appliance. (US Dept of Energy)

stack (heat) loss

Sensible and latent heat contained in combustion gases and vapor emitted to the atmosphere. (US Dept of Energy)

stack effect

The overall upward movement of air inside a building that results from heated air rising and escaping through openings in the building super structure, thus causing an indoor pressure level lower than that in the soil gas beneath or surrounding the building foundation. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

staebler-wronski effect

The tendency of the sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency of amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices to degrade (drop) upon initial exposure to light. (US Dept of Energy)

staff gauge

A graduated scale on a plank or metal plate used to indicate the height of the water in a canal. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stage

The height of a water surface above an established datum plane; also gage height. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Same as elevation or depth of water. The height of a water surface above an established datum. See water surface elevation and gage height. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stage, flood

See Flood stage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stage-capacity curve

A graph showing the relation between the surface elevation of the water in a reservoir, usually plotted as ordinate, against the volume below that elevation, plotted as abscissa. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stage-discharge curve (rating curve)

A graph showing the relation between the gage height, usually plotted as ordinate, and the amount of water flowing in a channel, expressed as volume per unit of time, plotted as abscissa. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stage-discharge relation

The relation expressed by the stage-discharge curve. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stagnation temperature

A condition that can occur in a solar collector if the working fluid does not circulate when sun is shining on the collector. (US Dept of Energy)

stakeholder

Person or goup affected by a transportation plan, program or project. Person or group believing that are affected by a transportation plan, program or project. Residents of affected geographical areas. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

stakeholders

Individuals and organizations involved in or affected by the transportation planning process. Include federal/state/local officials, MPOs, transit operators, freight companies, shippers, and the general public. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

stale-dated check

Presented to the paying bank 180 days (6 months) or more after the original issue date. Banks are not required by the Uniform Commercial Code to honor stale-dated checks and can return them to the issuing bank unpaid. The maker of a check can discourage late presentment by writing the words "not good after X days" on the back of the check. (Help With My Bank)

stall

In reference to a wind turbine, a condition when the rotor stops turning. (US Dept of Energy)

stand-alone generator

A power source/generator that operates independently of or is not connected to an electric transmission and distribution network; used to meet a load(s) physically close to the generator. (US Dept of Energy)

stand-alone inverter

An inverter that operates independent of or is not connected to an electric transmission and distribution network. (US Dept of Energy)

stand-alone system

An system that operates independent of or is not connected to an electric transmission and distribution network. (US Dept of Energy)

standard

A benchmark or set of criteria used to measure performance. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

standard air

Air with a weight of 0.075 pounds per cubic foot with an equivalent density of dry air at a temperature of 86 degrees Fahrenheit and standard barometric pressure of 29.92 inches of mercury. (US Dept of Energy)

Standard Asset Management Amendment

A SAMDA contract amended to transfer asset disposition from the SAMDA contractor to the RTC. The RTC began issuing SAMAs in January 1992. SAMDA contractors who accepted the SAMA allowed the RTC to dispose of their remaining assets while the contractors continued to manage assets but not to dispose of them. Later, SAMDA contracts with SAMAs were issued to some new contractors who were hired to perform asset management services only. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Standard Asset Management and Disposition Agreement

Contractual agreements for asset management and disposition services that allowed the RTC to manage and dispose of a large volume of distressed assets, primarily real estate and nonperforming loans, through the use of private-sector contractors. The RTC issued the first SAMDA contract in August 1990. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

standard conditions

In refrigeration, an evaporating temperature of 5 degrees Fahrenheit (F), a condensing temperature of 86 degrees F., liquid temperature before expansion of 77 degrees F., and suction temperature of 12 degrees F. (US Dept of Energy)

standard cubic foot

A column of gas at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (32 degrees Fahrenheit and one atmosphere). (US Dept of Energy)

Standard Flood Insurance Policy

Dwelling Form--The policy form used to insure a building designed for use as a residence for no more than 4 families or a single-family unit in a residential building under a condominium form of ownership. This form is also used to insure residential contents in any building. The owner of a residential building with 5 or more units can use this form to insure contents only in his or her own residential unit. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) General Property Form--The policy form used to insure a nonresidential building or a 5-or-more-unit residential building not eligible for the Residential Condominium Building Association Policy (RCBAP). This form is also used to insure non-residential contents in any building or a building owner�s residential contents located in multiple units within a building with 5 or more units. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Residential Condominium Building Association Policy (RCBAP)--The policy form used to insure a building, owned and administered as a condominium, containing 1 or more units and in which at least 75 percent of the floor area is residential. The building must be located in a Regular Program community. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Standard Industrial Classification code

A method of grouping industries with similar products or services and assigning codes to these groups. (US EPA- Pesticides) Standardized codes used to classify businesses by type of activity they engage in. (US Dept of Energy)

standard p&a

The RTC or FDIC agreement that contained the standard terms and conditions under which an acquiring institution could assume the liabilities of and purchase the assets of a failed institution from the RTC or FDIC in its capacity as receiver of the failed institution. In RTC transactions, the standard P&A was originally conceived of as the equivalent of the FDIC�s whole bank transaction; it was supplemented with the core branch P&A and the limited branch P&A for multi-acquirer branch breakup transactions. The FDIC�s version of the standard P&A has certain optional provisions that allow its use for the range of P&A resolutions between a whole bank transaction and a clean bank transaction. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

standard reinsurance agreement

A cooperative financial assistance agreement between Federal Crop Insurance Corporation and approved insurance providers to deliver eligible crop insurance contracts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

standard truss

Any construction that does not permit the roof/ceiling insulation to achieve the required R-value over the exterior walls. (Energycodes.gov)

standards rule

Each Standard in USPAP is comprised of Standards Rules that identify the requirements and guidance that apply to that Standard (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

stand-by heat loses

A term used to describe heat energy lost from a water heater tank. (US Dept of Energy)

stand-by power

For the consumer, this is the electricity that is used by your TVs, stereos, and other electronic devices that use remote controls. When you press "off" to turn off your device, minimal power (dormant mode) is still being used to maintain the internal electronics in a ready, quick-response mode. This way, your device can be turned on with your remote control and be immediately ready to operate. (US Dept of Energy)

