M1

Measure of the U.S. money stock that consists of currency held by the public, travelers checks, demand deposits and other checkable deposits including NOW (negotiable order of withdrawal) and ATS (automatic transfer service) account balances and share draft account balances at credit unions. (Federal Reserve Education) Measure of the U.S. money stock that consists of currency held by the public, travelers checks, demand deposits, and other checkable deposits including NOW (negotiable order of withdrawal) and ATS (automatic transfer service) account balances and share draft account balances at credit unions. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

M2

Measure of the U.S. money stock that consists of M1, certain overnight repurchase agreements and certain overnight Eurodollars, savings deposits (including money market deposit accounts), time deposits in amounts of less than $100,000 and balances in money market mutual funds (other than those restricted to institutional investors). (Federal Reserve Education) Measure of the U.S. money stock that consists of M1, certain overnight repurchase agreements and certain overnight Eurodollars, savings deposits (including money market deposit accounts), time deposits in amounts of less than $100,000, and balances in money market mutual funds (other than those restricted to institutional investors). (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

M3

Measure of the U.S. money stock that consists of M2, time deposits of $100,000 or more at all depository institutions, term repurchase agreements in amounts of $100,000 or more, certain term Eurodollars and balances in money market mutual funds restricted to institutional investors. (Federal Reserve Education) Measure of the U.S. money stock that consists of M2, time deposits of $100,000 or more at all depository institutions, term repurchase agreements in amounts of $100,000 or more, certain term Eurodollars, and balances in money market mutual funds restricted to institutional investors. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

MA

See METROPOLITAN AREA. (US Dept of HUD)

macroclimate

The climate representative of relatively large area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

macroeconomics

The study of economics in terms of whole systems with reference to general levels of output and income and to the interrelations among sectors of the economy. See also microeconomics. (Federal Reserve Education) The study of economics in terms of whole systems with reference to general levels of output and income and to the interrelations among sectors of the economy. See also microeconomics. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

macrohabitat

An extensive habitat presenting considerable variation of the environment, containing a variety of ecological niches and supporting a large number and variety of complex flora and fauna. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

macrophytes

A plant large enough to be seen by the naked eye. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

macrophytic algae�

Algal plants large enough either as individuals or communities to be readily visible without the aid of optical magnification. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

magma

Molten or partially molten rock at temperatures ranging from 1,260 F to 2,880 F (700 C to 1600 C). Some magma bodies are believed to exist at drillable depths within the Earth's crust, although practical technologies for harnessing magma energy have not been developed. If ever utilized, magma represents a potentially enormous resource. (US Dept of Energy) Molten or fluid rock material from which igneous rock is derived. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

magnetic ballast

Power circuit consisting of one or more magnetic coils and optional capacitors, designed to limit current and provide necessary starting voltage for discharge lamps. (Energy Star.gov) A type of florescent light ballast that uses a magnetic core to regulate the voltage of a florescent lamp. (US Dept of Energy)

magnitude

A rating of a given earthquake, independent of the place of observation. It is calculated from measurements on seismographs and it is expressed in ordinary numbers and decimals based on a logarithmic scale. A measure of the strength of an earthquake, or the strain energy released by it, as determined by seismographic observations. See Richter scale. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

main

The principal pipe artery to which branches may be connected. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

main channel

The deepest or central part of the bed of a stream, containing the main current. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

main channel pool

Reach of a stream or river with a low bed elevation, relative to rapids or riffles. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mainstream (mainstem)

The main course of a stream where the current is the strongest. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maintenance

All routine and extraordinary work necessary to keep the facilities in good repair and reliable working order to fulfill the intended designed project purposes. Maintaining structures and equipment in intended operating condition, equipment repair, and minor structure repair. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maintenance area

