rabbet

A groove cut in a board to receive another board. (Publications- USA.gov)

radial

Lines converging at a single center. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

radial gate

A pivoted crest gate, the face of which is usually a circular arc, with the center of curvature at the pivot about which the gate swings. A gate with a curved upstream plate and radial arms hinged to piers or other supporting structure. See tainter gate, or monocoque gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

radiant barrier

A thin, reflective foil sheet that exhibits low radiant energy transmission and under certain conditions can block radiant heat transfer; installed in attics to reduce heat flow through a roof assembly into the living space. (US Dept of Energy)

radiant ceiling panels

Ceiling panels that contain electric resistance heating elements embedded within them to provide radiant heat to a room. (US Dept of Energy)

radiant energy

Energy that transmits away from its source in all directions. (US Dept of Energy)

radiant floor

A type of radiant heating system where the building floor contains channels or tubes through which hot fluids such as air or water are circulated. The whole floor is evenly heated. Thus, the room heats from the bottom up. Radiant floor heating eliminates the draft and dust problems associated with forced air heating systems. (US Dept of Energy)

radiant heat

Coils of electricity, hot water or steam pipes embedded in floors, ceilings, or walls to heat rooms. (Publications- USA.gov)

radiant heat transfer

Radiant heat transfer occurs when there is a large difference between the temperatures of two surfaces that are exposed to each other, but are not touching. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

radiant heating system

A heating system that transfers heat to objects and surfaces within the heated space primarily (greater than 50%) by infrared radiation. (Energycodes.gov) A heating system where heat is supplied (radiated) into a room by means of heated surfaces, such as electric resistance elements, hot water (hydronic) radiators, etc. (US Dept of Energy)

radiation

The transfer of heat through matter or space by means of electromagnetic waves. (US Dept of Energy)

radiative cooling

The process of cooling by which a heat absorbing media absorbs heat from one source and radiates the heat away. (US Dept of Energy)

radiator

A room heat delivery (or exchanger) component of a hydronic (hot water or steam) heating system; hot water or steam is delivered to it by natural convection or by a pump from a boiler. (US Dept of Energy)

radiator vent

A device that releases pressure within a radiator when the pressure inside exceeds the operating limits of the vent. (US Dept of Energy)

radioactive waste

Materials left over from making nuclear energy. Radioactive waste can living organisms if it is not stored safely. (US Dept of Energy)

radionuclides

Distinct radioactive particles coming from both natural sources and human activities. Can be very long lasting as soil or water pollutants. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary)

radius

Horizontal distance from the center of rotation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

radon

(aka Rn) A toxic gas found in the soil beneath a house that can contribute to cancer and other illnesses. (Freddie Mac) A radioactive gas found in some homes that, if occurring in strong enough concentrations, can cause health problems. (US Dept of HUD) Radon is a radioactive gas formed in the decay of uranium. The radon decay products (also called radon daughters or progeny) can be breathed into the lung where they continue to release radiation as they further decay. (US Environmental Protection Agency) A colorless, odorless naturally occurring radioactive gas formed by the breakdown or decay of radium or uranium in soil or rocks like granite. Radon is fairly soluble in water, so well water may contain radon. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) A naturally occurring radioactive gas found in the U.S. in nearly all types of soil, rock, and water. It can migrate into most buildings. Studies have linked high concentrations of radon to lung cancer. (US Dept of Energy)

raffinate ponds

Liquid resulting from extractions with a solvent. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rafter

One of a series of structural roof members spanning from an exterior wall to a center ridge beam or ridge board. (Publications- USA.gov) A structural element of the roof, sloping from the peak to the outer walls. (HardwickAssociates) A construction element used for ceiling support. (US Dept of Energy)

rafter vent

A vent leading from the soffit into the attic through the space between the attic rafters. This vent allows air to correctly flow past insulation into the attic space. (Energy Star.gov)

rail

A rolled steel shape laid in two parallel lines to form a track for carrying vehicles with flanged steel wheels. (TRB1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

railroads

A category of Rural transportation areas that includes all operational rail systems and their rights-of-way. Abandoned railroad beds are not included as railroad areas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rain

Liquid precipitation. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

rainfall

The quantity of water that falls as rain only. Not synonymous with precipitation. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

rainfall excess

The volume of rainfall available for direct runoff. It is equal to the total rainfall minus interception, depression storage, and absorption. (See Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, 1949, p. 106. ) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

rainfall, excessive

Rainfall in which the rate of fall is greater than certain adopted limits, chosen with regard to the normal precipitation (excluding snow) of a given place or area. In the U.S. Weather Bureau, it is defined, for States along the southern Atlantic coast and the Gulf coast, as rainfall in which the depth of precipitation is 0.90 inch at the end of 30 minutes and 1.50 inches at the end of an hour, and for the rest of the country as rainfall in which the depth of precipitation at the end of each of the same periods is 0.50 and 0.80 inch, respectively. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

raised truss

Raised truss refers to any roof/ceiling construction that allows the insulation to achieve its full thickness over the plate line of exterior walls. Several constructions allow for this, including elevating the heel (sometimes referred to as an energy truss, raised-heel truss, or Arkansas truss), use of cantilevered or oversized trusses, lowering the ceiling joists, or framing with a raised rafter plate. (Energycodes.gov)

rammed earth

A construction material made by compressing earth in a form; used traditionally in many areas of the world and widely throughout North Africa and the Middle East. (US Dept of Energy)

ramp flume

A flume calibrated to measure the flow of liquid in an open channel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ramp rate

The rate of change in instantaneous output from a powerplant. The ramp rate is established to prevent undesirable effects due to rapid changes in loading or discharge. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ranch house

An architectural style typified by a single-story, low-roof construction. Popular in the western U.S. (HardwickAssociates)

random earthquake

In addition to earthquakes that occur on mapped faults, hazards are also presented by earthquakes not associated with known geological structures. The occurrence of these events is best viewed as a random process, hence the term "random" earthquake. Based on earthquake recurrence relationships for an area, estimates of source-to-site distances can be calculated for various magnitudes and probabilities of occurrence. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

range

A part of the government survey, being a strip of land six miles in width, and numbered east or west of the principal meridian. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) Geographic region in which a given plant or animal normally lives or grows. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rangeland

A Land cover/use category on which the climax or potential plant cover is composed principally of native grasses, grasslike plants, forbs or shrubs suitable for grazing and browsing, and introduced forage species that are managed like rangeland. This would include areas where introduced hardy and persistent grasses, such as crested wheatgrass, are planted and such practices as deferred grazing, burning, chaining, and rotational grazing are used, with little or no chemicals or fertilizer being applied. Grasslands, savannas, many wetlands, some deserts, and tundra are considered to be rangeland. Certain communities of low forbs and shrubs, such as mesquite, chaparral, mountain shrub, and pinyon-juniper, are also included as rangeland. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rankine cycle

The thermodynamic cycle that is an ideal standard for comparing performance of heat-engines, steam power plants, steam turbines, and heat pump systems that use a condensable vapor as the working fluid; efficiency is measured as work done divided by sensible heat supplied. (US Dept of Energy)

rapid

A section of a river where the current is very fast moving, caused by a steep descent in the riverbed through a constriction of the main channel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rapid flow

Also refered to as supercritical flow, rapid flow is distinguished from tranquil flow by a dimensionless number called the Froude number. If the Froude number is less than one, the flow is tranquil. If the Froude number is greater than one, the flow is rapid. If the Froude number is equal to one, the flow is critical. Surface waves can propagate only in the downstream direction. Control of rapid flow depth is always at the upstream end of the rapid flow region. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rapid rail transit

Transit service using railcars driven by electricity usually drawn from a third rail, configured for passenger traffic, and usually operated on exclusive rights-of-way. It generally uses longer trains and has longer station spacing than light rail. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

rapid start

A ballast and lamp system designed to start and operate a fluorescent lamp by simultaneous application of a low voltage to the lamp electrodes and a moderate voltage, higher than the lamp operating voltage, between one end of the lamp and the other. When the electrodes reach thermionic emission temperature, typically in about 1 second, the lamp starts without using high voltage. (Energy Star.gov)

raptors

Birds of prey. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rate adjustment frequency

For an adjustable-rate mortgage loan, the number of months between scheduled rate changes. For loans with an initial fixed-rate period, the number of months between subsequent rate adjustments. (Fannie Mae)

rate cap

See also: Cap (Ginnie Mae) The limit on the amount an interest rate on an ARM can increase or decrease during an adjustment period. (Freddie Mac) The limit on the amount an interest rate on an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) can increase or decrease during an adjustment period. (Federal Trade Commission) A limit on an ARM on how much the interest rate or mortgage payment may change. Rate caps limit how much the interest rates can rise or fall on the adjustment dates and over the life of the loan. (US Dept of HUD)

rate lock

An agreement in which an interest rate is �locked in� or guaranteed for a specified period of time prior to closing. See also �Lock-in Rate.� (Federal Trade Commission) A commitment by a lender to a borrower guaranteeing a specific interest rate over a period of time at a set cost. (US Dept of HUD) A commitment issued by a lender to a borrower or other mortgage originator guaranteeing a specified interest rate for a specified period of time at a specific cost. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) A guarantee from a lender of a specific interest rate for a period of time. (HardwickAssociates)

rate schedule

A mechanism used by electric utilities to determine prices for electricity; typically defines rates according to amounts of power demanded/consumed during specific time periods. (US Dept of Energy)

rated capacity

That capacity which a hydrogenerator can deliver without exceeding mechanical safety factors or a nominal temperature rise. In general this is also the nameplate rating except where turbine power under maximum head is insufficient to deliver the nameplate rating of the generator. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rated head

Water depth for which a hydroelectric generator and turbines were designed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rated lamp wattage

The power consumption of a lamp as published in manufacturers' literature. (Energycodes.gov)

rated life

A light bulb�s estimated lifetime measured in hours. For all light bulbs, lifetime is determined by operating a sample of bulbs according to industry test standards. The time that half of the test sample fails is considered rated life. By definition, some lamps will fail before their rated life and some will operate beyond their rated life. The ENERGY STAR CFL criteria require additional testing to show that the sample can withstand a number of short start cycles and monitors early failures throughout testing. (Energy Star.gov) The length of time that a product or appliance is expected to meet a certain level of performance under nominal operating conditions; in a luminaire, the period after which the lumen depreciation and lamp failure is at 70% of its initial value. (US Dept of Energy)

rated power

The power output of a device under specific or nominal operating conditions. (US Dept of Energy)

ratified sales contract

A contract that shows both you and the seller of the house have agreed to your offer. This offer may include sales contingencies, such as obtaining a mortgage of a certain type and rate, getting an acceptable inspection, making repairs, closing by a certain date, etc. (Freddie Mac)

ratio of reduction

The relationship between the maximum size of the stone which will enter a crusher, and the size of its product. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

raw land

A parcel or tract of land with no improvements, for example, infrastructure or vertical construction. When an appraisal of raw land includes entitlements, the appraisal should disclose when such entitlements will expire if improvements are not completed within a specified time period and the potential effect on the value conclusion. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A parcel or tract of land with no improvements, for example, infrastructure or vertical construction. When an appraisal of raw land includes entitlements, the appraisal should disclose when such entitlements will expire if improvements are not completed within a specified time period and the potential effect on the value conclusion. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010)) Any land which has not been developed. (HardwickAssociates)

raw water

Intake water prior to any treatment or use (US EPA- Pesticides)

Rayleigh Frequency Distribution

A mathematical representation of the frequency or ratio that specific wind speeds occur within a specified time interval. (US Dept of Energy)

RBC

See REGUALTORY BARRIERS CLEARINGHOUSE. (US Dept of HUD)

RCRA

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Energy Star.gov)