standby reserves

Unused capacity in an electric system in machines that are not in operation but that are available for immediate use if required. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

standing operating procedures

(aka SOP) A comprehensive single-source document covering all aspects of dam and reservoir operation and maintenance and emergency procedures. Its purpose is to ensure adherence to approved operating procedures. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

standpipe

Pipe or tank connected to a closed conduit and extending to or above the hydraulic grade line of the conduit to afford relief from surges of pressure in pipelines. A tank used for storage of water in distribution systems. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

start of construction

For other than new construction or substantial improvements, under the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, this is the date the building permit was issued, provided that the actual start of construction, repair, rehabilitation, addition, placement, or other improvement was within 180 days of the permit date. The actual start means either the first placement of permanent construction of a building on site, such as the pouring of a slab or footing, the installation of piles, the construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation; or the placement of a manufactured (mobile) home on a foundation. For a substantial improvement, actual start of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

starting surge

Power, often above an appliance's rated wattage, required to bring any appliance with a motor up to operating speed. (US Dept of Energy)

starting torque

The torque at the bottom of a speed (rpm) versus torque curve. The torque developed by the motor is a percentage of the full-load or rated torque. At this torque the speed, the rotational speed of the motor as a percentage of synchronous speed is zero. This torque is what is available to initially get the load moving and begin its acceleration. (US Dept of Energy)

state

A two-letter abbreviation indicating the state or territory within which the property securing the mortgage loan is located. (Fannie Mae) Any state, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z)) Any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) As defined in chapter 1 of Title 23 of the United States Code, any of the 50 States, comprising the United States, plus the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. However, for some purposes (e.g., highway safety programs under 23 U.S.C. 402), the term may also include the Territories (the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands) and the Secretary of the Interior (for Indian Reservations). For the purposes of apportioning funds under sections 104, 105, 144, and 206 of Title 23, United States Code, the term "State" is defined by section 1103(n) of the TEA-21 to mean any of the 50 States and the District of Columbia. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A type of ownership pertaining to land belonging to one of the States, commonwealths, or territories of the United States of America. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

State Agricultural Experiment Stations

SAES work with land-grant universities to carry out a joint research-teaching-extension mission. The Hatch Act of 1887 offered States the option of establishing stations to perform science-based research and acquire and disseminate information of use to the agricultural sector. Each State (as well as some territories) now has an SAES, and some States have additional substations. The experiment stations cooperate closely with USDA. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

State Bank

A bank that is organized under the laws of a State and chartered by that State to conduct the business of banking. (Help With My Bank)

State Banking Department

The organization in each State that supervises the operations and affairs of State banks. (Help With My Bank)

State Emergency Response Commission

(aka SERC) Appointed by the governor of each state for the designation of emergency planning districts, appoint LEPC's, supervise and coordinate their activities, and review local emergency response plans as provided by SARA Title III. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

State Implementation Plan

(aka SIP) Produced by the state environmental agency, not the MPO. A plan mandated by the CAA that contains procedures to monitor, control, maintain, and enforce compliance with the NAAQS. Must be taken into account in the transportation planning process. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

State Infrastructure Bank

(aka SIB) A revolving fund mechanism for financing a wide variety of highway and transit projects through loans and credit enhancement. SIBs are designed to complement traditional Federal-aid highway and transit grants by providing States increased flexibility for financing infrastructure investments. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

State member bank

A bank that is chartered by a state and has elected to join the Federal Reserve System. (Federal Reserve Education)

State Planning and Research Funds

(aka SPR) Primary source of funding for statewide long-range planning. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

State Routing Agency

An entity (including a common agency of more than one state such as one established by Interstate compact) which is authorized to use state legal process pursuant to 49 CFR 177.825 to impose routing requirements, enforceable by State agencies, on carriers of radioactive materials without regard to intrastate jurisdictional boundaries. This term also includes Indian tribal authorities which have police powers to regulate and enforce highway routing requirements within their lands. (49CFR171) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

State Transportation Agency

The State highway department, transportation department, or other State transportation agency to which Federal-aid highway funds are apportioned. (23CFR420) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

State Transportation Improvement Program

(aka STIP) A staged, multi-year, statewide, intermodal program of transportation projects, consistent with the statewide transportation plan and planning processes as well as metropolitan plans, TIPs, and processes. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

State Wildlife Action Plan

Wildlife Conservation and Restoration Program and the State Wildlife Grants Program 2000. As a requirement of these programs, Congress asked each state wildlife agency to develop a �comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy��a wildlife action plan�that evaluates wildlife conservation needs and outlines the necessary action steps. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

State-Designated Route

A preferred route selected in accordance with U.S. DOT "Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Highway Route Controlled Quantities of Radioactive Materials" or an equivalent routing analysis which adequately considers overall risk to the public. (49CFR171) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

statement

A summary of all transactions that occurred over the preceding month and could be associated with a deposit account or a credit card account. (Help With My Bank)

statement of financial affairs

A series of questions the debtor must answer in writing concerning sources of income, transfers of property, lawsuits by creditors, etc. (There is an official form a debtor must use.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

statement of intention

A declaration made by a chapter 7 debtor concerning plans for dealing with consumer debts that are secured by property of the estate. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan

(aka SCORP) A statewide recreation plan required by the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965. Addresses the demand for and supply of recreation resources (local, State, and Federal) within a State, identifies needs and new opportunities for recreation improvements, and sets forth an implementation program to meet the goals identified by its citizens and elected leaders. [National Park Service] NOTE: Metropolitan and statewide transportation plans plans should be coordinated with SCORPs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

statewide transportation plan

The official statewide intermodal transportation plan that is developed through the statewide transportation planning process. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

static head

The difference in elevation between the pumping source and the point of delivery. The vertical distance between two points in a fluid. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

static pressure

Condition that exists when an equal amount of air is supplied to and exhausted from a space. At static pressure, equilibrium has been reached. (US Environmental Protection Agency) The force per unit area acting on the surface of a solid boundary parallel to the flow. (US Dept of Energy)

station

Any one of a series of stakes or points indicating distance from a point of beginning or reference. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

station use

Energy used in a generating plant as necessary in production of electricity. Includes energy consumed for plant light, power, and auxiliaries regardless of whether such energy is produced at plant or comes from another source. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stationary source