Maintenance area is any geographic region of the United States previously designated nonattainment pursuant to the CAA Amendments of 1990 and subsequently redesignated to attainment subject to the requirement to develop a maintenance plan under section 175A of the CAA, as amended. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

maintenance costs

The cost of the upkeep of the house. These costs may be minor in cost and nature (replacing washers in the faucets) or major in cost and nature (new heating system or a new roof) and can apply to either the interior or exterior of the house. (Ginnie Mae)

maintenance management system

Any organized system used to ensure that all operations and maintenance activities (e.g., maintenance, inspection, operational testing) at a facility is accomplished and documented. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

major deficiency

A deficiency that strongly impacts the usability and habitability of a house. Or a deficiency that may be very expensive to repair. (HardwickAssociates)

major facility

A term used by Reclamation to describe those facilities for which an examination is conducted every third year, alternately conducted by the Denver and respective regional office. Major facilities include storage dams and reservoirs, diversion dams with significant storage or where major equipment and operation are complex, large pumping plants and powerplants, large canal systems, large complex closed conduit systems, and Group A bridges. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

majority

The age at which a person is entitled to handle his or her own affairs. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

majors (air)

Air carrier groups with annual operating revenues exceeding $1 billion. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

make-up air

See "Outdoor Air Supply." (US Environmental Protection Agency) Air brought into a building from outside to replace exhaust air. (US Dept of Energy)

management control review (MCR)

An examination of a system of internal controls for a particular process or function as defined by the FDIC Internal Control Review program. The main goal of a management control review is to document controls that are currently in place. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

management fee

The fee paid to a company for managing an investment portfolio. (Federal Reserve Education)

management practices

Changes in the management of agricultural production in the context of environmental programs--e.g., nutrient or manure management, integrated pest management, irrigation management, tillage or residue management, and grazing management. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

management systems

(1) Systems to improve identification of problems and opportunities throughout the entire surface transportation network, and to evaluate and prioritize alternative strategies, actions and solutions. (2) A systematic process, designed to assist decisionmakers in selecting cost-effective strategies/actions to improve the efficiency and safety of, and protect the investment in, the nation's transportation infrastructure. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

management-dependent properties

(aka use-dependant properties) Soil properties that show change and respond to use and management of the soil, such as soil organic matter levels and aggregate stability. This is a narrower term than dynamic soil properties which encompasses all changes on the human time scale including those induced by natural disturbances or cycles. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

managerial employee

An employee of a settlement service provider who does not routinely deal directly with consumers, and who either hires, directs, assigns, promotes, or rewards other employees or independent contractors, or is in a position to formulate, determine, or influence the policies of the employer. Neither the term ��managerial employee�� nor the term ��employee�� includes independent contractors, but a managerial employee may hold a real estate brokerage or agency license. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

managing agent (MA)

The FDIC or RTC employee responsible for managing day-today operations of an institution in conservatorship. The MA prepares the institution for resolution by downsizing (selling assets). (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

mandatory delivery commitment

An agreement that a lender will deliver loans or securities by a certain date at agreed-upon terms. (US Dept of HUD)

mandatory purchase

Under the provisions of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, individuals, businesses, and others buying, building, or improving property located in identified areas of special flood hazards within participating communities are required to purchase flood insurance as a prerequisite for receiving any type of direct or indirect federal financial assistance (e.g., any loan, grant, guaranty, insurance, payment, subsidy, or disaster assistance) when the building or personal property is the subject of or security for such assistance. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

manifest system

Tracking of hazardous waste from "cradle to grave" (generation through disposal), with accompanying documents known as "manifests." (US EPA- Pesticides)

manifold (header)

A large pipe to which a series of smaller pipes are connected. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

manning's roughness coefficient (n)

A coefficient used to describe the relative roughness of a channel and overbank areas; used in hydraulic computations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

manometer

An instrument for measuring pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mantle

A thick layer of rock deep within the earth that separates the earth's crust above from the earth's core below. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

manual (nonautomatic)

Requiring personal intervention for control. Nonautomatic does not necessarily imply a manual controller, only that personal intervention is necessary. (Energycodes.gov)