REAC

See REAL ESTATE ASSESSMENT CENTER. (US Dept of HUD)

reach

1. The length of channel uniform with respect to discharge, depth, area, and slope. 2. The length of a channel for which a single gage affords a satisfactory measure of the stage and discharge. 3. The length of a river between two gaging stations. 4. More generally, any length of a river. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Any specified length of stream, channel, or other water conveyance. A portion of a stream or a river. The area of a canal or lateral between check structures. Sometimes also used to describe a contiguous stretch of river. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reaction, soil

A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a soil. expressed in pH -values. A soil that tests to pH 7.0 is described as precisely neutral in reaction because it is neither acid or alkaline. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

reactive power

The electrical power that oscillates between the magnetic field of an inductor and the electrical field of a capacitor. Reactive power is never converted to non-electrical power. Calculated as the square root of the difference between the square of the kilovolt-amperes and the square of the kilowatts. Expressed as reactive volt-amperes. (US Dept of Energy) The portion of power that is produced by load inductances or capacitances. It is the time average of the instantaneous product of the voltage and current, with current phase shifted 90 degrees. It is expressed as volt-amperes reactive or VARS. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

readily accessible

Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or resort to portable ladders, chairs, etc. In public facilities, accessibility may be limited to certified personnel through locking covers or by placing equipment in locked rooms. (Energycodes.gov)

ready reserve

Generation capacity that can be synchronized and ready to serve load in a short time period, usually 10 minutes or less. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reaffirmation agreement

An agreement by a chapter 7 debtor to continue paying a dischargeable debt (such as an auto loan) after the bankruptcy, usually for the purpose of keeping collateral (i.e. the car) that would otherwise be subject to repossession. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

real economy

The physical side of the economy dealing with goods, services and resources. This side is concerned with using resources to produce the goods and services that make the satisfaction of wants and needs possible. (Federal Reserve Education)

real estate

An identified parcel or tract of land, including improvements, if any (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) A term that is generally synonymous with real property. See also "property." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A piece of land and any improvements or fixtures located on that land. (HardwickAssociates)

real estate agent

An individual or firm that receives a commission for representing the buyer or seller, in a RE purchase transaction. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) An individual who is licensed to negotiate and arrange real estate sales; works for a real estate broker. (US Dept of HUD) A licensed professional who facilitates the buying and selling of real estate. (HardwickAssociates)

Real Estate Assessment Center

(aka REAC) Provides and promotes the effective use of accurate, timely, and reliable information assessing the condition of HUD's portfolio. REAC also provides information to help ensure safe, decent, and affordable housing. It is designed to restore the public trust by identifying fraud, abuse, and waste of HUD resources. (US Dept of HUD)

Real Estate Investment Trust

(aka REIT) A real estate trust which sells shares of ownership and must invest in real estate or mortgages. If it meets certain requirements, it is exempt from corporate income tax. It distributes a minimum of 95 percent of its income to its shareholders. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit

(aka REMIC) A mortgage-backed securities vehicle, authorized by the Tax Reform Act of 1986, that holds residential or commercial mortgages and issues securities representing interests in those mortgages. The REMIC structure (1) qualifies as an asset sale for tax purposes, (2) offers tax and accounting flexibility to portfolio lenders, and (3) creates a broad investor market through multiple classes of securities. The REMIC itself is normally exempt from federal income tax, but investors generally report the interest from the securities as taxable income. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) A security representing an interest in a trust having multiple classes of securities. The securities of each class entitle investors to cash payments structured differently from the payments on the underlying mortgages. (US Dept of HUD)

Real Estate Owned Management System

(aka REOMS) A national database system that provided the RTC with an online inventory control system designed to monitor the acquisition, management, and disposition of real estate owned. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

real estate professional

An individual who provides services in buying and selling homes. The real estate professional is paid a percentage of the home sale price by the seller. Unless you've specifically contracted with a buyer's agent, the real estate professional represents the interest of the seller. Real estate professionals may be able to refer you to local lenders or mortgage brokers, but are generally not involved in the lending process. (Freddie Mac) An individual who provides services in buying and selling homes. The real estate professional is paid a percentage of the home sale price by the seller. Unless you�ve specifically contracted with a buyer�s agent, the real estate professional represents the interest of the seller. Real estate professionals may be able to refer you to local lenders or mortgage brokers, but are generally not involved in the lending process. (Federal Trade Commission)

real estate property tax deduction

A tax deductible expense reducing a taxpayer's taxable income. (US Dept of HUD)

Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act

A federal law that requires lenders to provide home mortgage borrowers with information about transaction-related costs prior to settlement, as well as information during the life of the loan regarding servicing and escrow accounts. RESPA also prohibits kickbacks and unearned fees in the mortgage loan business. (Federal Trade Commission) Federal law that, among other things, requires lenders to provide "good faith" estimates of settlement costs and make other disclosures regarding the mortgage loan. RESPA also limits the amount of funds held in escrow for real estate taxes and insurance. (Help With My Bank) A law protecting consumers from abuses during the residential real estate purchase and loan process by requiring lenders to disclose all settlement costs, practices, and relationships. (US Dept of HUD) A law protecting consumers from abuses during the residential real estate purchase and loan process by requiring lenders to disclose all settlement costs, practices, and relationships (US Dept of HUD) A federal law requiring lenders to give full disclosure of closing costs to borrowers. (HardwickAssociates)

real estate tax

Same or similar to "property tax." See also "property tax." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

real estate-related financial transaction

As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, any transaction involving: The sale, lease, purchase, investment in or exchange of real property, including interests in property, or the financing thereof; The refinancing of real property or interests in real property; or The use of real property or interests in property as security for a loan or investment, including mortgage-backed securities. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, any transaction involving: � The sale, lease, purchase, investment in or exchange of real property, including interests in property, or the financing thereof; � The refinancing of real property or interests in real property; or � The use of real property or interests in property as security for a loan or investment, including mortgage-backed securities. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

real GDP

GDP (gross domestic product) adjusted for inflation. Real GDP provides the value of GDP in constant dollars, which is used as an indicator of the volume of the nation's output. (Federal Reserve Education) GDP(gross domestic product) adjusted for inflation. Real GDP provides the value of GDP in constant dollars, which is used as an indicator of the volume of the nation�s output. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

real interest rates

Interest rates adjusted for the expected erosion of purchasing power resulting from inflation. Technically defined as nominal interest rates minus the expected rate of inflation. (Federal Reserve Education)

real price

The unit price of a good or service estimated from some base year in order to provide a consistent means of comparison. (US Dept of Energy)

real property

The interests, benefits, and rights inherent in the ownership of real estate. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) Land and anything permanently affixed thereto � including buildings, fences, trees, and minerals. (Federal Trade Commission) Land, including all the natural resources and permanent buildings on it. (US Dept of HUD) Land, together with fixtures, improvements and appurtenances. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) Land, improvements and appurtenances, and the interest and benefits thereof. (HardwickAssociates)

Realtor�

A real estate agent or broker who is a member of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS, and its local and state associations. (US Dept of HUD) A federally registered collective membership mark which identifies a real estate professional who is a member of the National Association of Realtors� a n d subscribes to its strict Code of Ethics. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A real estate agent or broker who is a member of the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION of REALTORS�. (HardwickAssociates)

realty

A brief term for real property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

reattachment deposit

Sand deposit located where downstream flow meets the channel bank at the downstream end of a recirculating zone. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rebar

Reinforcing steel bar. Reinforcement. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

RECD

The Rural Economic and Community Development, formerly the Farmer's Home Administration. (Energycodes.gov)

receiver

The component of a central receiver solar thermal system where reflected solar energy is absorbed and converted to thermal energy. (US Dept of Energy)

receivership

The legal procedure for winding down the affairs of an insolvent institution. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

receivership certificate

A document issued by the receiver that represents the total amount of the proved claim that each depositor or unsecured creditor has against a failed bank or thrift in receivership. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

receiving waters

A river, lake, ocean, stream, or other body of water into which wastewater or treated effluent is discharged. (US EPA- Pesticides)

receptacle

An electrical outlet to plug into. (HardwickAssociates)

recessed "can" light

A metal light fi xture (or can) that is inset into the ceiling. These fixtures can be a big source of air leaks when installed in the upper fl oor of a home. (Energy Star.gov)

recessed can

A cylindrical fixture recessed into a ceiling (also called high hat). (Energy Star.gov)

recession

A significant decline in general economic activity extending over a period of time. Usually declared after two consecutive quarters of declining gross domestic product. (Federal Reserve Education) A significant decline in general economic activity extending over a period of time. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

recession curve

A hydrograph showing the decreasing rate of runoff following a period of rain or snowmelt. Since direct runoff and base runoff recede at different rates, separate curves, called direct runoff recession curves or base runoff recession curves, are generally drawn. The term "depletion curve" in the sense of base runoff recession is not recommended. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

recharge

Increases in ground water storage due to precipitation, infiltration from streams, or human activity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

recharge area

The land area through or over which rainwater and other surface water soaks through the earth to replenish an aquifer, lake, stream, river, or marsh. Also called a watershed. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) An area of land where there is a net annual transfer of water from the surface to ground water; where rainwater soaks through the earth to reach an aquifer. (US EPA- Pesticides)

recharge rate

The quantity of water per unit time that replenishes or refills an aquifer. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

recirculated air

Air that is returned from a heated or cooled space, reconditioned and/or cleaned, and returned to the space. (US Dept of Energy)

recirculating system

A domestic or service hot water distribution system that includes a closed circulation circuit designed to maintain usage temperatures in hot water pipes near terminal devices (e.g., lavatory faucets, shower heads) to reduce the time required to obtain hot water when the terminal device valve is opened. The motive force for circulation is either natural (because of water density variations with temperature) or mechanical (recirculation pump). (Energycodes.gov)

recirculation systems

A type of solar heating system that circulate warm water from storage through the collectors and exposed piping whenever freezing conditions occur; obviously a not very efficient system when operating in this mode. (US Dept of Energy)

recirculation zone

Area of flow composed of one or more eddies immediately downstream from a constriction in the channel, such as a debris fan or rock outcrop. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Reclamation Reform Act of 1982

(aka RRA) The Reclamation Reform Act of 1982 limits the amount of owned land that is eligible to receive project (Reclamation) irrigation water and addresses the rate paid for such water delivered to owned and leased land. See acreage limitation. Requires districts that have certain repayment or water service contracts with the United States to develop water conservation plans which include definite goals, appropriate water conservation measures, and a time schedule for meeting the water conservation objectives. See water conservation. For the full text of the law, see Reclamation Reform Act of 1982. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reclamation zone

Land set aside for operation and maintenance of the dams. Can include the dam site, areas below the dam site for maintenance and the reservoir boundaries. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

recognition lag

The time it takes for policymakers to recognize the state of the economy. See also time lag, implementation lag, and impact lag. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

reconciliation

The process of analyzing two related records and, if differences exist between them, finding the cause and bringing the two records into agreement. Example: Comparing an up-to-date check book with a monthly statement from the financial institution holding the account. (Help With My Bank)

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

(aka RFC) An entity established by Congress in 1932 to extend credit on an emergency basis �to stop deflation in agriculture and industry� to banks, agricultural credit institutions, railroads, insurance companies, and public works. In its heyday, the RFC was the leading federal domestic financing agency and its financing activities included war projects during World War II. The RFC went out of existence on June 30, 1954. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

recooling

Lowering the temperature of air that has been previously heated by a mechanical heating system. (Energycodes.gov)

record drawings

Drawings that record the conditions of the project as constructed. These include any refinements of the construction or bid documents. (Energycodes.gov)

record type

A subheading that identifies the record as a pool level or loan level record. (Fannie Mae)

recorder

The public official who keeps records of transactions that affect real property in the area. Sometimes known as a �Registrar of Deeds� or �County Clerk.� (Federal Trade Commission) The public official who keeps records of transactions concerning real property. Sometimes known as a "Registrar of Deeds" or "County Clerk." (US Dept of HUD) A local government employee whose role it is to keep records of all real estate transactions within the jurisdiction. (HardwickAssociates)

recording

The filing of a lien or other legal documents in the appropriate public record. (Federal Trade Commission) The recording in a registrar's office of an executed legal document. These include deeds, mortgages, satisfaction of a mortgage, or an extension of a mortgage making it a part of the public record. (US Dept of HUD) The filing of a real estate transaction with the appropriate government agent (normally the RECORDER). A real estate transaction is considered final when it is recorded. (HardwickAssociates)

recording and transfer charges

These charges include fees paid to the local government for filing official records of a real-estate transaction. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

recording fees

Charges for recording a deed with the appropriate government agency. (US Dept of HUD)

recourse

The lender�s right to seek satisfaction from the borrower�s personal financial resources for any monetary default. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