Relatively large, fixed sources of emissions (i.e. chemical process industries, petroleum refining and petrochemical operations, or wood processing). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

stationary white noise

Random energy with statistical characteristics that do not vary with time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stator

That portion of a machine which contains the stationary (non-moving) parts that surround the moving parts (rotor). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stator windings

The armature or stationary winding of a synchronous generator. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

status candidates

A term used by hiring offices to refer to candidates already employed by the Federal government in a competitive service position.� (Ginnie Mae)

statute

A law that has been enacted (passed by Congress or a state legislature and either signed by the chief executive [president or governor] or passed over the chief executive's veto). (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

statutes at large

A series of volumes published annually by the Government Printing Office that includes the laws passed by Congress and signed into law during an annual session of Congress. Unlike the U. S. Code, which presents federal laws by subject matter, Statutes at Large presents laws chronologically in the order enacted. Statutes at Large also includes Joint and Concurrent Resolutions that have been enacted into law and the text of Executive Orders issued during the year. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

steady flow

Flow in an open channel is said to be steady if the depth of flow does not change over a given time interval. No change occurs with repect to time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

steady state condition

When model input values are nearly constant for a defined period of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

steady state inhibition

The time point at which continued dosing at the same level results in no further increase in cholinesterase inhibition. (US EPA- Pesticides)

steam

Water in vapor form; used as the working fluid in steam turbines and heating systems. (US Dept of Energy) Water vapor that rises from boiling water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

steam boiler

A type of furnace in which fuel is burned and the heat is used to produce steam. (US Dept of Energy)

steam turbine

A device that converts high-pressure steam, produced in a boiler, into mechanical energy that can then be used to produce electricity by forcing blades in a cylinder to rotate and turn a generator shaft. (US Dept of Energy)

steel-framed wall

A wall with a cavity (insulated or otherwise) whose exterior surfaces are separated by steel framing members (i.e., typical steel stud walls and curtain wall systems). (Energycodes.gov)

stemflow

Rainfall or snowmelt led to the ground down the trunks or stems of plants. (Hoover, 1953, p. 1). (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stemming

Crushed stone, soil, sand, or drill cuttings used to plug the unloaded portion of a drill hole. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

step 2 payments for upland cotton

These payments ae issued weekly to exporters and domestic mill users of U.S. upland cotton, subject to price conditions in the United States and Northern Europe. Payments were made in cash or certificates to domestic users on documented raw cotton consumption, and to exporters on documented export shipments. The program terminated on August 1, 2006. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

sterilizer

One of three groups of antimicrobials registered by EPA for public health uses. EPA considers an antimicrobial to be a sterilizer when it destroys or eliminates all forms of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and their spores. Because spores are considered the most difficult form of a microorganism to destroy, EPA considers the term sporicide to be synonymous with "sterilizer." (US Environmental Protection Agency)

stewardship threshold

The level of natural resource conservation and environmental management required, as determined by the Secretary using conservation measurement tools, to improve and conserve the quality and condition of a resource. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

sticky limit

The lowest moisture content at which a soil will stick to a metal blade drawn across the surface of the soil mass. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stilling basin

Concrete portion downstream from conduit, tunnel, or control structure. A pool, usually lined with reinforced concrete, located below a spillway, gate, or valve into which the discharge dissipates energy to avoid downstream channel degradation. A basin constructed to dissipate the energy of rapidly flowing water (e.g., from a spillway or outlet) and to protect the riverbed from erosion. See terminal structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stilling pool

A pool located below a spillway, gate, or valve into which the discharge dissipates energy to avoid downstream channel degradation. An unlined stilling basin usually constructed in natural ground or rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stirling engine

A heat engine of the reciprocating (piston) where the working gas and a heat source are independent. The working gas is compressed in one region of the engine and transferred to another region where it is expanded. The expanded gas is then returned to the first region for recompression. The working gas thus moves back and forth in a closed cycle. (US Dept of Energy)

stock

Merchandise held in storage or for sale, raw materials, and in-process or finished goods, including supplies used in their packing or shipping. "Stock" does not include any property not covered under "Section IV. Property not Covered" of the General Property Form, except the following: �Parts and equipment for self-propelled vehicles; �Furnishings and equipment for watercraft; �Spas and hot-tubs, including their equipment; and �Swimming pool equipment. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

stock market

Association where security trading is conducted in an organized system. (Federal Reserve Education)

stockholder

A person who owns stock in a company and is eligible to share in profits and losses; same as shareholder. (Federal Reserve Education)

stockholders' equity

The sum of proceeds from the issuance of stock and retained earnings less amounts paid to repurchase common shares. (US Dept of HUD)

stockpile

A storage pile of materials. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stoichiometric ratio

The ratio of chemical substances necessary for a reaction to occur completely. (US Dept of Energy)

stoichiometry

Chemical reactions, typically associated with combustion processes; the balancing of chemical reactions by providing the exact proportions of reactant compounds to ensure a complete reaction; all the reactants are used up to produce a single set of products. (US Dept of Energy)

stone�

Rock fragments larger than 25.4 cm (10 inches) but less than 60.4 cm (24 inches). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

stone

A concretion of earthy or mineral matter; rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stoney gate

The fundamental difference between Stoney and fixed-wheel gates is that a moving train of rollers is substituted for the fixed wheels. A gate for large openings that bears on a train of rollers in each gate guide. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stop payment

An order not to pay a check that has been issued but not yet cashed. If requested soon enough, the check will not be debited from the payer's account. Most banks charge a fee for this service. (Help With My Bank)

stoping

An upward erosion/piping action into an embankment or foundation (possibly leading to a breach). Stoping occurs if the piping process is impeded or terminated prior to reaching the reservoir (by encountering non-erodible material, or the occurrence of a roof collapse). Either there will be no further detrimental consequence to the dam, or the horizontal seepage/piping component could translate upward by stoping, possibly intercepting the reservoir or resulting in sinkholes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stoplogs