Manual J

The standard method for calculating residential cooling loads developed by the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) and the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) based largely on the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineer's (ASHRAE) "Handbook of Fundamentals." (US Dept of Energy)

manuals

See publications. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

manufactured (mobile) home

A structure, built on a permanent chassis, transported to a site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation. The term does not include recreational vehicles. (Help With My Bank) A structure built on a permanent chassis, transported to its site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation. "Manufactured (mobile) home" does not include recreational vehicles. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

manufactured (mobile) home park or subdivision, existing

A manufactured (mobile) home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured (mobile) homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed on or before December 31, 1974, or before the effective date of the community's initial FIRM, whichever is later. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

manufactured (mobile) home park or subdivision, expansion to existing site

The preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which manufactured (mobile) homes are to be affixed (including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads). (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

manufactured (mobile) home park or subdivision, new

A manufactured (mobile) home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured (mobile) homes are to be affixed (including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads) is completed after December 31, 1974, or on or after the effective date of the community's initial FIRM, whichever is later. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

manufactured gas

��A gas obtained by destructive distillation of coal or by the thermal decomposition of oil, or by the reaction of steam passing through a bed of heated coal or coke. Examples are coal gases, coke oven gases, producer gas, blast furnace gas, blue (water) gas, carbureted water gas. Btu content varies widely. (US Energy Information Administration)

manufactured home

A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the traveling mode is 8 body feet or more in width, or 40 body feet or more in length, or which when erected onsite is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air conditioning, and electrical systems contained in the structure. This term includes all structures that meet the above requirements except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification pursuant to 24 CFR 3282.13 and complies with the construction and safety standards set forth in this 24 CFR 3280. The term does not include any self-propelled recreational vehicle. Calculations used to determine the number of square feet in a structure will include the total of square feet for each transportable section comprising the completed structure and will be based on the structure's exterior dimensions measured at the largest horizontal projections when erected onsite. These dimensions will include all expandable rooms, cabinets, and other projections containing interior space, but do not include bay windows. Nothing in this definition should be interpreted to mean that a manufactured home necessarily meets the requirements of HUD's Minimum Property Standards (HUD Handbook 4900.1) or that it is automatically eligible for financing under 12 U.S.C. 1709(b). (US Dept of HUD) Manufactured homes are homes made or manufactured in a factory and designed to be transported to a site. Manufactured homes can be large or small, and while they are constructed in the same manner as mobile homes, manufactured homes are not truly mobile. Mobile homes can be moved from one location to another, while manufactured homes are permanently attached to the site using conventional on-site construction. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which, in the traveling mode, is eight body feet or more in width or forty body feet or more in length, or, when erected on site, is three hundred twenty or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure which meets all the requirements of this paragraph except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the Secretary and complies with the standards established under this chapter; and except that such term shall not include any self-propelled recreational vehicle. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

manufactured home construction

All activities relating to the assembly and manufacture of a manufactured home including but not limited to those relating to durability, quality, and safety. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

manufactured home safety

The performance of a manufactured home in such a manner that the public is protected against any unreasonable risk of the occurrence of accidents due to the design or construction of such manufactured home, or any unreasonable risk of death or injury to the user or to the public if such accidents do occur. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

manufactured housing

Homes that are built entirely in a factory in accordance with a federal building code administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Manufactured homes may be single-or multi-section and are transported from the factory to a site and installed. Homes that are permanently affixed to a foundation often may be classified as real property under applicable state law, and may be financed with a mortgage. Homes that are not permanently affixed to a foundation generally are classified as personal property, and are financed with a retail installment sales agreement. (Federal Trade Commission) Once known as ''mobile homes,'' manufactured housing is any building which has been constructed off site, then moved onto a piece of real property. (HardwickAssociates)

manufacturer

Any person engaged in manufacturing or assembling manufactured homes, including any person engaged in importing manufactured homes for resale. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

map

Usually a two-dimensional representation of all or part of the Earth's surface showing selected natural or manmade features or data, preferably constructed on a definite projection with a specified scale. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

map revision

A change in the FHBM or FIRM for a community which reflects revised zone, base flood, or other information. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

marble

Metamorphic rock formed by the "baking" and recrystallization of limestone. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