Recourse loan program

A provision allowing farmers or processors participating in Government commodity programs to pledge a quantity of a commodity as collateral and obtain a loan from the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), which the borrower must repay with interest within a specified period. This provision is unlike nonrecourse loans, which allow producers to settle their loans by delivering the collateral to the CCC. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

recovery rate

Ratio of net-collections-to-book-value-reductions. This performance measurement does not consider the time value of money. (Also see net recovery rate.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

recreation

Recreational opportunities at more than 1,900 federal recreation sites managed by the Bureau of Reclamation and other federal agencies can be found at the interagency Recreation.Gov website (www.recreation.gov). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

recreational benefit

Value of recreational activity to the recreationist, usually measured in dollars above the cost of participating in the recreational activity (travel, entrance fees, etc). Used for valuing recreational resources produced through Federal projects, synonymous with the consumer surplus associated with the recreational activity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Recreational Trails Program

(aka RTP) Provides funds to the States to develop and maintain recreational trails and trail-related facilities for motorized and nonmotorized recreational trail uses. 23 U.S.C. 206. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

recruitment

Survival of young plants and animals from birth to a life stage less vulnerable to environmental change. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rectangular weir

A contracted or suppressed weir with a horizontal crest, rectangular in shape, having vertical sides. See weir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rectifier

An electrical device for converting alternating current to direct current. The chamber in a cooling device where water is separated from the working fluid (for example ammonia). (US Dept of Energy)

recuperator

A heat exchanger in which heat is recovered from the products of combustion. (US Dept of Energy)

recurrence interval

The average period in years between storm events equal to or larger than a given amount. The reciprocal of the probability of that storm event being equaled or exceeded in any year. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

recurrence interval (return period)

The average interval of time within which the given flood will be equaled or exceeded once. (Am. Soc. of Civil Engineers, 1953, p. 1221.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

recurrent costs

Costs that are repetitive and occur when an organization produces similar goods or services on a continuing basis. (US Dept of Energy)

recycling

Reusing materials and objects in original or changed forms rather than discarding them as wastes. (US EPA- Pesticides) The process of converting materials that are no longer useful as designed or intended into a new product. (US Dept of Energy)

redd

The nest that a spawning female salmon digs in gravel to deposit her eggs. Depression in riverbed or lakebed dug by fish to deposit eggs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

redeem

Literally "to buy back." The act of buying back lands after a mortgage foreclosure, tax foreclosure, or other execution sale. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

redlining

A practice in which certain areas of a community are eliminated from eligibility for mortgages or other loans, either intentionally or unintentionally, allegedly because the area is considered a poor investment risk. (Federal Reserve Education) The alleged practice of certain lending institutions of not making mortgage, home improvement, and small business loans in certain neighborhoods-usually areas that are deteriorating or considered by the lender to be poor investments. (Help With My Bank) The refusal to offer credit or insurance in certain neighborhoods. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

reduced-risk pesticides

These are pesticides which : (1) reduce pesticide risks to human health; (2) reduce pesticide risks to non�target organisms; (3) reduce the potential for contamination of valued, environmental resources, or (4) broaden adoption of IPM or makes it more effective. More detailed information can be found on the headquarters´ reduced-risk pesticides program home page. (US EPA- Pesticides)

re-entrainment/re-entry

Situation that occurs when the air being exhausted from a building is immediately brought back into the system through the air intake and other openings in the building envelope. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

REEO

Research Extension and Education Office. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

reference ballast

A ballast specially constructed to have certain prescribed characteristics. Used in measuring the performance of electric-discharge lamps under standard conditions in order to establish their rated performance. (Energy Star.gov)

reference dose

(aka RfD) The particular concentration of a chemical that is known to cause health problems. A standard that also may be referred to as the acceptable daily intake. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Reference Files System

(aka REFS) An OPP database that provides data on pesticide active ingredients, registrants, and products (including product types, formulations, transfers, etc.) (US EPA- Pesticides)

reference soil condition

The condition of the soil to which functional capacity is compared. . Soil quality is usually assessed by comparing a soil to a reference condition. The reference condition may be data from a comparable benchmark soil, baseline measurements taken previously on the same soil, or measurements from a similar soil under undisturbed vegetation, or under similar management. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

refill

Material which had previously been excavated as a result of construction activities and again placed to the lines as shown on the drawings. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

refinance

Getting a new mortgage with all or some portion of the proceeds used to pay off the original mortgage. (Freddie Mac) Getting a new mortgage with all or some portion of the proceeds used to pay off the prior mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission) The process of replacing an existing mortgage with a new one by paying off the existing debt with a new loan under different terms. (Making Home Affordable) The payoff of an existing mortgage loan with a new mortgage loan using the same property as security. Homeowners may refinance to get cash drawn from existing home equity or to obtain a new mortgage loan with a better interest rate and/or payment terms. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

refinance transaction

A new loan to pay off an existing loan. Typically to gain a lower interest rate or convert equity into cash. (HardwickAssociates)

refinancing

A way of obtaining a better interest rate, lower monthly payments, or borrow cash on the equity in a property that has built up on a loan. A second loan is taken out to pay off the first, higher-rate loan. (Help With My Bank) The substitution of an old loan(s) with a new loan(s) either with the same lender or with a different lender. Also, renewing an existing or a maturing loan with the same lender. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A transaction in which an existing obligation that was subject to a secured lien on residential real property is satisfied and replaced by a new obligation undertaken by the same borrower and with the same or a new lender. The following shall not be treated as a refinancing, even when the existing obligation is satisfied and replaced by a new obligation with the same lender (this definition of �refinancing� as to transactions with the same lender is similar to Regulation Z, 12 CFR 226.20(a)): (1) A renewal of a single payment obligation with no change in the original terms; (2) A reduction in the annual percentage rate as computed under the Truth in Lending Act with a corresponding change in the payment schedule; (3) An agreement involving a court proceeding; (4) A workout agreement, in which a change in the payment schedule or change in collateral requirements is agreed to as a result of the consumer�s default or delinquency, unless the rate is increased or the new amount financed exceeds the unpaid balance plus earned finance charges and premiums for continuation of allowable insurance; and (5) The renewal of optional insurance purchased by the consumer that is added to an existing transaction, if disclosures relating to the initial purchase were provided. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) Paying off one loan by obtaining another; refinancing is generally done to secure better loan terms (like a lower interest rate). (US Dept of HUD)

refinery gas

��Still gas consumed as refinery fuel. (US Energy Information Administration)

refinery olefins

��Subset of olefinic hydrocarbons (olefins) produced at crude oil refineries, including ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene. (US Energy Information Administration)

reflectance

The ratio of the light reflected by a surface to the light incident upon it. (Energycodes.gov) The amount (percent) of light that is reflected by a surface relative to the amount that strikes it. (US Dept of Energy)

reflective coatings

Materials with various qualities that are applied to glass windows before installation. These coatings reduce radiant heat transfer through the window and also reflects outside heat and a portion of the incoming solar energy, thus reducing heat gain. The most common type has a sputtered coating on the inside of a window unit. The other type is a durable "hard-coat" glass with a coating, baked into the glass surface. (US Dept of Energy)

reflective glass

A window glass that has been coated with a reflective film and is useful in controlling solar heat gain during the summer. (US Dept of Energy)

reflective insulation (see also radiant barrier)

An aluminum foil fabricated insulator with backings applied to provide a series of closed air spaces with highly reflective surfaces. (US Dept of Energy)

reflective window films

A material applied to window panes that controls heat gain and loss, reduces glare, minimizes fabric fading, and provides privacy. These films are retrofitted on existing windows. (US Dept of Energy)

reflector

A device used to direct light from a source through reflection, either specular or diffuse. (Energy Star.gov)

reflector lamp

An incandescent filament or electric-discharge lamp that uses a reflective surface to direct the light (such as reflector-, ellipsoidal-reflector-, or parabolic-type lamps). The light-transmitting region may be open, clear, frosted, patterned, or phosphor-coated. (Energy Star.gov) A class of incandescent lamps that have an internal reflector to direct the light. Reflector lamps are typically characterized by reflector shapes such as R (reflector), ER (elipsodial reflector), PAR (parabolic aluminized reflector), MR (multi-faceted reflector), and others. (Energycodes.gov) A type of incandescent lamp with an interior coating of aluminum that reflects light to the front of the bulb. They are designed to spread light over specific areas. (US Dept of Energy)

reform

A movement that attempts to institute improved social and political conditions without revolutionary change. (Federal Reserve Education)

reformulated gasoline

1) Gasoline whose composition has been changed to meet performance specifications regarding ozone-forming tendencies and release of toxic substances into the air from both evaporation and tailpipe emissions. Reformulated gasoline includes oxygenates and, compared with gasoline sold in 1990, has a lower content of olefins, aromatics, volatile components, and heavy hydrocarbons. 2) Gasoline specifically developed to reduce undesirable combustion products. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

refraction

The change in direction of a ray of light when it passes through one media to another with differing optical densities. (US Dept of Energy)

refrigerant

The compound (working fluid) used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigerators to transfer heat into or out of an interior space. This fluid boils at a very low temperature enabling it to evaporate and absorb heat. (US Dept of Energy)

refrigeration

The process of the absorption of heat from one location and its transfer to another for rejection or recuperation. (US Dept of Energy)

refrigeration capacity

A measure of the effective cooling capacity of a refrigerator, expressed in Btu per hour or in tons, where one (1) ton of capacity is equal to the heat required to melt 2,000 pounds of ice in 24 hours or 12,000 Btu per hour. (US Dept of Energy)

refrigeration cycle

The complete cycle of stages (evaporation and condensation) of refrigeration or of the refrigerant. (US Dept of Energy)

refuge compatibility requirements

Requirements under the Refuge Administration Act that all uses of a national wildlife refuge must be compatible with the purpose for which the refuge was established. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

refund

An amount paid back because of an overpayment or because of the return of an item previously sold. (Help With My Bank)

Refuse-Derived Fuel

(aka RDF) A solid fuel produced by shredding municipal solid waste (MSW). Noncombustible materials such as glass and metals are generally removed prior to making RDF. The residual material is sold as-is or compressed into pellets, bricks, or logs. RDF processing facilities are typically located near a source of MSW, while the RDF combustion facility can be located elsewhere. Existing RDF facilities process between 100 and 3,000 tons per day. (US Dept of Energy)

regenerative cooling

A type of cooling system that uses a charging and discharging cycle with a thermal or latent heat storage subsystem. (US Dept of Energy)

regenerative heating

The process of using heat that is rejected in one part of a cycle for another function or in another part of the cycle. (US Dept of Energy)

regime

"Regime theory" is a theory of the forming of channels in material carried by the streams. As used in this sense, the word "regime" applies only to streams that make at least part of their boundaries from their transported load and part of their transported load from their boundaries, carrying out the process at different places and times in any one stream in a balanced or alternating manner that prevents unlimited growth or removal of boundaries. A stream, river, or canal of this type is called a "regime stream, river, or canal." A regime channel is said to be "in regime" when it has achieved average equilibrium; that is, the average values of the quantities that constitute regime do not show a definite trend over a considerable period--generally of the order of a decade. In unspecialized use "regime" and "regimen" are synonyms. (After Blench, 1957, p. 2.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

regimen of a stream

The system or order characteristic of a stream; in other words, its habits with respect to velocity and volume, form of and changes in channel, capacity to transport sediment, and amount of material supplied for transportation. The term is also applied to a stream which has reached an equilibrium between corrosion and deposition or, in other words, to a graded stream. (Bryan, 1922. p. 89) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