Large logs, planks, cut timbers, steel or concrete beams placed on top of each other with their ends held in guides between walls or piers to close an opening in a dam, conduit, spillway, etc., to the passage of water; the logs are usually handled one at a time. Used to provide a cheaper or more easily handled means of temporary closure than a bulkhead gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

storage

1. Water artificially impounded in surface or underground reservoirs, for future use. The term regulation refers to the action of this storage in modifying streamflow. See also Conservation storage, Total storage, Dead storage, and Usable storage. 2. Water naturally detained in a drainage basin, such as ground water, channel storage, and depression storage. The term "drainage basin storage" or simply "basin storage" is sometimes used to refer collectively to the amount of water in natural storage in a drainage basin. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The retention of water or delay of runoff either by planned operation, as in a reservoir, or by temporary filling of overflow areas, as in the progression of a flood wave through a natural stream channel. See reservoir capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

storage capacity

The amount of energy an energy storage device or system can store. (US Dept of Energy)

storage hydropower

A hydropower facility that stores water in a reservoir during high-inflow periods to augment water during low-inflow periods. Storage projects allow the flow releases and power production to be more flexible and dependable. Many hydropower project operations use a combination of approaches. (US Dept of Energy)

storage ratio

The net available storage divided by the mean flow for 1 year. (Hazen, 1930, p. 1446.) (See also Thomas and Harbeck, 1956, p. 14.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage tank

The tank of a water heater. (US Dept of Energy)

storage water heater

A water heater that releases hot water from the top of the tank when a hot water tap is opened. To replace that hot water, cold water enters the bottom of the tank to ensure a full tank. (US Dept of Energy)

storage, bank

See Bank storage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage, conservation

See Conservation storage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage, dead

See Dead storage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage, depression

See Depression storage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage, total

See Total storage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage, usable

See Usable Storage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storage-required frequency curve

A graph showing the frequency with which storage equal to or greater than selected amounts will be required to maintain selected rates of regulated flow. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storm

A disturbance of the ordinary average conditions of the atmosphere which, unless specifically qualified, may include any or all meteorological disturbances, such as wind, rain, snow, hail, or thunder. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storm door

An exterior door that protects the primary door. (US Dept of Energy)

storm seepage

That part of precipitation which infiltrates the surface soil, and moves toward the streams as ephemeral, shallow, perched ground water above the main ground-water level. Storm seepage is usually part of the direct runoff. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

storm windows

Glass, plastic panels, or plastic sheets that reduce air infiltration and some heat loss when attached to either the interior or exterior of existing windows. (US Dept of Energy)

stormflow

See Direct runoff. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

story

Portion of a building that is between one finished floor level and the next higher finished floor level or the roof, provided, however, that a basement or cellar shall not be considered a story. (Energycodes.gov)

straight deposit payoff

A resolution method for failed FDIC insured institutions which can be used when the liquidation, closing, or winding down of the affairs is determined to be the least costly resolution of the institution. A straight deposit payoff is one of the two methods of deposit payoffs. (The other is an insured deposit transfer.) In a straight deposit payoff, the FDIC determines the amount of insured deposits and pays that amount directly to each depositor. The FDIC as receiver retains all assets and liabilities, and the receivership bears the cost of liquidating all of the assets. (Also see deposit payoff, insured deposit transfer, and payoff.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

strain

The change in length per unit of length in a given direction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stranded investment (costs and benefits)

An investment in a power plant or demand side management measures or programs, that become uneconomical due to increased competition in the electric power market. For example, an electric power plant may produce power that is more costly than what the market rate for electricity is, and the power plant owner may have to close the plant, even though the capital and financing costs of building the plant have not been recovered through prior sales of electricity from the plant. This is considered a Stranded Cost. Stranded Benefits are those power provider investments in measures or programs considered to benefit consumers by reducing energy consumption and/or providing environmental benefits that have to be curtailed due to increased competition and lower profit margins. (US Dept of Energy)

strata (stratum)

Distinct layers of stratified rock. A layer of sedimentary rock, visually separable from other layers above and below. Layers of rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

strategic plan

A written plan outlining a government agency's framework for management. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stratification

Thermal layering of water in lakes and streams. Lakes usually have three zones of varying temperature, the epilimnion, the metalimnion, and the hypolimnion. The formation of separate layers (of temperature, plant, or animal life) in a lake or reservoir. See thermal stratification. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stratified reservoir

A reservoir with several thermal layers of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stratigraphy

Geology that deals with the origin, composition, distribution, and succession of strata. Study or description of layered or stratified rocks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

straw buyer/borrower

A person used to buy property or borrow against property in order to conceal the actual owner. The straw buyer does not intend to occupy the property or make payments and often deeds the property to the other individual immediately after closing. The straw buyer is usually compensated for use of his identity. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

stream

A general term for a body of flowing water. In hydrology the term is generally applied to the water flowing in a natural channel as distinct from a canal. More generally as in the term stream gaging, it is applied to the water flowing in any channel, natural or artificial. Streams in natural channels may be classified as follows (after Meinzer, 1923, p. 5658): � Relation to time. ? Perennial. One which flows continuously. ? Intermittent or seasonal. One which flows only at certain times of the year when it receives water from springs or from some surface source such as melting snow in mountainous areas. ? Ephemeral. One that flows only in direct response to precipitation, and whose channel is at all times above the water table. � Relation to space. ? Continuous. One that does not have interruptions in space. ? Interrupted. One which contains alternating reaches, that are either perennial, intermittent, or ephemeral. � Relation to ground water. ? Gaining. A stream or reach of a stream that receives water from the zone of saturation. ? Losing. A stream or reach of a stream that contributes water to the zone of saturation. ? Insulated. A stream or reach of a stream that neither contributes water to the zone of saturation nor receives water from it. It is separated from the zones of saturation by an impermeable bed. ? Perched. A perched stream is either a losing stream or an insulated stream that is separated from the underlying ground water by a zone of aeration. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A flow of water in a channel or bed, as a brook, rivulet, or small river. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Natural water course containing water at least part of the year. The type of runoff where water flows in a channel. See ephemeral stream, gaining stream, incised stream, intermittent stream, losing stream, or perennial stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stream capacity