margin

The amount a lender adds to the index of an adjustable rate mortgage to establish an adjusted interest rate. For example, a margin of 1.50 added to a 7 percent index establishes an adjusted interest rate of 8.50 percent. (Ginnie Mae) A percentage added to the index for an ARM to establish the interest rate on each adjustment date. (Freddie Mac) A percentage added to the index for an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) to establish the interest rate on each adjustment date. (Federal Trade Commission) With regard to securities, this term refers to a fractional amount of full value, or the equity outlay (down payment) required for an investment in securities purchased on credit. (Federal Reserve Education) With regard to securities, this term refers to a fractional amount of full value, or the equity outlay (down payment) required for an investment in securities purchased on credit. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) The number of percentage points the lender adds to the index rate to calculate the interest rate of an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) at each adjustment. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages) The number of percentage points the lender adds to the index rate to calculate the ARM interest rate at each adjustment. (US Dept of HUD) The difference between the interest rate and the index on an adjustable rate mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

margin stock

Any stock listed on a national securities exchange, any over-the-counter security approved by the SEC for trading in the national market system, or appearing on the Board's list of over-the-counter margin stocks and most mutual funds. (Federal Reserve Education) Any stock listed on a national securities exchange, any over-the-counter security approved by the SEC for trading in the national market system or appearing on the Board�s list of over-the-counter margin stock, and most mutual funds. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

marginal cost

The cost of producing one additional unit of a product. (US Dept of Energy)

marginal land

Land whose value has been diminished due to some internal defect or external condition. In most cases, the cost to correct the flaw or condition is as much or more than the expected return from the property. (HardwickAssociates) Land which, in its natural state, is not well suited for a particular purpose, such as raising crops. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

margins of error

Margins of error are reported for each NRI estimate. The margin of error is used to construct the 95 percent confidence interval for the estimate. The lower bound of the interval is obtained by subtracting the margin of error from the estimate; the upper bound is obtained by adding the margin of error to the estimate. Confidence intervals can be created for various levels of significance which is a measure of how certain we are that the interval contains the true value we are estimating. A 95 percent confidence interval means that in repeated samples from the same population, 95 percent of the time the true underlying population parameter will be contained within the lower and upper bounds of the interval. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

marine system

The open ocean overlying the continental shelf and its associated high energy coastline. Marine habitats are exposed to the waves and currents of the open ocean and the water regimes are determined primarily by the ebb and flow of oceanic tides. One of the five systems in the classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats. (See Wetlands, Cowardin et al. 1979.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

maritime

Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction. (MARAD2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Maritime Administration (MARAD)

The Maritime Administration was established by Reorganization Plan No. 21 of 1950 (5 U.S.C. app.) effective May 24, 1950. The Maritime Act of 1981 (46 U.S.C. 1601) transferred the Maritime Administration to the Department of Transportation, effective Aug (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

marked (nameplate) rating

The design load operating conditions of a device as shown by the manufacturer on the nameplate or otherwise marked on the device. (Energycodes.gov)

Market Access Program (MAP)

Formerly the Market Promotion Program, designed to encourage development, maintenance, and expansion of commercial commodity exports to specific export markets. Participating organizations include nonprofit trade associations, State and regional trade groups, and private companies. Activities financed include consumer promotions, market research, technical assistance, and trade servicing. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

market discipline

The forces in a free market (without the influence of government regulation) which tend to control and limit the riskiness of a financial institution�s investment and lending activities. Such forces include the concern of depositors for the safety of their deposits and the concern of bank investors for the safety and soundness of their institutions. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

market interest rates

Rates of interest paid on deposits and other investments, determined by the interaction of the supply of and demand for funds in the money market. (Federal Reserve Education) Rates of interest paid on deposits and other investments, determined by the interaction of the supply of and demand for funds in financial markets. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

market loss assistance payments

Direct payments to producers to partially offset financial losses due to severe weather and other natural disasters or stressful economic conditions, such as low commodity prices or pest and animal disease outbreaks. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