Regional Asset Liquidation Agreement

(aka RALA) Asset management contract between the FDIC and a private-sector contractor for the management and disposition of distressed assets, primarily nonperforming loans, designed for asset pools under $500 million in aggregate book value. The FDIC issued four RALA contracts during 1992 and 1993. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Regional Check Processing Center

(aka RCPC) A Federal Reserve check processing operation that clears checks drawn on depository institutions located within a specified area. RCPCs expedite collection and settlement of checks within the area on an overnight basis. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

regional equity

Provision enacted in the 2002 Farm Act that requires that each State be allocated an amount of conservation funding through specific conservation programs, that collectively exceeds a predetermined minimum amount. The programs that are subject to this provision include the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, the Farmland Protection Program, the Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program, and the Grassland Reserve Program. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Regional Hazardous Waste Management Coordinator

(aka HWMC) Individual designated by the Regional Director to assess and coordinate records and maintain proper management of hazardous waste activities in each region. The HWMC acts as primary contact with the 37: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and designated state Hazardous Waste Management Offices in matters of hazardous waste activities within the region. See Project Hazardous Waste Coordinator (PHWC). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Regional office

Five Reclamation offices in the 17 Western States that supervise area, field, and project offices in their respective geographic locations. See Great Plains, Lower Colorado, Mid Pacific, Pacific Northwest, and Upper Colorado. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Regional Planning Organization

(aka RPO) An organization that performs planning for multi-jurisdictional areas. MPOs, regional councils, economic development associations, rural transportation associations are examples of RPOs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

regional railroad

Railroad defined as line haul railroad operating at least 350 miles of track and/or earns revenue between $40 million and $266.7 million. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Regional Response Team

(aka RRT) Regional planning and coordination of preparedness and response actions are accomplished through the RRT. RRT membership is the same as the National Response Team (NRT) but also includes state representation through the SERC. RRT may also include incident - specific teams established following notification of an incident through membership of the RRT as they relate to the technical nature and geographic location of the incident. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Regional Transmission Group

(aka RTG) A voluntary organization of transmission owners, transmission users, and other entities interested in coordinating transmission planning, expansion, operation, and use within a region. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is encouraging the formation of these voluntary associations to resolve technical transmission and pricing issues. Procedures developed by the groups would be subject to FERC approval. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

regionally significant project

A project that is on a facility which serves regional transportation needs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

register

Where air from a furnace or air conditioning system enters the room. (HardwickAssociates)

registered land

See "Torrens Titl e" (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

registrant

A pesticide manufacturer that has registered a pesticide product.� (US EPA- Pesticides)

registration

Formal listing with EPA of a new pesticide before sale or distribution. EPA is responsible for pre-market licensing of pesticides on the basis of data demonstrating no unreasonable adverse health or environmental effects when applied according to approved label directions. (US EPA- Pesticides)

registration jacket

Also Registration File. A file of documents supporting registration for each pesticide product. These files contain product labels, OPP and registrant correspondence, OPP science reviews and other information.�� (US EPA- Pesticides)

regolith

The unconsolidated mantle of weathered rock and soil material on the earth's surface; the loose earth material above the solid rock. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

regular program

The final phase of a community's participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. In this phase, a Flood Insurance Rate Map is in effect and full limits of coverage are available under the Act. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

regular program community

A community wherein a Flood Insurance Rate Map is in effect and full limits of coverage are available under the Flood Disaster Protection Act (FDPA or Act). (Help With My Bank) A community wherein a FIRM is in effect and full limits of coverage are available under the Act. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

regulated institution

Refer to the definition of Federally Regulated Institution. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) Refer to the definition of Federally Regulated Institution. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

regulating dam (reregulating dam)

A dam impounding a reservoir from which water is released to regulate the flow downstream. See afterbay dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

regulating gate (operating gate, regulating valve)

A gate used to regulate the rate of flow through an outlet works or spillway. A gate or valve that operates under full pressure flow conditions to regulate the rate of discharge. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

regulation

A principle rule, or law designed to control or govern. (Federal Reserve Education) The artificial manipulation of the flow of a stream. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A rule or order issued by a federal or state executive-branch department or administrative agency, generally under authority granted by statute, that enforces or amplifies laws enacted by the legislature and has the force of law. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

Regulation Z

The regulations issued by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (12 CFR part 226) to implement the Federal Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and includes the Commentary on Regulation Z. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

regulatory agreement

The agreement that establishes the relationship between the Agency, the lender, and the borrower; and sets forth the borrower�s responsibilities with respect to all aspects of the management and operation of the project. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

Regulatory Barriers Clearinghouse

(aka RBC) Collects, processes, assembles, and disseminates information on the barriers faced in the creation and maintenance of affordable housing. The Clearinghouse is hosted by HUD USER. (US Dept of HUD)

regulatory capital

Capital levels that must be maintained pursuant to regulatory requirements. (National Credit Union Administration)

rehabilitation

The labor, materials, tools, and other costs of improving buildings, other than minor or routine repairs. The term includes where the use of a building is changed to an emergency shelter and the cost of this change and any rehabilitation costs does not exceed 75 percent of the value of the building before the change in use. (US Dept of HUD) The process of renovating a facility or system whose performance is failing to meet the original criteria and needs of the project. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rehabilitation mortgage

A mortgage loan made to cover the costs of repairing, improving, and sometimes acquiring an existing property. (Federal Trade Commission) A mortgage that covers the costs of rehabilitating (repairing or Improving) a property; some rehabilitation mortgages - like the FHA's 203(k) - allow a borrower to roll the costs of rehabilitation and home purchase into one mortgage loan. (US Dept of HUD)

reheating

Raising the temperature of air that has been previously cooled either by mechanical refrigeration or an economizer system. (Energycodes.gov)

reimbursable

Costs of constructing, operating, or maintaining a Reclamation project that are repaid to the Federal Government by some other individual, entity, or organization. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reinforced concrete

Concrete strengthened with wire or metal bars. (Publications- USA.gov)

reinstatement

Your lender may agree to let you pay the total amount you are behind, in a lump sum payment and by a specific date. This is often combined with forbearance when you can show that funds from a bonus, tax refund, or other source will become available at a specific time in the future. Be aware that there may be late fees and other costs associated with a reinstatement plan. (Freddie Mac)

reinstatement eligibility

A term used by hiring offices to refer to former Federal employees who are interested in reentering the Federal competitive service workforce without competing with the public in a civil service examination or public job announcement. To be "reinstatement eligible," former employees must have held a career or career-conditional appointment previously. Persons who are reinstatement eligible can apply for Federal jobs open only to status candidates. (Ginnie Mae)

reinstatement period

A phase of the foreclosure process where the homeowner has an opportunity to stop the foreclosure by paying money that is owed to the lender. (US Dept of HUD)

reinsurance

To insure again by transferring to another insurance company all or part of an assumed liability, thus spreading the loss risk any one company has to carry. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

reinsurance year

Year used to administer risk sharing and other terms of the Standard Reinsurance Agreement. The reinsurance year is from July 1 to June 30; the number of the year is the year containing June. For example, reinsurance year 2012 is July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

REIT

Real Estate Investment Trust. A product of federal tax legislation formed as a business trust, under a special state REIT statute or as a corporation for the purpose of investing in real estate or mortgages on real estate. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

relamping

The replacement of a non-functional or ineffective lamp with a new, more efficient lamp. (US Dept of Energy)

relative density

Used in construction control for cohesionless soils where the in-place density is compared to the minimum and maximum density of the soil from laboratory tests. The ratio of the difference between the void ratio of a cohesionless soil in the loosest state and any given void ratio to the difference between its void ratios in the loosest and in the densest states. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relative humidity

A measure of the percent of moisture actually in the air compared with what would be in it if it were fully saturated at that temperature. When the air is fully saturated, its relative humidity is 100 percent. (US Dept of Energy) The ratio of the amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount of moisture the air could hold under the same conditions; usually expressed as a percentage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relative need formula

An allocation formula used by BIADOT to distribute construction funds to the 12 BIA area offices. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

relative potency factor

(aka RPF) The ratio of the toxic potency of a given chemical to that of an index chemical in the CAG. Relative potency factors are used to convert exposures of all chemicals in the CAG into their exposure equivalents of the index chemical. (US EPA- Pesticides)

release

Any spilling, leaking, pumping, pouring, emitting, emptying, discharging, injecting, escaping, leaching, dumping, or disposing into the environment of a hazardous or toxic chemical, or extremely hazardous substance. � (US EPA- Pesticides) The amount of water released after use. The difference between delivery and release is usually the same as consumptive use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

release of lien

To free a piece of real estate from a mortgage. (Help With My Bank)

reliability

Refers to the degree of certainty and predictability in travel times on the transportation system. Reliable transportation systems offer some assurance of attaining a given desti�nation within a reasonable range of an expected time. An unreliable transportation system is subject to unexpected delays, increasing costs for system users (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) This is the concept of how long a device or process can operate properly without needing maintenance or replacement. (US Dept of Energy) Probability that a device will function without failure over a specified time period or amount of usage. The ability to deliver uninterrupted electricity to customers on demand, and to withstand sudden disturbances such as short circuits or loss of major system components. This encompasses both the reliability of the generation system and of the transmission and distribution system. Reliability maybe evaluated by the frequency, duration, and magnitude of any adverse effects on consumer service. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relict

A species, population, etc., which is a survivor of a nearly extinct group. Any species surviving in a small local area and widely separated from closely related species. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relief

Term designating the path of least resistance through which energy from explosions can be released. This path is usually taken to a free face or surface where rock can displace and energy can be released. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relief valve

A valve which will allow air or fluid to escape if its pressure becomes higher than the valve setting. A safety device that automatically provides protection against excessive temperatures, excessive pressures, or both. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relief well