Total volume of water that a stream can carry within the normal high water channel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stream gaging

The process and art of measuring the depths, areas, velocities, and rates of flow in natural or artificial channels. (see Corbett and others, 1943.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stream line

An imaginary line within the flow which is everywhere tangent to the velocity vector. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stream order

A method of numbering streams as part of a drainage basin network. The smallest unbranched mapped tributary is called first order, the stream receiving the tributary is called second order, and so on. It is usually necessary to specify the scale of the map used. A first-order stream on a 1:62,500 map, may be a third-order stream on a 1:12,000 map. (After Leopold and Miller, 1956, p. 16.) Tributaries which have no branches are designated as of the first order, streams which receive only first-order tributaries are of the second order, larger branches which receive only first-order and second-order tributaries are designated third order, and so on, the main stream being always of the highest order. (Horton, 1932, p. 356. ) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

streambed at the dam axis

The lowest-point elevation in the streambed at the axis or centerline crest of the dam prior to construction. This elevation defines the hydraulic height and normally defines the zero for the area-capacity tables. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

streamflow

The discharge that occurs in a natural channel. Although the term discharge can be applied to the flow of a canal, the word streamflow uniquely describes the discharge in a surface stream course. The term "streamflow" is more general than runoff, as streamflow may be applied to discharge whether or not it is affected by diversion or regulation. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Discharge that occurs in a natural channel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

streamflow depletion

The amount of water that flows into a valley, or onto a particular land area, minus the water that flows out the valley or off from the particular land area. (Blaney, 1951a, p. 4.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

stream-gaging station

A gaging station where a record of discharge of a stream is obtained. Within the Geological Survey this term is used only for those gaging stations where a continuous record of discharge is obtained. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

street name

Securities held in the name of brokers, banks or their nominees, instead of in the customer's name. (Federal Reserve Education)

streetcars

Relatively lightweight passenger railcars operating singly or in short trains, or on fixed rails in rights-of-way that are not always separated from other traffic. Streetcars do not necessarily have the right-of-way at grade crossings with other traffic. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

stress

The force per unit area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

striation

Scratch or groove in bedrock caused by rocks within a glacier grinding the earth's surface as the glacier moves. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

strike

The direction taken by a bedding or fault plane as it intersects the horizontal. To be aligned or to trend in a direction at right angles to the direction of the dip. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stringer

A long, horizontal member which connects uprights in a frame or supports a floor or the like. One of the enclosed sides of a stair supporting the treads and risers. (Publications- USA.gov)

strip cropping

A crop production system that involves planting alternating strips of row crops and close-growing forage crops; the forage strips intercept and slow runoff from the less protected row crop strips. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Stripped MBS

(aka SMBS) Securities created by "stripping" or separating the principal and interest payments from the underlying pool of mortgages into two classes of securities, with each receiving a different proportion of the principal and interest payments. (US Dept of HUD)

stripping

Removal of a surface layer or deposit for the purpose of excavating other material beneath it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

structural height

Distance between the lowest point in the excavated foundation (excluding narrow fault zones) and the top of dam. The structural height of a concrete dam is the vertical distance between the top of the dam and lowest point of the excavated foundation area, excluding narrow fault zones. The structural height of an embankment dam is the vertical distance between the top of the embankment and the lowest point in the excavated foundation area, including the main cutoff trench, if any, but excluding small trenches or narrow backfilled areas. The top elevation does not include the camber, crown, or roadway surfacing. See hydraulic height. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

structural practice

A practice that involves a constructed facility, land shaping, or permanent vegetative cover designed to preserve soil; reduce runoff of nutrient, sediment, and pesticides; enhance wildlife habitat; or other purposes. Examples include animal waste-management facilities, terraces, grassed waterways, contour grass strips, filter strips, tailwater pits, permanent wildlife habitats, and constructed wetlands. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

structured transaction

An RTC multi-asset portfolio sale of distressed assets, which was normally coupled with seller financing with an equity participation feature so that the RTC�s equity interest was tied to the terms of a seller financing note. This 1991�92 program generally is considered to have been a first-generation portfolio sales program of the RTC. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

strut

An inside brace. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

stucco

A textured plaster exterior (and occasionally interior) wall finish. (HardwickAssociates)

stud

A vertical framing piece in a wall, generally 2x4 lumber in interior walls. (HardwickAssociates) A popular term used for a length of wood or steel used in or for wall framing. (US Dept of Energy) A bolt having one end firmly anchored. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

student loan

Loans made, insured, or guaranteed under any program authorized by the Higher Education Act. Loan funds are used by the borrower for education purposes. (Help With My Bank)

studs

In wall framing, the vertical members to which horizontal pieces are nailed. Studs are spaced either 16 inches or 24 inches apart. (Publications- USA.gov)

sub-allocation

An administrative distribution of funds from BIA Central Office down to the BIA area. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

subarea

Designation placed in front of those areas where only the counties or towns of the subarea are used in calculating income limits and FMRs. (US Dept of HUD)

subbase

A layer used in a pavement system between the subgrade and base course, or between the subgrade and portland cement concrete pavement. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subcontractor

Any individual or entity with whom a primary contractor enters into a contract to provide goods or services to fulfill the primary contractor�s obligation under its contract with the government. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

subcritical flow

Those conditions of flow for which the depths are greater than critical and the velocities are less than critical. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subdivision

A residential development that is created from a piece of land which has been subdivided into individual lots. (HardwickAssociates)

subdrilling

Overdrilling or drilling below final grade. Sometimes necessary to assure that final grade is obtained when blasting. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subfloor

Usually, plywood sheets that are nailed directly to the floor joists and that receive the finish flooring. (Publications- USA.gov)

subgrade

Soil prepared and compacted to support a structure or pavement system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation) The soil prepared amd compacted to support a structure or a pavement system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subgrade surface

The surface of the earth or rock prepared to support a structure or a pavement system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subirrigation

Applying irrigation water below the ground surface either by raising the water table within or near the root zone, or by use of a buried perforated or porous pipe system which discharge directly into the root zone. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subject property