market news

A program administered by USDA's Agricultural Marketing Service to provide current, unbiased price and sales data to assist in the orderly marketing and distribution of farm commodities. Reports include prices, volume, quality, condition, and other market data on agricultural commodities in specific markets and marketing areas, domestically and in international markets. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

market value

A type of value, stated as an opinion, that presumes the transfer of a property (i.e., a right of ownership or a bundle of such rights), as of a certain date, under specific conditions set forth in the definition of the term identified by the appraiser as applicable in an appraisal (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) The price a property can realistically sell for, based upon comparable selling prices of other properties in the same geographical area. (Ginnie Mae) The current value of your home based on what purchaser would pay. An appraisal is sometimes used to determine market value. (Freddie Mac) As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, the most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition are the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby: Buyer and seller are typically motivated; Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests; A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market; Payment is made in terms of cash in U.S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) The most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby: (1) Buyer and seller are typically motivated; (2) Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests; (3) A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market; (4) Payment is made in terms of cash in U.S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and (5) The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) The current value of your home based on what a purchaser would pay. An appraisal is sometimes used to determine market value. (Federal Trade Commission) The amount a seller can expect to receive on the open market for merchandise, services or securities. (Federal Reserve Education) The most probable price that a property should bring in a competitive and open market, provided that all conditions requisite to a fair sale are present, the buyer and seller are knowledgeable and acting prudently, and the price is not affected by any undue stimulus. (US Dept of HUD) As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, the most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, the buyer and seller each acting prudently and knowledgeably, and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus. Implicit in this definition are the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to buyer under conditions whereby: � Buyer and seller are typically motivated; � Both parties are well informed or well advised, and acting in what they consider their own best interests; � A reasonable time is allowed for exposure in the open market; � Payment is made in terms of cash in U.S. dollars or in terms of financial arrangements comparable thereto; and � The price represents the normal consideration for the property sold unaffected by special or creative financing or sales concessions granted by anyone associated with the sale. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010)) The amount a willing buyer would pay a willing seller for a home. An appraised value is an estimate of the current fair market value. (US Dept of HUD)

marketable title

A good title about which there is no fair or reasonable doubt. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

market-based rates

Rates for power or electric service that are established in an unregulated, competitive market. These rates can be established through competitive bidding or through negotiations between the buyer and seller, rather than set by a regulator. As portions of the electric industry become less regulated, market prices are increasingly important for making business decisions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

marketed production

��Gross withdrawals less gas used for repressuring, quantities vented and flared, and nonhydrocarbon gases removed in treating or processing operations. Includes all quantities of gas used in field and processing plant operations. (US Energy Information Administration)

marketer

An agent for generation projects who markets power on behalf of the generator. The marketer may also arrange transmission, firming or other ancillary services as needed. Though a marketer may perform many of the same functions as a broker, the difference is that a marketer represents the generator while a broker acts as a middleman. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

marketing allotments

When in effect, these provide each processor or producer of a specified commodity a specific limit on sales for the year, above which penalties would apply. Sugar allotments, for example, were authorized during 1991-95, suspended by the 1996 Farm Act, and reauthorized under the 2002 and 2008 Farm Acts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marketing assessments

A fee paid by producers, processors, or handlers to help cover costs of commodity programs. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marketing loan gain

The difference between the announced commodity loan rate and the marketing loan repayment rate. This represents a program benefit to producers and is aimed at reducing government costs of stock accumulation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marketing loan program

Provisions that allow producers to repay nonrecourse commodity loans at less than the announced loan rate whenever the world price or loan repayment rate for the commodity is less than the loan rate. Marketing loan provisions are aimed at reducing government costs of stock accumulation. Marketing loan provisions were originally mandated only for rice and upland cotton. Marketing loan provisions are implemented for feed grains, wheat, rice, upland cotton, all oilseeds, peanuts, small and large chickpeas, lentils, dry beans, wool, mohair, and honey. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marketing loan repayment rate

Rate at which farmers are allowed to repay their loans when market prices are below the commodity loan rate. This lower repayment rate is based on the local, posted county prices (PCPs) for wheat, feed grains, or oilseeds; on the adjusted world price for rice or upland cotton; and on the national posted price for peanuts. Any accrued interest on the loan is waived. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marketing orders