See drainage well. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

relocation service

Any company or agency that assists corporate employees in relocating from one place to another. Services may include hiring and coordinating real estate agents, moving companies, utilizes and the like. (HardwickAssociates)

rels

Recommended Exposure Limits (recommendations made by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

remaining balance

The amount of principal that has not yet been repaid. (US Dept of HUD) The amount of principal, interest and other costs that has not yet been repaid. (HardwickAssociates)

remaining months to maturity

The number of calendar months remaining until the borrower is expected to pay the mortgage loan in full. (Also known as Remaining Maturity.) (Fannie Mae)

remaining term

The original number of payments due on the loan minus the number of payments that have been made. (Federal Trade Commission) The original amortization term minus the number of payments that have been applied. (US Dept of HUD) The amount of time remaining on the original amortization schedule. (HardwickAssociates)

remedial action

The actual construction or clean-up phase of a Superfund site cleanup. (US EPA- Pesticides)

remediate

Fix. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

REMIC

Real Estate Mortgage Investment Conduit. A product of 1986 federal tax legislation in which a business entity such as a corporation, partnership, or trust in which substantially all of the assets consist of qualified mortgages and permitted investments, elects to be treated as a REMIC. Qualification avoids treatment as a corporation for tax purposes. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

remodel

An activity designed to improve the value or desirability of a property through rebuilding, refurbishing, redecorating or adding on to it. (HardwickAssociates)

remote areas

Sparsely populated areas such as mountains, swamps, and large bodies of water. (FAA8) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

remote meter reading system

(aka automatic meter reading system) A system that records the consumption of electricity, gas, water, etc, and sends the data to a central data accumulation device. (US Dept of Energy)

remote operation

Operation of mechanical features from an on-site location other than at the feature. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

remote sensing

The science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Method for determining characteristics of an object, organism or community from afar. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

renegotiable rate

A type of variable rate involving a renewable short-term "balloon" note. The interest rate on the loan is generally fixed during the term of the note, but when the balloon comes due, the lender may refinance it at a higher rate. In order for the loan to be fully amortized, periodic refinancing may be necessary. (Federal Reserve Education) A type of variable loan rate involving a renewable short-term �balloon� note. The interest rate on the loan is generally fixed during the term of the note, but when the balloon comes due, the lender may refinance it at a higher rate. In order for the loan to be fully amortized, periodic refinancing may be necessary. Also see balloon payment. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

renewable energy

Energy derived from resources that are regenerative or for all practical purposes can not be depleted. Types of renewable energy resources include moving water (hydro, tidal and wave power), thermal gradients in ocean water, biomass, geothermal energy, solar energy, and wind energy. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is also considered to be a renewable energy resource. (US Dept of Energy)

renewable resources

Renewable energy resources are naturally replenishable, but flow limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Some (such as geothermal and biomass) may be stock limited in that stocks are depleted by use, but on a time scale of decades, or perhaps centuries, they can probably be replenished. Renewable energy resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar and wind. In the future they could also include the use of ocean thermal, wave, and tidal action technologies. Utility renewable resource applications include bulk electricity generation, on site electricity generation, distributed electricity generation, non grid connected generation, and demand reduction (energy efficiency) technologies. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

renewal

A form of extending an unpaid loan in which the borrower's remaining unpaid loan balance is carried over (renewed) into a new loan at the beginning of the next financing period. (Help With My Bank)

renovation

Rehabilitation that involves costs of 75 percent or less of the value of the building before rehabilitation. (US Dept of HUD)

repayment plan

This is an agreement that gives you a fixed amount of time to repay the amount you are behind by combining a portion of what is past due with your regular monthly payment. At the end of the repayment period you have gradually paid back the amount of your mortgage that was delinquent. (Freddie Mac) An arrangement by which a borrower agrees to make additional payments to pay down past due amounts while still making regularly scheduled payments. (Federal Trade Commission) A process where a homeowner promises to pay down past due amounts on a mortgage while continuing to make regular monthly payments on a property (Making Home Affordable) An agreement between a lender and a delinquent borrower where the borrower agrees to make additional payments to pay down past due amounts while making regularly scheduled payments. (US Dept of HUD) A plan to repay delinquent payments, agreed upon between a lender and borrower, in an effort to avoid foreclosure. (HardwickAssociates)

repellant

Any chemical which can be used to drive away insects, bears, dogs, or other pests. (US EPA- Pesticides)

repetitive loss structure

An NFIP-insured structure that has had at least two paid flood losses of more than $1,000 each in any 10-year period since 1978. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

replacement cost value

(aka RCV) The cost to replace damaged personal property without a deduction for depreciation. (Freddie Mac) The cost to replace property with the same kind of material and construction without deduction for depreciation. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

replacement reserve fund

An account, or fund, setup for the replacement of short life items, such as carpeting, in the common areas of a cooperative property. (HardwickAssociates)

report

Any communication, written or oral, of an appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting service that is transmitted to the client upon completion of an assignment (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

report of condition and income

Financial report that all banks, bank holding companies, savings and loan associations, Edge Act and agreement corporations, and certain other types of organizations must file with a federal regulatory agency. Informally termed a call report. (Federal Reserve Education)

reportable discharge of oil (40 CFR 110.3)

Harmful quantities of oil discharged or released to navigable waters of the United States are any amount that violates State water quality standards and/or causes a sheen or film (as little as 10 parts per million of oil can cause a sheen), upon or discoloration of the surface of the water or adjoining shorelines or cause a sludge or emulsion to be deposited beneath the surface of the water or upon adjoining shorelines. An exception is a sheen caused by outboard motors. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reportable quantities

Quantities of hazardous substances which require notification to the National Response Center and the appropriate state agency. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

representations and warranties

Legally binding statements, made by the parties to a contract, regarding, among other things, asset quality requirements. Representations and warranties, which may extend for only a few months or for the life of the asset or agreement, may protect the purchasers of loans from potential problems associated with missing loan documentation, title defects, or a change in payment status. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

repressuring

��The injection of gas into oil or gas formations to effect greater ultimate recovery. (US Energy Information Administration)

repudiate

A receiver�s (or conservator�s) right to disaffirm outstanding contractual obligations previously entered into by a failed insured depository institution. The receiver may take such action only if (1) the contracts are considered burdensome and (2) repudiation will promote the orderly administration of the receivership estate. The FDI Act provides that certain contracts cannot be repudiated. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

repudiated contract

A contract of a failed institution that the receiver has repudiated. When contracts are repudiated, damages are limited to actual damages determined as of the date of the appointment of the receiver. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

repurchase agreements

An agreement by which, for example, the Federal Reserve purchases a security for immediate delivery and receives interest at a specific rate from a government securities dealer, with an agreement to sell the security back at the same price by a specific date (usually within 15 days). This arrangement allows the Federal Reserve to inject reserves into the banking system on a temporary basis to meet a temporary need and to withdraw these reserves as soon as that need has passed. (Federal Reserve Education)

request identification number

(aka RIN) A number assigned by EPA to identify your Freedom of Information Act request (e.g., 1234-99). Refer to the RIN when contacting EPA concerning your request.� (US EPA- Pesticides)

required clearing balance

Amount kept by a depository institution in an account at a Federal Reserve Bank, in addition to its required reserve balance, to ensure that it can meet its daily transaction obligations without overdrawing its required reserve account and thereby incurring a penalty. Required clearing balances earn credits that can be used to pay for services provided by the Federal Reserve. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

required reserve balance

Portion of its required reserves that a depository institution must hold in an account at a Federal Reserve Bank. (Federal Reserve Education)

required reserves

Funds that a depository institution is required to maintain as vault cash or on deposit with a Federal Reserve Bank; required amount varies according to required reserve ratios set by the Board of Governors and the volume of reservable liabilities held by the institutions. (Federal Reserve Education)

required use

A situation in which a person must use a particular provider of a settlement service in order to have access to some distinct service or property, and the person will pay for the settlement service of the particular provider or will pay a charge attributable, in whole or in part, to the settlement service. However, the offering of a package (or combination of settlement services) or the offering of discounts or rebates to consumers for the purchase of multiple settlement services does not constitute a required use. Any package or discount must be optional to the purchaser. The discount must be a true discount below the prices that are otherwise generally available, and must not be made up by higher costs elsewhere in the settlement process. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

re-regulating reservoirs

A reservoir for reducing diurnal fluctuations resulting from the operation of an upstream reservoir for power production. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

reregulation dam

See afterbay dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rescission

The cancellation or annulment of a transaction or contract by operation of law or by mutual consent. Borrowers have a right to cancel certain mortgage refinance and home equity transactions within three business days after closing, or for up to three years in certain instances. (Federal Trade Commission)

research

Investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery of new theories or laws and the discovery and interpretation of facts or revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts. (49CFR171) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Research and Special Programs Administration

(aka RSPA) The Administration was established formally on September 23, 1977. It is responsible for hazardous materials transportation and pipeline safety, transportation emergency preparedness, safety training, multimodal transportation research and development activities, and collection and dissemination of air carrier economic data. It includes the Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; the Office of Pipeline Safety; the Office of Research Technology, and Analysis; the Office of University Research and Education; the Office of Automated Tariffs; the Office of Research Policy and Technology Transfer; the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center; and the Transportation Safety Institute. (OFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

reserve generating capacity

Extra generating capacity available to meet unanticipated capacity demand for power in the event of generation loss due to scheduled or unscheduled outages of regularly used generating capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reserve price

The minimum price for which one asset or a portfolio of assets can be sold. A reserve price is often expressed as a percentage of book value for which an asset or a pool of assets can be sold. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

reserve requirements

Requirements set by the Federal Reserve Board of Governors for the amounts that certain financial institutions must set aside in the form of reserves. Reserve requirements act as a control on the expansion of money and credit and may be raised or lowered within limits specified by law (lowering reserve requirements allows more bank lending and money growth; raising requirements, less lending and money growth). (Federal Reserve Education)

reserved works

Facilities operated and maintained by Reclamation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reserves

A depository institution's vault cash (up to the level of its required reserves) plus balances in its reserve account (not including funds applied to its required clearing balance). (Federal Reserve Education) A depository institution�s vault cash (up to the level of its required reserves) plus balances in its reserve account (not including funds applied to its required clearing balance). (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

reservoir

A pond, lake, or basin, either natural or artificial, for the storage, regulation, and control of water. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A pond, lake, basin, or other space, created in whole or in part by the building of engineering structures, that is used for the storage, regulation, and control of water. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) A body of water impounded by a dam and in which water can be stored. Artificially impounded body of water. Any natural or artificial holding area used to store, regulate, or control water. Body of water, such as a natural or constructed lake, in which water is collected and stored for use. Dam design and reservoir operation utilize reservoir capacity and water surface elevation data. To ensure uniformity in the establishment, use, and publication of these data, the following standard definitions of water surface elevations shall be used. See maximum controllable water surface, maximum water surface, normal water surface, top of active conservation capacity, top of dead capacity, top of exclusive flood control capacity, top of inactive capacity, and top of joint use capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reservoir capacity

The capacity of the reservoir, usually in acre-feet. Dam design and reservoir operation utilize reservoir capacity and water surface elevation data. To ensure uniformity in the establishment, use, and publication of these data, the following standard definitions of reservoir capacities shall be used. Reservoir capacity as used here is exclusive of bank storage capacity. See active capacity, active conservation capacity, dead capacity, exclusive flood control capacity, flood control capacity, inactive capacity, joint use capacity, live capacity, and total capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reservoir capacity allocations sheet

(aka RCA sheet) A summary of acre-feet allocations of water, to such purposes as surcharge, exclusive flood control capacity, joint use capacity, active conservation capacity, inactive capacity, and dead capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reservoir inflow

The amount of water entering a reservoir expressed in acre-feet per day or cubic feet per second. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reservoir regulation (or operating) procedure

Operating procedures that govern reservoir storage and releases. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reservoir surface area

The area covered by a reservoir when filled to a specified level. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

reset

Automatic adjustment of the controller set point to a higher or lower value. (Energycodes.gov)

residential

Spaces in buildings used primarily for living and sleeping. Residential spaces include, but are not limited to, dwelling units, hotel/motel guest rooms, dormitories, nursing homes, patient rooms in hospitals, lodging houses, fraternity/sorority houses, hotels, prisons, and fire stations. (Energycodes.gov)

residential building, Group R-2

Residential occupancies containing more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature such as apartment houses, boarding houses (not transient), convents, monasteries, rectories, fraternities and sororities, dormitories and rooming houses. For the purpose of this code, reference to Group R-2 occupancies shall refer to buildings that are three stories or less in height above grade. (Energycodes.gov)

residential building, Group R-4

Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancies as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than five, but not more than 16 occupants, excluding staff. For the purpose of this code, reference to Group R-4 occupancies shall refer to buildings that are three stories or less in height above grade. (Energycodes.gov)

residential condominium building

A building, owned and administered as a condominium, containing one or more family units and in which at least 75 percent of the floor area is residential. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Residential Condominium Building Association Policy