A term which indicates a property which is being appraised. (HardwickAssociates)

submeander

Small meander contained with banks of main channel, associated with relatively low discharges. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

sub-membrane depressurization system

A system designed to achieve lower sub-membrane air pressure relative to crawlspace air pressure by use of a fan-powered vent drawing air from under the soil-gas-retarder membrane. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

submerged aquatic vegetation

(aka SAV) Aquatic vegetation, such as sea grasses, that cannot withstand excessive drying and therefore live with their leaves at or below the water surface. This type of vegetation provides an important habitat for young fish and other aquatic organisms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

submergent plant�

A vascular or nonvascular hydrophyte, either rooted or nonrooted, which lies entirely beneath the water surface, except for flowering parts in some species; e.g., wild celery (Vallisneria americana) or the stoneworts (Chara spp.). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

submit-for-rate

An application for flood insurance on a building for which no risk rate is published in the Flood Insurance Manual. Insurance coverage can be obtained only after the NFIP has approved the application and has established the risk premium rate. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

subordinate

To place in a rank of lesser importance or to make one claim secondary to another. (US Dept of HUD)

subordinate capital

Subordinate capital are those capital accounts that are depleted first to absorb losses. (National Credit Union Administration)

subordinate financing

Any mortgage or other lien with lower priority than the first mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission)

subordinated debt

An obligation that has a claim on assets junior to other debt and is repayable only after other debt with a higher claim has been satisfied. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

sub-organization

Any organization such as agencies, departments, offices, or local jurisdictions having a supportive role in emergency planning and preparedness. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subprime

Is a segment of the lending market that extends credit to borrowers who either cannot or perceive they cannot qualify for a prime rate mortgage loan. This type of mortgage loan has higher interest rates than prime mortgage loans. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

subprime lending

Lending provided to those who do not qualify for "prime" rates, those rates reserved for borrowers with virtually blemish-free credit histories. Subprime lending that involves unscrupulous practices is considered predatory. (Federal Reserve Education)

sub-prime loan

"B" Loan or "B" paper with FICO scores from 620 - 659. "C" Loan or "C" Paper with FICO scores typically from 580 to 619. An industry term to used to describe loans with less stringent lending and underwriting terms and conditions. Due to the higher risk, sub-prime loans charge higher interest rates and fees. (US Dept of HUD)

subrogated claim

An insured depositor�s demand against the receivership that the FDIC acquires by virtue of having provided deposit insurance. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

subsidence

Sinking of the land surface due to a number of factors, including ground water extraction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Subsidiary Information Management Network

(aka SIMAN) A national system, developed by the RTC in 1992, currently used by the FDIC to collect and track information about subsidiaries, joint ventures, and partnerships. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

sub-slab depressurization system (active)

A system designed to achieve lower sub-slab air pressure relative to indoor air pressure by use of a fan-powered vent drawing air from beneath the slab. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

sub-slab depressurization system (passive)

A system designed to achieve lower sub-slab air pressure relative to indoor air pressure by use of a vent pipe routed through the conditioned space of a building and connecting the sub-slab area with outdoor air, thereby relying solely on the convective flow of air upward in the vent to draw air from beneath the slab. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

subsoil

Technically, the B horizon; roughly, the part of the solum below plow depth. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

substandard

A loan that usually lacks current sound worth and paying capacity of borrower or collateral pledged. (Federal Reserve Education)

substantial contact

A condition where adjacent building materials are placed so that proximal surfaces are contiguous, being installed and supported so they eliminate voids between materials without compressing or degrading the thermal performance of either product. (Energycodes.gov)

substantial damage

Damage of any origin sustained by a building whereby the cost of restoring the building to its before-damaged condition would equal or exceed 50 percent of the market value of the building before the damage occurred. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

substantial improvement

Any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a building, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building before the "start of construction" of the improvement. Substantial improvement includes buildings that have incurred "substantial damage," regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not, however, include either any project for improvement of a building to correct existing state or local code violations or any alteration to a "historic building," provided that the alteration will not preclude the building's continued designation as a "historic building." (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

substantive consolidation

Putting the assets and liabilities of two or more related debtors into a single pool to pay creditors. (Courts are reluctant to allow substantive consolidation since the action must not only justify the benefit that one set of creditors receives, but also the harm that other creditors suffer as a result.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

substation

An electrical installation containing power conversion (and sometimes generation) equipment, such as transformers, compensators, and circuit breakers. (US Dept of Energy) Facility equipment that switches, changes, or regulates electric voltage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

substation capacity

The substation capacities are given in kVA (kilovolt-amperes). To determine the load in kilowatts, which could be served from the transformers, the kilovolt-ampere rating should be multiplied by the load power factor. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

substitute check

A substitute check is a paper copy of the front and back of the original check. A substitute check is slightly larger than a standard personal check so that it can contain a picture of your original check. A substitute check is legally the same as the original check if it accurately represents the information on the original check and includes the following statement: "This is a legal copy of your check. You can use it the same way you would use the original check." The substitute check must also have been handled by a bank. Substitute checks were created under Check 21, the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, which became effective on October 28, 2004. (Help With My Bank)

substrate

The physical material upon which a photovoltaic cell is applied. (US Dept of Energy) Surface on which a plant or animal grows or is attached. The base on which an organism lives; a substance acted upon. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

substratum

The part f the soil below the solum. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

subsurface irrigation system

Irrigation by means of underground porous tile or its equivalent. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

subsurface layer

Any surface soil horizon (A, E, AB, or EB) below the surface layer. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

sub-surface right

The right of ownership to things lying beneath the physical surface of the property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

subsurface runoff

See Storm seepage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

succession

Directional, orderly process of community change in which the community modifies the physical environment to eventually establish an ecosystem which is as stable as possible at the site in question. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sulfate attack

Damage to concrete caused by the effects of a chemical reaction between sulfates in soils or ground water and hydrated lime and hydrated calcium aluminate in cement paste. The attack results in considerable expansion and disruption of paste. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sum of retail sales