Federal marketing orders authorize agricultural producers in a designated region to take various actions to promote orderly marketing, such as influencing supply and quality and pooling funds for promotion and research. Marketing orders are initiated by the industry, but must be approved by the Secretary of Agriculture and by a vote among affected producers. Once approved, a marketing order is mandatory for all producers in the marketing order area. There are marketing orders for a number of fruits, nuts, and vegetables, and for milk. (See also Federal milk marketing orders.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marketing time

According to USPAP Advisory Opinion 7, the time it might take to sell the property interest at the appraised market value during the period immediately after the effective date of the appraisal. An institution may request an appraiser to separately provide an estimate of marketing time in an appraisal. However, this is not a requirement of the Agencies� appraisal regulations. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) According to USPAP Advisory Opinion 7, the time it might take to sell the property interest at the appraised market value during the period immediately after the effective date of the appraisal. An institution may request an appraiser to separately provide an estimate of marketing time in an appraisal. However, this is not a requirement of the Agencies� appraisal regulations. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

marketing year

See crop year. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

marshland

A subcategory of the Land cover/use category Other rural land, described as a nonforested area of land partly or intermittently covered with water and usually characterized by the presence of such monocotyledons as sedges and rushes. These areas are usually in a wetland class and are not placed in another NRI land cover/use category, such as rangeland or pastureland. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

masonry

Walls built by a mason, using brick, stone, tile or similar materials. (Publications- USA.gov) Material such as brick, rock, or stone. (US Dept of Energy)

masonry dam

Any dam constructed mainly of stone, brick or concrete blocks jointed with mortar. A dam having only a masonry facing should not be referred to as a masonry dam. Masonry dams differ from rockfill dams in that the stone is hand-placed with mortar resulting in the entire dam being impermeable. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

masonry stove

A type of heating appliance similar to a fireplace, but much more efficient and clean burning. They are made of masonry and have long channels through which combustion gases give up their heat to the heavy mass of the stove, which releases the heat slowly into a room. Often called Russian or Finnish fireplaces. (US Dept of Energy)

mass appraisal

The process of valuing a universe of properties as of a given date using standard methodology, employing common data, and allowing for statistical testing. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

mass appraisal model

A mathematical expression of how supply and demand factors interact in a market (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

mass burn facility

A type of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration facility in which MSW is burned with only minor presorting to remove oversize, hazardous, or explosive materials. Mass burn facilities can be large, with capacities of 3000 tons (2.7 million kg) of MSW per day or more. They can be scaled down to handle the waste from smaller communities, and modular plants with capacities as low as 25 tons (22.7 thousand kg) per day have been built. Mass burn technologies represent over 75% of all the MSW-to-energy facilities constructed in the United States to date. The major components of a mass burn facility include refuse receiving and handling, combustion and steam generation, flue gas cleaning, power generation (optional), condenser cooling water, residue ash hauling and landfilling. (US Dept of Energy)

mass care center

A facility for providing emergency lodging and care for people made temporarily homeless by an emergency or disaster. Essential basic services (feeding, family reunification, etc.) are provided. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mass concrete

Any large volume of concrete cast-in-place, generally as a monolithic structure. Dimensions of the structure are of such magnitude that measures must be taken to cope with the generation of heat and the resulting volume changes and cracking. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mass curve

A graph of the cumulative values of a hydrologic quantity (such as precipitation or runoff), generally as ordinate, plotted against time or date as abscissa. (SeeDouble-mass curve, and Residual-mass curve.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

mass transportation

Another name for public transportation. (APTA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mass transportation agency

An agency authorized to transport people by bus, rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, and providing to the public general or special service (but not including school, charter or sightseeing service) on a regular basis. (FTA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mass wall