(aka RCBAP) See "Standard Flood Insurance Policy-Residential Condominium Building Association Policy (RCBAP)." (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

residential mortgage transaction

A transaction in which a mortgage, deed of trust, purchase money security interest arising under an installment sales contract, or equivalent consensual security interest is created or retained in the consumer's principal dwelling to finance the acquisition or initial construction of that dwelling. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

residential property

A piece of property whose highest and best use is the maintenance of a residence. (HardwickAssociates)

residual

Cash flows resulting from the difference between the income stream generated by a pool of mortgages and the cash flow necessary to fund a series of collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) or REMIC bonds. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

residual interest

Interest that continues to accrue on your credit card balance from the statement cycle date until the bank receives your payment. For example, if your statement cycle date was January 10 and the bank received your payment on January 20, there were ten days for which interest accrued. This amount will be posted on your next statement. (Help With My Bank) Also know as Equity Interest. The residual interest in each SPE initially will be owned by the asset management estate or estates that transferred legacy assets to such SPE. This residual interest, so long as it continue to be owned by an asset management estate, will entitle the estate to any remaining cash flow from the legacy assets transferred to such SPE after satisfaction of the SPE's payment obligations to investors in the guaranteed securities and other senior liabilities. Ownership of the residual interest also will entitle the holder thereof to collapse the securitization transaction and acquire ownership of any remaining legacy assets held by the SPE if and when all guaranteed securities have been fully repaid. Alternatively, an asset management estate holding a residual interest in an SPE may decide to sell such interest to one or more third party investors for additional consideration, but this would terminate any further interest if may otherwise have been entitled to in respect of the legacy assets held by such SPE. (National Credit Union Administration)

residual value

The economic value or money received by the R-Class bondholder, the FDIC, when (1) the bonds have been paid off and cash flows from the mortgage collateral are still to be generated, or (2) the proceeds from the sale of the mortgage collateral as whole loans are greater than the amount needed to retire the outstanding bonds. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

residual-mass curve

A graph of the cumulative departures from a given reference such as the arithmetic average, generally as ordinate, plotted against time or date, as abscissa. (SeeMass curve.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

residue studies

Research which examines the recalcitrance, bioavailability, toxicity, solubility, etc. of pesticide residues. More information on this topic can be found at the FDA site for residual pesticides monitoring. (US EPA- Pesticides)

resilience

Ability of any system to resist or to recover from stress or hardship. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

resistance

The inherent characteristic of a material to inhibit the transfer of energy. In electrical conductors, electrical resistance results in the generation of heat. Electrical resistance is measured in Ohms. The heat transfer resistance properties of insulation products are quantified as the R-value. (US Dept of Energy)

resistance heating

A type of heating system that provides heat from the resistance of an electrical current flowing through a conductor. (US Dept of Energy)

resistive voltage drop

The voltage developed across a cell by the current flow through the resistance of the cell. (US Dept of Energy)

resistor

An electrical device that resists electric current flow. (US Dept of Energy)

resolution

The disposition plan for a failed institution, designed to (1) protect insured depositors and (2) minimize the losses to the relevant insurance fund, which are expected from covering insured deposits and disposing of the institution�s assets. Resolution methods generally include purchase and assumption transactions, insured deposit transfers, and straight deposit payoffs. The term �resolution� can also refer to the assistance plan, through open bank assistance, for a failing institution. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

resolution (simple resolution)

At the federal level, a legislative proposal by one house of Congress that addresses matters concerning that house only. Generally, a resolution addresses the rules of that house or expresses the sentiments of that house. It does not require the approval of the other house, and it does not have the force of law. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

resolution cost

For a given resolution method, the sum of the FDIC�s expenditures and obligations incurred, including any immediate or long-term obligations and any direct or contingent liabilities for future payment. Since FDICIA was enacted in 1991, the FDIC has been required to select the resolution method that is least costly to the relevant insurance fund. (Also see least cost test.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Resolution Funding Corporation

(aka REFCORP) A corporation established under FIRREA to fund the activities of the RTC, primarily through bond sales. FIRREA provided private and public funds to deal with thrifts that failed between 1989 and 1999, as well as providing a mechanism to capitalize the new Savings Association Insurance Fund. (Also see Thrift Depositor Protection Oversight Board.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Resolution Trust Corporation

(aka RTC) An entity established in 1989 by FIRREA to oversee the resolution of insolvent thrifts and to dispose of assets acquired from the failed thrifts in the wake of the thrift crisis of the 1980s. The RTC operated from August 9, 1989, to December 31, 1995. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Resolution Trust Corporation Completion Act

(aka RTCCA or Completion Act) Legislation enacted on December 17, 1993, that allowed the RTC to use up to $18.3 billion to resolve the remaining insolvent thrifts. The Completion Act also (1) extended the RTC�s authority to take institutions into conservatorship or receivership from September 30, 1993, to July 1, 1995; (2) accelerated the RTC�s closing date by a year from December 31, 1996, to December 31, 1995; (3) reduced the maximum funding authorization of the SAIF; and (4) instituted a wide range of RTC management reforms. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

(aka RCRA) A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation covering hazardous materials. (Energy Star.gov)

resource management plan

A written plan that addresses the existing resources of an area and provides future objectives, goals, and management direction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

resource recovery

The process of converting municipal solid waste to energy and/or recovering materials for recycling. (US Dept of Energy)

RESPA

Abbreviation for the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act. This act allows consumers to review settlement costs at application and once again prior to closing. (Ginnie Mae) The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974, 12 U.S.C. 2601 et seq. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) See Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (US Dept of HUD)

response spectrum

A plot of the maximum response of a series of single-degree-of-freedom damped oscillators (elastic systems) as a function of their natural periods, or frequencies, when the oscillators are subjected to a vibratory ground motion. The maximum values of acceleration, velocity, and/or displacement of an infinite series of single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to an earthquake. The maximum response values are expressed as a function of natural period for a given damping. The response spectrum acceleration, velocity, and displacement values may be calculated from each other assuming a sinusoidal relationship between them. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

restricted area

Airspace designated under Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), Part 73, within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction. Most restricted areas are designated joint use and Intermediate Fix/Visual Flight Rules IF/VFR operations in the area may be authorized by the controlling Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility when it is not being utilized by the using agency. Restricted areas are depicted on en route charts. Where joint use is authorized, the name of the ATC controlling facility is also shown. (FAA8) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

restricted road

Public road with restricted public use. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

restricted use appraisal report

According to USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(c), a restricted use appraisal report briefly states information significant to solve the appraisal problem as well as a reference to the existence of specific work-file information in support of the appraiser�s opinions and conclusions. The Agencies believe that the restricted use appraisal report will not be appropriate to underwrite a significant number of federally related transactions due to the lack of supporting information and analysis in the appraisal report. However, it may be appropriate to use this type of appraisal report for ongoing collateral monitoring of an institution�s real estate transactions and other purposes. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) According to USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(c), a restricted use appraisal report briefly states information significant to solve the appraisal problem as well as a reference to the existence of specific work-file information in support of the appraiser�s opinions and conclusions. The Agencies believe that the restricted use appraisal report will not be appropriate to underwrite a significant number of federally related transactions due to the lack of supporting information and analysis in the appraisal report. However, it may be appropriate to use this type of appraisal report for ongoing collateral monitoring of an institution�s real estate transactions and other purposes. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

restricted use pesticides

A pesticide that can be sold to or used by only certified applicators. (US EPA- Pesticides)

restructuring

The process of changing the structure of the electric power industry from one of guaranteed monopoly over service territories, as established by the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, to one of open competition between power suppliers for customers in any area. (US Dept of Energy)

retail corporate

A corporate credit union serving natural person credit unions. (National Credit Union Administration)

retail wheeling

A term for the process of transmitting electricity over transmission lines not owned by the supplier of the electricity to a retail customer of the supplier. With retail wheeling, an electricity consumer can secure their own supply of electricity from a broker or directly from the generating source. The power is then wheeled at a fixed rate, or at a regulated "non-discriminatory" rate set by a utility commission. (US Dept of Energy)

retailer

Any person engaged in the sale, leasing, or distribution of new manufactured homes primarily to persons who in good faith purchase or lease a manufactured home for purposes other than resale. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

retaining wall

A wall separating two levels. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

retarding reservoir

Ungated reservoir for temporary storage of flood water. Sometimes called detention reservoir. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

retrofit

The process of modifying a building's structure. (US Dept of Energy)

return

The profit made on an investment. (Federal Reserve Education)

return air

Air that is returned to a heating or cooling appliance from a heated or cooled space. (US Dept of Energy)

return duct

The central heating or cooling system contains a fan that gets its air supply through these ducts, which ideally should be installed in every room of the house. The air from a room will move towards the lower pressure of the return duct. (US Dept of Energy)

return flow

That part of irrigation water that is not consumed by evapotranspiration and that returns to its source or another body of water. The term is also applied to the water that is discharged from industrial plants. Also called return water. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Drainage water from irrigated farmlands that re-enters the water system to be used further downstream. May contain dissolved salts or other materials that have been leached out of the upper layers of the soil. That portion of the water previously diverted from a stream which finds its way back to that stream or to another body of ground or surface water. The water that reaches a ground or surface water source after release from the point of use and thus becomes available for further use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

return item

A negotiable instrument�principally a check�that has been sent to one bank for collection and payment and is returned unpaid by the sending bank. (Help With My Bank)

return on average common equity

Net income available to common stockholders, as a percentage of average common stockholder equity. (US Dept of HUD)

return-flow system (reuse system)

A system of pipelines or ditches to collect and convey surface or subsurface runoff from an irrigated field for reuse. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

revenue

Remuneration received by carriers for transportation activities. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

revenue bond

A type of municipal bond backed by revenue from the project the bond finances. (Federal Reserve Education)

revenue insurance

An insurance policy offered to farmers that pays indemnities based on revenue shortfalls. These programs are subsidized and reinsured by USDA's Risk Management Agency. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

revenue passenger-mile

One revenue passenger transported one mile. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

revenue ton-mile

One short ton of freight transported one mile. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

revenue vehicle-miles (transit)

One vehicle (bus, trolley bus, or streetcar) traveling one mile, while revenue passengers are on board, generates one revenue vehicle-mile. Revenue vehicle-miles reported represent the total mileage traveled by vehicles in scheduled or unscheduled revenue-producing services. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

reverse annuity

A type of mortgage, designed for elderly homeowners with substantial equity, by which a lender periodically (monthly, for example) pays an amount to the borrower. The loan balance increases with interest and periodic payments, causing negative amortization. The loan, including accrued interest, is paid in full when the property is sold. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

reverse annuity mortgage

A type of mortgage loan in which the lender makes periodic payments to the borrower. The borrower's equity in the home is used as security for the loan. (Ginnie Mae)

reverse mortgage

(aka HECM) A reverse mortgage loan converts the equity in the home into cash. Unlike a traditional loan, no repayment is required until the borrower no longer uses the house as a principal residence. To be eligible under FHA's program, Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM), the homeowner must be at least 62 years old, and live in the house. The program was expanded in 2009 so that HECMs can be used to purchase a primary residence. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A reverse mortgage is a special home loan product that allows a homeowner aged 62 or older the ability to access the equity that has accumulated in their home. The home itself will be the source of repayment. The loan is underwritten based on the value of the collateral (home) and the life expectancy of the borrower. The loan must be repaid when you die, sell your home, or no longer live there as your principal residence. (Help With My Bank) A special type of mortgage loan that borrows against the equity built up over years of prior mortgage payments. The borrower must be a homeowner, 62 years of age of older, live in the home, and own their home outright or have a low mortgage balance that can be paid off at the closing with proceeds from the reverse mortgage loan. The homeowner can receive either a lump sum or monthly payments for an agreed time frame, exhausting the equity from the house. This type of mortgage loan does not include any repayment terms and is satisfied when the homeowner or his or her representative sells the house or pays off the mortgage loan. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) The reverse mortgage is used by senior homeowners age 62 and older to convert the equity in their home into monthly streams of income and/or a line of credit to be repaid when they no longer occupy the home. A lending institution such as a mortgage lender, bank, credit union or savings and loan association funds the FHA insured loan, commonly known as HECM. (US Dept of HUD) (aka HECM) The reverse mortgage is used by senior homeowners age 62 and older to convert the equity in their home into monthly streams of income and/or a line of credit to be repaid when they no longer occupy the home. A lending institution such as a mortgage lender, bank, credit union or savings and loan association funds the FHA insured loan, commonly known as HECM. (US Dept of HUD)