A mathematical calculation of the sum of the expected sales prices of several individual properties in the same development to an individual purchaser. The sum of retail sales is not the market value for purposes of meeting the minimum appraisal standards in the Agencies� appraisal regulations. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A mathematical calculation of the sum of the expected sales prices of several individual properties in the same development to an individual purchaser. The sum of retail sales is not the market value for purposes of meeting the minimum appraisal standards in the Agencies� appraisal regulations. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

summary appraisal report

According to USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(b), the summary appraisal report summarizes all information significant to the solution of an appraisal problem while still providing sufficient information to enable the client and intended user(s) to understand the rationale for the opinions and conclusions in the report. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) According to USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(b), the summary appraisal report summarizes all information significant to the solution of an appraisal problem while still providing sufficient information to enable the client and intended user(s) to understand the rationale for the opinions and conclusions in the report. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

sump

A pit in the basement in which water collects to be pumped out with a sump pump. (Publications- USA.gov) A basin into which water drains and from which the water is pumped out. (HardwickAssociates) A pit or pool for draining, collecting, or storing water. A chamber located at the entrance to the pump which provides water to the pump. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sump pump

A pump used for removing collected water from a sump. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sun path diagram

A circular projection of the sky vault onto a flat diagram used to determine solar positions and shading effects of landscape features on a solar energy system. (US Dept of Energy)

sun tempered building

A building that is elongated in the east-west direction, with the majority of the windows on the south side. The area of the windows is generally limited to about 7% of the total floor area. A sun-tempered design has no added thermal mass beyond what is already in the framing, wall board, and so on. Insulation levels are generally high. (US Dept of Energy)

sunspace

A room that faces south (in the northern hemisphere), or a small structure attached to the south side of a house. (US Dept of Energy)

super insulated houses

A type of house that has massive amounts of insulation, airtight construction, and controlled ventilation without sacrificing comfort, health, or aesthetics. (US Dept of Energy)

super window

A popular term for highly insulating window with a heat loss so low it performs better than an insulated wall in winter, since the sunlight that it admits is greater than its heat loss over a 24 hour period. (US Dept of Energy)

superconducting magnetic energy storage

SMES technology uses the superconducting characteristics of low-temperature materials to produce intense magnetic fields to store energy. SMES has been proposed as a storage option to support large-scale use of photovoltaics and wind as a means to smooth out fluctuations in power generation. (US Dept of Energy)

superconductivity

The abrupt and large increase in electrical conductivity exhibited by some metals as the temperature approaches absolute zero. (US Dept of Energy)

supercritical flow

Those conditions of flow for which the depths are less than critical and the velocities are greater than critical. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

supervisory control

A system used to monitor conditions and operate mechanical features associated with a facility from a location other than at the site. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

supplemental agricultural disaster assistance

Disaster assistance payments provided to producers of eligible commodities (crops, farm-raised fish, honey, and livestock) in counties declared by the Secretary to be "disaster counties." (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

supplemental gaseous fuels supplies

��Synthetic natural gas, propane-air, coke oven gas, refinery gas, biomass gas, air injected for Btu stabilization, and manufactured gas commingled and distributed with natural gas. (US Energy Information Administration)

supplemental irrigation

Commonly, irrigation as carried on in humid areas. The term means that the irrigation water is supplementary to the natural rainfall rather than being the primary source of moisture as in the arid and semiarid West. Supplementary irrigation is used generally to prevent retardation of growth during periods of drought. (Huffman, 1953, p. 231.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

supplemental irrigation service land

Irrigable land now receiving, or to receive, an additional or reregulated supply of water through facilities constructed by or to be constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation. This water together with that obtained from nonproject sources, generally will constitute an adequate supply. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

supplemental nutrition assistance program

New name for the former Food Stamp Program (FSP). SNAP provides monthly benefits to eligible low-income households and is designed to alleviate hunger and malnutrition by enabling participants to obtain a more nutritious diet. Benefits can be used to purchase food at authorized food stores. The 2008 Farm Act changed the name of the Food Stamp Program to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), effective on October 1, 2008. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

supplemental nutrition assistance program employment and training

Program requirement that certain members of participating households must register for work, accept suitable job offers, and fulfill work or training requirements (such as looking or training for a job) established by State welfare agencies. The Food Security Act of 1985 required all States to implement a Food Stamp Employment Training (FSE&T) Program to improve work opportunities for program participants. Funds for E&T were made available to States by Federal grants, with additional funding available on a 50-percent matching basis. Legislation in 1997 and 1998 targeted E&T funding to nonworking adults without dependents. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

supplemental nutrition assistance program nutrition education

A component of SNAP supporting nutrition education activities. SNAP-Ed focuses on improving the likelihood that SNAP participants and other low-income Americans will make healthy food choices within a limited budget and choose active lifestyles consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and ChooseMyPlate food guidance system. State agencies have the option of participating in SNAP-Ed if they are willing to match Federal funding. USDA's Food and Nutrition Service approves State plans annually and then reimburses States for 50 percent of allowable expenditures. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

supplemental revenue assistance payments

Payments made to eligible producers on farms in disaster counties that incurred crop production or crop quality losses or both during the crop year. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

supplemental sources

When irrigation water supplies are obtained from more than one source, the source furnishing the principal supply is commonly designated the primary source, and the sources furnishing the additional supplies, the supplemental sources. (Houk, 1951, p. 396. ) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

supplementary heat

A heat source, such as a space heater, used to provide more heat than that provided by a primary heating source. (US Dept of Energy)

supply

The amount of a commodity available for meeting a demand or for purchase at a given price. (Federal Reserve Education)

supply duct

The duct(s) of a forced air heating/cooling system through which heated or cooled air is supplied to rooms by the action of the fan of the central heating or cooling unit. (US Dept of Energy)

supply side

Technologies that pertain to the generation of electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

supportive housing for the elderly

Housing that is designed to meet the special physical needs of elderly persons and to accommodate the provision of supportive services that are expected to be needed, either initially or over the useful life of the housing, by the category or categories of elderly persons that the housing is intended to serve. (US Dept of HUD)

supportive housing program

This program is authorized by title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (the McKinney Act) (42 U.S.C. 11381�11389). The program is designed to promote the development of supportive housing and supportive services, including innovative approaches to assist homeless persons in the transition from homelessness, and to promote the provision of supportive housing to homeless persons to enable them to live as independently as possible. (US Dept of HUD)

suppressed weir

A rectangular weir that has only the crest far removed from the channel bottom, the sides are coincident with the sides of the approach channel, so no lateral contraction of water passing through the weir is possible. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surcharge