A wall with a heat capacity exceeding (1) 7Btu/ft2 or (2) 5 Btu/ft2 x F provided that the wall has a material unit weight not greater than 120 lb/ft3. (Energycodes.gov)

massive head buttress dam

A buttress dam in which the buttress is greatly enlarged on the upstream side to span the gap between buttresses. See solid head buttress dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

master association

An umbrella organization that is made up of multiple, smaller home owner's associations. Often found in very large developments or condominium projects. (HardwickAssociates)

mastic

A soft sealing material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

matched sale-purchase agreements

An agreement in which the Federal Reserve sells a security outright for immediate delivery to a dealer or foreign central bank, with an agreement to buy the security back on a specific date (usually within 7 days) at the same price. Matched sale-purchase agreements are the reverse of repurchase agreements and allow the Federal Reserve to withdraw reserves on a temporary basis. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

matched sale-purchase transactions

Transaction in which the Federal Reserve sells a government security to a dealer or a foreign central bank and agrees to buy back the security on a specified date (usually within seven days) at the same price (the reverse of a repurchase agreement). Such transactions allow the Federal Reserve to temporarily absorb excess reserves from the banking system, limiting the ability of banks to make new loans and investments. (Federal Reserve Education)

matching funds

Funds that a grant recipient must provide personally or from another source as a condition for receiving grant funds. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

maturity

The time when a note, bond or other investment option comes due for payment to investors. (Federal Reserve Education) The date on which the principal balance of a loan, bond, or other financial instrument becomes due and payable. (Help With My Bank) The due date of a loan. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The date when the principal balance of a loan becomes due and payable. (US Dept of HUD) The date on which the principal balance of a financial instrument becomes due and payable. (HardwickAssociates)

maturity date

The month and year in which a mortgage loan is scheduled to be paid in full as defined in the mortgage loan documents. (Fannie Mae) The date on which a mortgage loan is scheduled to be paid in full, as stated in the note. (Federal Trade Commission)

maximum contaminant level

(aka MCL) The maximum level of certain contaminants permitted in drinking water supplied by a public water system as set by EPA under the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. (US EPA- Pesticides) The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCL's are set as close to the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal as feasible using the best available treatment technology. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum contaminant level goal

(aka MCLG) The maximum level of a contaminant that is associated with no adverse health effects from drinking water containing that contaminant over a lifetime. For chemicals believed to cause cancer, the MCLGs are set at zero. MCLGs are not enforceable, but are ideal, health-based goals which are set in the National Primary Drinking Water Standards developed by EPA. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as possible, considering costs and technology. (US EPA- Pesticides) The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum controllable water surface

The highest reservoir water surface elevation at which gravity flows from the reservoir can be completely shut off. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum credible earthquake

(aka MCE) The largest hypothetical earthquake that may be reasonably expected to occur along a given fault or other seismic source could produce under the current tectonic setting. It is a believable event which can be supported by all known geologic and seismologic data. A hypothetical earthquake is deterministic if its fault or source area is spatially definable and can be located a particular distance from the dam under consideration. A hypothetical earthquake is probabilistic if it is considered to be a random event, and its epicentral distance is determined mathematically by relationships of recurrence and magnitude for some given area. The MCE can be associated with specific surface geologic structures and can also be associated with random or floating earthquakes (movements that occur at depths that do not cause surface displacements). The seismic evaluation criteria determines which faults or seismic sources are assigned an MCE. The most severe earthquake that can be expected to occur at a given site on the basis of geologic and seismological evidence. The severest earthquake that is believed to be possible at the site on the basis of geologic and seismological evidence. It is determined by regional and local studies that include a complete review of all historic earthquake data of events sufficiently nearby to influence the project, all faults in the area, and attenuations from causative faults to the site. The earthquake associated with specific seismotectonic structures, source areas, or provinces that would cause the most servere vibratory ground motion or foundation dislocation capable of being produced at the site under the currently known tectonic framework. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum demand

The greatest of all demands of the load that has occurred within a specified period of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum design earthquake