reverse or reverse annuity mortgage

A mortgage for which the borrower pledges home equity in return for regular (monthly) payments, rather than a lump sum distribution of loan proceeds. Repayment is usually not required until the home is sold or the borrower's estate is settled, provided the borrower continues to live in the home and keeps current all taxes and insurance. See also "Home Equity Conversion Mortgage." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

reverse redlining

A practice in which lenders specifically market high cost or predatory loans to potential customers based on factors such as race or ethnicity. Reverse redlining is a form of discrimination not because it excludes minorities and other vulnerable populations, but because it targets and exploits them by offering loans with abusive terms and conditions. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

reverse thermosiphoning

When heat seeks to flow from a warm area (e.g., heated space) to a cooler area, such as a solar air collector at night without a reverse flow damper. (US Dept of Energy)

reversing valve

A component of a heat pump that reverses the refrigerant's direction of flow, allowing the heat pump to switch from cooling to heating or heating to cooling. (US Dept of Energy)

revetment

An embankment or wall of sandbags, earth, etc., constructed to restrain material from being transported away. A facing of stone, cement, sandbags, etc., to protect a wall or embankment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

revolving credit

See open-end credit. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) A credit agreement (typically a credit card) that allows a customer to borrow against a preapproved credit line when purchasing goods and services. The borrower is only billed for the amount that is actually borrowed plus any interest due. (Also called a charge account or open-end credit.) (Help With My Bank)

revolving debt

Credit that is extended by a creditor under a plan in which (1) the creditor contemplates repeated transactions; (2) the creditor may impose a finance charge from time to time on an outstanding unpaid balance; and (3) the amount of credit that may be extended to the consumer during the term of the plan is generally made available to the extent that any outstanding balance is repaid. (Federal Trade Commission) A type of credit that allows the borrower/customer to make charges against a predetermined line of credit. The customer then pays monthly installments on the amount borrowed, plus interest. (HardwickAssociates)

rewind

Act of putting new copper insulated wire in the armature windings of a generator. Replacement of an armature (stator) winding of a synchronous generator. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

R-Factor

See R-Value. (US Dept of Energy)

RFP

Request for proposals to provide specific government-commissioned work. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

RHCDS

Rural Housing and Community Service (Ginnie Mae)

rhizine

Root-like structure of lichen and other organisms. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rhizoid

Root-like structure of mosses and ferns used to attach to a substrate. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rhizosphere

The narrow region around roots where most soil biological activity occurs. Soil organisms take advantage of the sloughed and dead root cells and the root exudates found in this region. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rhyolite

Light-colored volcanic igneous rock that is the extrusive equivalent of granite. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ribbon (photovoltaic) cells

A type of solar photovoltaic device made in a continuous process of pulling material from a molten bath of photovoltaic material, such as silicon, to form a thin sheet of material. (US Dept of Energy)

richter scale

A scale of numerical values, proposed by C. F. Richter, to describe the magnitude of an earthquake, ranging from 1 to 9, by measurements made in well-defined conditions and with a given type of seismograph. The zero of the scale is fixed arbitrarily to fit the smallest recorded earthquake. The largest recorded earthquake magnitudes are near 8.7. This is the result of observations and not an arbitrary upper limit like that of the intensity scale. For more information about the Richter Scale visit the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ridge board

The structural member of a roof where the rafters join at the top. (HardwickAssociates)

ridge pole

A thick longitudinal plank to which the ridge rafters of a roof are attached. (Publications- USA.gov)

ridge roughness (K factor - WEQ)

A measure of the effect of ridges made by tillage and planting implements. It is expressed as a decimal from 0.5 to 1.0. Ridges, especially those at right angles to the prevailing wind direction, absorb and deflect wind energy and trap moving soil particles. See Wind erosion equation (WEQ). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

ridge vent

A screened vent installed along the top ridge of a roof that allows warm attic air to escape. (Energy Star.gov)

riffle

A rapid in a stream. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A stretch of choppy water caused by an underlying rock shoal or sandbar. A run is a long riffle. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

riffle and pool complex

A water habitat composed of riffles (characterized by water flowing rapidly over a coarse substrate) and pools (deeper areas of water associated with riffles). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

right

See left or right designation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

right abutment

See abutment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

right of first refusal

The right to purchase a property under conditions and terms made by another buyer and accepted by the seller. (Ginnie Mae) A provision in an agreement that requires the owner of a property to give another party the first opportunity to purchase or lease the property before he or she offers it for sale or lease to others. (Federal Trade Commission) A provision in an agreement that requires the owner of a property to give one party an opportunity to purchase or lease a property before it is offered for sale or lease to others. (US Dept of HUD) An agreement giving a person the first opportunity to buy or lease a property before the owner offers it for sale to others. (HardwickAssociates)

right of offset

Banks' legal right to seize funds that a guarantor or debtor may have on deposit to cover a loan in default. It is also known as the right of set-off. (Help With My Bank)

right of rescission

The right to back out of a transaction, given automatically by law to the borrower in a real estate purchase transaction. When a borrower's principal dwelling is going to secure a loan, the borrower has three business days following signing of the loan documents to rescind or cancel the transaction. Any and all money paid by the borrower must be refunded upon rescission. The right to rescind does not apply to loans to purchase real estate or to refinance a loan under the same terms and conditions where no additional funds will be added to the existing loan. (Ginnie Mae) �Right to cancel, within three business days, a contract that uses the home of a person as collateral, except in the case of a first mortgage loan. There is no fee to the borrower, who receives a full refund of all fees paid. The right of rescission is guaranteed by the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). (Help With My Bank)

right-of-way

The right which one has to pass across the lands of another. An easement. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The land (usually a strip) acquired for or devoted to highway transportation purposes. (FHWA2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) The land on and immediately surrounding a structure that is owned by the entity holding title to the structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rigid insulation board

An insulation product made of a fibrous material or plastic foams, pressed or extruded into board-like forms. It provides thermal and acoustical insulation strength with low weight, and coverage with few heat loss paths. (US Dept of Energy)

rigid pipe

Pipe designed to transmit the backfill load to the foundation beneath the pipe. Rigid pipe must be supported on the bottom portion of the pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rill

A small channel eroded into the soil surface by runoff, rills easily can be smoothed out (obliterated) by normal tillage. Small grooves, furrows, or channels in soil made by water flowing down over its surface. A small stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ring gate

A ring- or annular-shaped steel drum operating in a recess or gate chamber in a spillway crest and controlled in a manner similar to a drum gate. See gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ring seal gate

Similar to a paradox gate, however sealing is by a moveable seal, which is extended by water pressure when the gate is closed. The roller chain is usually shorter and does not disengage from the leaf on sealing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ring-follower gate

A gate consisting of a rectangular leaf and an opening equal in diameter to that of the conduit that forms an unobstructed passageway when the leaf is in the raised or open position. A high pressure gate of the vertical lift type with a circular water passage. A corresponding circular passage is incorporated into half of the gate leaf which provides an unbroken flow surface in the waterway when the gate is completely open. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

riparian

Rights to use of water and waterways in adjoining lakes or rivers. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) Pertaining to the banks of a stream. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Living on or adjacent to a water supply such as a riverbank, lake, or pond. Of, on, or pertaining to the bank of a river, pond, or lake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ripple

In a streambed, a ripple is a small triangle-shaped elements having gentle upstream slopes and steep downstream slopes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

riprap

A layer of large uncoursed stones, broken rock, boulders, precast blocks, bags of cement, or other suitable material generally placed in random fashion on the upstream and downstream faces of embankment dams, stream banks, on a reservoir shore, on the sides of a channel, or other land surfaces to protect them from erosion or scour caused by current, wind, wave, and/or ice action. A protective blanket of large loose stones, which are usually placed by machine to achieve a desired configuration. Riprap is usually placed by dumping or other mechanical methods but, in some cases, is hand placed. It consist of relatively large pieces as distinguished from a gravel blanket. Very large riprap is sometimes referred to as "armoring." (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

riser

The upright piece of a stair step, from tread to tread. (Publications- USA.gov)

risk

The possibility of loss on an investment. (Federal Reserve Education) Exposure to uncertain change. In the investment field, risk is the probability that the actual return on an investment will differ from its expected return. For example, a Treasury bill is considered by most investors to have practically no risk. Risks associated with investments in general include interest rate risk, market risk, business risk, financial risk, and liquidity risk. In the FDIC Internal Control Review program, risk is considered to be the susceptibility of an organizational unit or process to mismanagement, erroneous reports or data, illegal or unethical acts, and adverse public opinion. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) A measure of the chance that damage to life, health, property, or the environment will occur. (US EPA- Pesticides) The relationship between the consequences resulting from an adverse event and its probability of occurrence. The potential for losing credibility, failing to solve a problem, or getting hurt. The ability to describe potential outcomes using historic probability. The likelihood or chance of an unacceptable event occurring. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

risk assessment

Generally, the identification and quantification of risk types, levels, and locations in a process or organizational unit. In the FDIC Internal Control Review program, management tries to identify the susceptibility of an organizational unit or process to the occurrence of waste, loss, unauthorized use, or misappropriation. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) A methodology used to examine all possible risks involved with a particular product or organism. Risk assessment can be divided into four parts: identification of hazards, dose response (how much exposure causes particular problems (ie.cancer, convulsions, death), exposure assessment (determining how much exposure will be received by people during particular activities), and risk characterization (determining a probability that a risk will occur). (US EPA- Pesticides) As applied to dam safety, the process of identifying the likelihood and consequences of dam failure to provide the basis for informed decisions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

risk based capital

An amount of capital needed to offset losses during a ten-year period with adverse circumstances. (US Dept of HUD)

risk based pricing

Fee structure used by creditors based on risks of granting credit to a borrower with a poor credit history. (US Dept of HUD)

risk communication

The process of exchanging information about levels or significance of health or environmental risk. (US EPA- Pesticides)

risk factor

A characteristic (e.g., race, sex, age, obesity) or variable (e.g., smoking, exposure) associated with increased chance of toxic effects. Some standard risk factors used in general risk assessment calculations include average breathing rates, average weight, and average human life span. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Risk Management Agency

(aka RMA) USDA agency that administers programs of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

risk scoring

An automated way to analyze a credit report verses a manual review. It takes into account late payments, outstanding debt, credit experience, and number of inquiries in an unbiased manner. (US Dept of HUD)

river corridor

A river and the strips of land adjacent to it, including the talus slopes at the bases of cliffs, but not the cliffs themselves. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

river mile

(aka RM) A unit of measurement (in miles) used on rivers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

river trash wall

Walls constructed to deflect heavy floating debris away from the upper ends of a fishway. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

riverine

The Riverine System includes all wetlands and deepwater habitats contained within a channel, with two exceptions: (1) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens, and (2) habitats with water containing ocean derived salts in excess of 0 .5 o/00. A channel is "an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically or continuously contains moving water, or which forms a connecting link between two bodies of standing water" (Langbein and Iseri 1960:5). (US Fish & Wildlife Service) Riparian; pertaining to a riverbank. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

riverine system

All wetland and deepwater habitats contained within a channel, with two exceptions (1) wetlands dominated by trees, shrubs, persistent emergents, emergent mosses, or lichens; and (2) habitats with water containing ocean derived salts. One of the five systems in the classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats. (See Wetlands, Cowardin et al. 1979.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

riverwash

A subcategory of Barren land. Barren alluvial areas, usually coarse-textured, exposed along streams at low water and subject to shifting during normal high water. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

road

An open way for the passage of vehicles, persons, or animals on land. (DOI4) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

road class

The category of roads based on design, weatherability, their governmental designation, and the Department of Transportation functional classification system. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

road functional classification

The classification of a road in accordance with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 9113.16. Code as follows C-collector, L-local, R-resource. (DOI2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

rock

The hard, firm and stable parts of the earth's crust. A sound and solid mass, layer, or ledge of mineral matter inplace, and of such hardness and texture that it cannot be effectively loosened or broken down by a 6-pound drifting pick or by ripping in a single pass. Natural solid mineral matter occurring in large masses or fragments. Naturally formed, consolidated material composed of grains of one or more minerals. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rock anchor