An extra charge imposed on those who purchase with a credit card instead of cash. (Federal Reserve Education) To fill or load to excess. Any storage above the full pool. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surcharge capacity (surcharge storage)

The reservoir capacity provided for use in passing the inflow design flood through the reservoir. It is the reservoir capacity between the maximum water surface elevation and the highest of the following elevations: top of exclusive flood control capacity, top of joint use capacity, or top of active conservation capacity. Temporary storage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surface layer

The soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or it equivalent in uncultivated soil, ranging in depth from about 4 to 10 inches (10 to 25 centimeters). Frequently designated as the plow layer, or the Ap horizon. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

surface pump

A mechanism for removing water or wastewater from a sump or wet well. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surface runoff

That part of the runoff which travels over the soil surface to the nearest stream channel. It is also defined as that part of the runoff of a drainage basin that has not passed beneath the surface since precipitation. The term is misused when applied in the sense of direct runoff. See also, Runoff, Overland flow, Direct runoff, Ground-water runoff, and Surface water. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored. Surface runoff is a major transporter of non-point source pollutants. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surface soil

Upper part of the soil ordinarily moved in tillage, or its equivalent in uncultivated soils, about 10 to 20 cm in thickness. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Surface Transportation Program

(aka STP) Federal-aid highway funding program that funds a broad range of surface transportation capital needs, including many roads, transit, sea and airport access, vanpool, bike, and pedestrian facilities. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

surface vibration

A method of compacting soil using a vibrating plate or vibrating smooth drum roller used on the surface of soil placed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surface water

All water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, streams, seas, estuaries) and all springs, wells, or other collectors directly influenced by surface water. (US EPA- Pesticides) Water on the surface of the earth. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Water on the surface of the earth. An open body of water, such as a river, stream or lake. All water naturally open to the atmosphere (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams, impoundments, seas, estuaries, etc.) and all springs, wells, or other collectors which are directly influenced by surface water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surface water loop

In this type of closed-loop geothermal heat pump installation, the fluid-filled plastic heat exchanger pipes are coiled into circles and submerged at least eight feet below the surface of a body of surface water, such as a pond or lake. The coils should only be placed in a water source that meets minimum volume, depth, and quality criteria. Also see closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems. (US Dept of Energy)

surfactant

A detergent compound that promotes lathering. (US EPA- Pesticides)

surge

A rapid increase in the depth of flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surge chamber

A chamber or tank connected to a pipe and located at or near a valve that may quickly open or close or a pump that may suddenly start or stop. When the flow of water in a pipe starts or stops quickly, the surge chamber allows water to flow into or out of the pipe and minimize any sudden positive or negative pressure waves or surges in the pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surge irrigation

A surface irrigation technique wherein flow is applied to furrows (or less commonly, borders) intermittently during a single irrigation set. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

surplus cash

The borrower�s remaining funds at the property�s fiscal year end, after making all required payments. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

surplus employees

Surplus employees are current career or career conditional competitive employees at the grade level GS-15 or below in a position or occupation identified by the employing agency as "surplus" and therefore face future potential reduction in force separation. (Ginnie Mae)

survey

A physical measurement of property done by a registered professional showing the dimensions and location of any buildings as well as easements, rights of way, roads, etc. (Ginnie Mae) A precise measurement of a property by a licensed surveyor, showing legal boundaries of a property and the dimensions and location of improvements. (Federal Trade Commission) A property diagram that indicates legal boundaries, easements, encroachments, rights of way, improvement locations, etc. Surveys are conducted by licensed surveyors and are normally required by the lender in order to confirm that the property boundaries and features such as buildings, and easements are correctly described in the legal description of the property. (US Dept of HUD) The process of measuring land to determine its size, location and physical description and the resulting drawing or map. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A specific map of a piece of property which includes the legal boundaries and any improvements or features of the land. Surveys also depict any rights-of-way, encroachments or easements. (HardwickAssociates)

survey fee

A fee for obtaining a drawing of your property showing the location of the lot, any structures, and any encroachments. The survey fee is usually paid by the borrower. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

suspended

The state of floating in water rather than being dissolved in it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

suspended load (suspended sediment)

Sediment that is supported by the upward components of turbulence in a stream and that stays in suspension for an appreciable length of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

suspension

FEMA's removal of an NFIP participating community from the program because the community has not enacted and/or enforced the proper floodplain management regulations required for participation. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) A method of sediment transport in which air or water turbulence supports the weight of the sediment particles, thereby keeping them from settling out or being deposited. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

sustainable agriculture

Environmentally friendly methods of farming that allow the production of crops or livestock without damage to the farm as an ecosystem, including effects on soil, water supplies, biodiversity, or other surrounding natural resources. The concept of sustainable agriculture is an "intergenerational" one in which we pass on a conserved or improved natural resource base instead of one which has been depleted or polluted. Terms often associated with farms or ranches that are self-sustaining include "low-input," organic, "ecological," "biodynamic," and "permaculture." (US EPA- Pesticides)

sustainable communities

Urban, suburban, and rural places that successfully integrate housing, land use, economic and workforce development, transportation, and infrastructure investments in a manner that empowers jurisdictions to consider the interdependent challenges of: 1) economic competitiveness and revitalization; 2) social equity, inclusion, and access to opportunity; 3) energy use and climate change; and 4) public health and environmental impact. (US Dept of HUD)

swale

A wide shallow depression in the ground to form a channel for storm water drainage. (Publications- USA.gov) A low place in a tract of land. A wide, shallow ditch, usually grassed or paved. A wide open drain with a low center line. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

swamp cooler

A popular term used for an evaporative cooling device. (US Dept of Energy)

swampbuster

Term for wetland conservation compliance provisions first established in 1985 farm legislation. Producers who drain a wetland to make it ready for crop production can lose Federal farm program benefits, including most commodity, conservation, and disaster paymen