A steel rod or cable placed in a hole drilled in rock, held in position by grout, mechanical means, or both. In principle, the same as a rock bolt, but usually the rock anchor is more than 4 meters long. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rock bin

A container that holds rock used as the thermal mass to store solar energy in a solar heating system. (US Dept of Energy)

rock bolt

A steel rod placed in a hole drilled in rock, held in position by grout, mechanical means, or both. A rock bolt can be pretensioned. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rock excavation

Hard and firm parts of the earth's crust which is dug out and removed from a particular site or area, see rock. Boulders or detached pieces of solid rock more than 1 cubic yard in volume are classified as rock excavation. See excavation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rock fragment

Detached pieces of rock which generally are not rounded. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rock fragments

Rock or mineral fragments having a diameter of 2 millimeters or more; for example, pebbles, cobbles, stones, and boulders. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rock wool

A type of insulation made from virgin basalt, an igneous rock, and spun into loose fill or a batt. It is fire resistant and helps with soundproofing. (US Dept of Energy)

rockfill dam

An embankment dam in which more than 50 percent of the total volume is comprised of compacted or dumped cobbles, boulders, rock fragments, or quarried rock generally larger than 3-inch size. The rock provides structural integrity for the dam around an impervious core. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rodenticide

A pesticide or other agent used to kill rats and other rodents or to prevent them from damaging food, crops, or forage. (US EPA- Pesticides)

rods

Retinal receptors that respond at low levels of luminance, even below the threshold for cones. At these levels there is no basis for perceiving differences in hue and saturation. There are no rods near the center of the fovea. (Energy Star.gov)

rolled fill dam

An embankment dam of earth or rock in which the material is placed in layers and compacted by the use of rollers or rolling equipment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

roller compacted concrete

(aka RCC) A mixture of cement, water, and aggregate compacted by rolling. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

roller drum gate

See drum gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

roller gate

A gate rolled up or down inclined supporting rails by a hoist through sprocket chains around the ends of a cylinder. A crest gate consisting of a horizontal cylinder spanning between piers. Encircling each end of the cylinder is a cog wheel which engages a rack in each supporting pier. The gate is raised by a heavy chain or rope which winds around and over the top of the gate at one end and pulls upward parallel to the track. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

roller-compacted concrete dam

A concrete gravity dam constructed by the use of a dry mix concrete transported by conventional construction equipment and compacted by rolling, usually with vibratory rollers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rolling

A method of compacting soil using a sheepsfoot roller or a smooth drum roller. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rollover

The process by which a construction loan becomes a mortgage. At the end of the construction loan period, the borrower's file is delivered to Bank One Mortgage Loan Servicing Dept. Prior to delivery, CLD contacts the borrower and obtains funds for the tax and insurance escrows, a final title policy and homeowner's policy. This process is called a rollover. (Ginnie Mae)

roof

The upper portion of the building envelope, including opaque areas and fenestration, that is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60� from horizontal. (Energycodes.gov) A building element that provides protection against the sun, wind, and precipitation. (US Dept of Energy)

roof assembly

A roof assembly shall be considered to be all roof/ceiling components of the building envelope through which heat flows, thus creating a building transmission heat loss or gain, where such assembly is exposed to outdoor air and encloses conditioned space. The gross area of a roof assembly consists of the total interior surface of all roof/ceiling components, including opaque surfaces, dormer and bay window roofs, treyed ceilings, overhead portions of an interior stairway to an unconditioned attic, doors and hatches, glazing, and skylights exposed to conditioned space that are horizontal or sloped at an angle less than 60� from the horizontal. (Energycodes.gov)

roof pitch

The degree of slope in a roof. (HardwickAssociates)

roof pond

A solar energy collection device consisting of containers of water located on a roof that absorb solar energy during the day so that the heat can be used at night or that cools a building by evaporation at night. (US Dept of Energy)

roof sheathing

Sheets, usually of plywood, which are nailed to the top edges of trusses or rafters to tie the roof together and support the roofing material. (Publications- USA.gov)

roof ventilator

A stationary or rotating vent used to ventilate attics or cathedral ceilings; usually made of galvanized steel, or polypropylene. (US Dept of Energy)

roofing with insulation entirely above deck

A roof with all insulation (1) installed above (outside of) the roof structure and (2) continuous (i.e., uninterrupted by framing members). (Energycodes.gov)

room air conditioner

An encased assembly designed as a unit to be mounted in a window or through a wall, or as a console. It is meant to provide direct delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room, or zone. It includes a prime source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and a means for circulating and cleaning air. It may also include a means for ventilating and heating. (Energycodes.gov)

room cavity ratio

A factor that characterizes room configuration as a ratio between the walls and ceiling and is based upon room dimensions. (Energycodes.gov)

room utilization factor

The ratio of the light received on the work plane to that emitted by the fixture. (Energy Star.gov)

Root Mean Square Error

Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is used to estimate positional accuracy. RMSE is the square root of the average of the set of squared differences between dataset coordinate values and coordinate values from an independent source of higher accuracy for identical points. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

root zone

The part of the soil that can be penetrated by plant roots. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) That depth of soil which plant roots readily penetrate and in which the predominant root activity occurs. The area where a low-angle thrust fault steepens and descends into the crust. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rotor

An electric generator consists of an armature and a field structure. The armature carries the wire loop, coil, or other windings in which the voltage is induced, whereas the field structure produces the magnetic field. In small generators, the armature is usually the rotating component (rotor) surrounded by the stationary field structure (stator). In large generators in commercial electric power plants the situation is reversed. In a wind energy conversion device, the blades and rotating components. (US Dept of Energy)

rough fish

A nonsport fish. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

route alerting

A supplement to the public alert system; a method for alerting people in areas not covered by the primary system or if the primary system fails. Route alerting is accomplished by emergency personnel in vehicles traveling along assigned roads and delivering emergency instructions with public address systems or by door-to-door notification. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

route of exposure

The way a chemical enters an organism after contact (e.g., ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption). (US EPA- Pesticides)

row crops

A subset of the Land cover/use category Cropland (subcategory, Cultivated) comprising land in row crops, such as corn, soybeans, peanuts, potatoes, sorghum, sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, vegetables, and cotton. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

RPM

Revolutions per minute. (Energycodes.gov)

RTC Oversight Board

An instrumentality of the federal government created in 1989 by FIRREA and responsible for the general oversight of the REFCORP. (Also see Thrift Depositor Protection Oversight Board.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

RTC Refinancing, Restructuring, and Improvement Act

(aka RTCRRIA) Legislation enacted in 1991 that provided funding and organization for the RTC. Among its major provisions, the act (1) provided $25 billion in new loss funds for the RTC to be used through April 1, 1992; (2) extended the RTC�s ability to accept appointment as conservator or receiver over failed thrifts from August 9, 1992, through September 30, 1993; (3) removed the FDIC as the exclusive manager of the RTC; (4) abolished the RTC Board of Directors; (5) established a chief executive officer position at the RTC; and (6) changed the RTC oversight body from the Oversight Board to the Thrift Depositor Protection Oversight Board. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

rubble dam

A stone masonry dam in which the stones are unshaped or uncoursed. See dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

run

Seasonal upstream migration of anadromous fish. One or more lengths of pipe that continue in a straight line. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

running and quick-start capability

The net capability of generating units that carry load or have quick-start capability. In general, quick-start capability refers to generating units that can be available for load within a 30-minute period. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

runoff

That part of the precipitation that appears in surface streams. It is the same as streamflow unaffected by artificial diversions, storage, or other works of man in or on the stream channels. Runoff may be classified as follows: (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Water that flows off land into streams and other waterways. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) The portion of precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the soil, eventually making its way to surface water supplies. Liquid water that travels over the surface of the Earth, moving downward due to the law of gravity; runoff is one way in which water that falls as precipitation returns to the ocean. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

run-of-river hydropower

A type of hydroelectric facility that uses the river flow with very little alteration and little or no impoundment of the water. (US Dept of Energy)

run-of-river plants

The regulated inflow of one powerplant is equal to the outflow from a powerplant upstream. A hydroelectric powerplant using the flow of a stream as it occurs and having little or no reservoir capacity for storage or regulation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

runout

See Water yield. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

runup

The vertical distance above the setup that the rush of water reaches when a wave breaks on the dam embankment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

rural

An area outside of an established urban area or metropolitan district. (HardwickAssociates)

rural area

A geographic area as defined in title 5 of section 538 of the Housing Act of 1949. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) Predominantly agricultural, prairie, forest, range, or undeveloped land where the population is small. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Rural Development

A mission area within USDA which includes RHS, Rural Utilities Service (RUS), and Rural Business-Cooperative Service (RBS). (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) Also known as RD. Rural Development is the government agency that will issue final approval on USDA loans. After underwriting conditions have been received and cleared by the underwriter Rural Development will review the file. Often (depending on the state) RD can take up to 30 days for final approval (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans)

Rural Development Housing and Community Facilities Programs

A Federal agency that administers mortgage loans for buyers in rural areas. (Ginnie Mae)

Rural electric cooperative (cooperatively-owned electric utility)

A customer-owned electric utility that was created to transmit and distribute power in rural areas. Rural electric cooperatives benefit from below-market financing from the Rural Utilities Service (formerly the Rural Electrification Administration), as well as low-cost power from federal hydroelectric projects. In addition, most do not pay state or federal income taxes. Rates for rural electric cooperatives typically are set by a board of directors elected from among the cooperative's members. Today, rural electric cooperatives serve about 11 percent of the nation's electric customers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Rural Electrification Administration

(aka REA) An agency of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture that makes loans to states and territories in the U.S. for rural electrification and the furnishing of electric energy to persons in rural areas who do not receive central station service. It also furnishes and improves electric and telephone service in rural areas, assists electric borrowers to implement energy conservation programs and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems, and studies the condition and progress of rural electrification. (US Dept of Energy)

rural highway

Any highway, road, or street that is not an urban highway. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Rural Housing Service

(aka RHS) An agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which operates a range of programs to help rural communities and individuals by providing loan and grants for housing and community facilities. The agency also works with private lenders to guarantee loans for the purchase or construction of single-family housing. (Federal Trade Commission) The Rural Housing Service within the Rural Development mission area of the U.S. Department of Agriculture or its successor agency, which administers Section 538 loans. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

Rural Housing Service/Rural Development

An agency, within the U.S. Department of Agriculture, formerly called the Farmers Home Administration (FmHA). It administers assistance programs for purchasers of homes and farms in small towns and rural areas. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

rural mileage (highway)

Roads outside city, municipal district, or urban boundaries. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

rural transportation land

A Land cover/use category which consists of all highways, roads, railroads and associated right-of-ways outside urban and built-up areas; also includes private roads to farmsteads or ranch headquarters, logging roads, and other private roads (field lanes are not included). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

rusts

Red or brown disease spots on plants caused by fungi. (US EPA- Pesticides)

R-value

A measure (h ft2 �F/Btu) of thermal resistance, or how well a material or series of materials resists the flow of heat. The R-value is the reciprocal of the U-factor. (Energycodes.gov) A measure of the capacity of a material to resist heat transfer. The R-Value is the reciprocal of the conductivity of a material (U-Value). The larger the R-Value of a material, the greater its insulating properties. (US Dept of Energy)