(aka MDE) The earthquake selected for design or evaluation of the structure. This earthquake would generate the most critical ground motions for evaluation of the seismic performance of the structure among those loadings to which the structure might be exposed. For example, if a site were assigned MCE's from two separate sources, the MCE which would be expected to generate the most severe ground motions would be the maximum design earthquake. The response of the structure to specific ground motion parameters (frequency, duration, etc.) needs to be considered in specifying this event. In certain cases, more than one maximum design earthquake may be specified to reflect the differing response of various components of the structure to earthquake loading. A postulated seismic event, specified in terms of specific bedrock motion parameters at a given site, which is used to evaluate the seismic resistance of manmade structures or other features at the site. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum flood control level

The highest elevation of the flood control storage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum guarantee payment

The maximum payment by the Agency under the guarantee agreement computed by applying the guarantee percentage times the allowable claim amount. (See Chapter 10 for further detail.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

maximum interest rate

For an adjustable-rate mortgage loan, the maximum interest rate on a mortgage loan provided in the related mortgage loan documents. (Also known as - Lifetime Cap, Life Cap, or Ceiling.) (Fannie Mae)

maximum probable flood

See Flood, maximum probable. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

maximum unit weight

The dry unit weight defined by the peak of a compaction curve. See unit weight. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum water surface (maximum pool)

The highest acceptable water surface elevation with all factors affecting the safety of the structure considered. It is the highest water surface elevation resulting from a computed routing of the inflow design flood through the reservoir under established operating criteria. This surface elevation is also the top of the surcharge capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

maximum wave

The highest wave in a wave group. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

MCF

An abbreviation for one thousand cubic feet of natural gas with a heat content of 1,000,000 Btus, or 10 therms. (US Dept of Energy)

mean high water�

The average height of the high water over 19 years. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mean higher high tide�

The average height of the higher of two unequal daily high tides over 19 years. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mean low water

The average height of the low water over 19 years. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mean lower low water�

The average height of the lower of two unequal daily low tides over 19 years. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mean number

The average number. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mean power output (of a wind turbine)

The average power output of a wind energy conversion system at a given mean wind speed based on a Raleigh frequency distribution. (US Dept of Energy)

mean sea level

(aka msl) The elevation of the ocean halfway between high and low tide. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mean temperature

One-half the sum of the minimum daily temperature and maximum daily temperature. (Energycodes.gov)

mean tide level�

A plane midway between mean high water and mean low water. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mean wind speed

The arithmetic wind speed over a specified time period and height above the ground (the majority of U.S. National Weather Service anemometers are at 20 feet (6.1 meters). (US Dept of Energy)

meander

The winding of a stream channel. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Big bend and loops in a river channel as the river snakes through a flat land area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

meander amplitude

Distance between points of maximum curvature of successive meanders of opposite phase in a direction normal to the general course of the meander belt, measured between centerlines of channels. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

meander belt

Area between lines drawn tangential to the extreme limits of fully developed meanders. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

meander breadth

The distance between the lines used to define the meander belt. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

meander length

Distance in the general course of the meanders between corresponding points of successive meanders of the same phase. Twice the distance between successive points of inflection of the meander wave. (Leopold and Wolman, 1957, p. 55.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

means test

Section 707(b)(2) of the Bankruptcy Code applies a "means test" to determine whether an individual debtor's chapter 7 filing is presumed to be an abuse of the Bankruptcy Code requiring dismissal or conversion of the case (generally to chapter 13). Abuse is presumed if the debtor's aggregate current monthly income (see definition above) over 5 years, net of certain statutorily allowed expenses is more than (i) $10,950, or (ii) 25% of the debtor's nonpriority unsecured debt, as long as that amount is at least $6,575. The debtor may rebut a presumption of abuse only by a showing of special circumstances that justify additional expenses or adjustments of current monthly income. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

measures of effectiveness

Measures or tests which reflect the degree of attainment of particular objectives. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mechanical cooling

Reducing the temperature of a gas or liquid by using vapor compression, absorption, desiccant dehumidification combined with evaporative cooling, or another energy-driven thermodynamic cycle. Indirect or direct evaporative cooling alone is not considered mechanical cooling. (Energycodes.gov)

mechanical system

The system and equipment used to provide heating, ventilating, and air conditioning functions as well as additional functions not related to space conditioning, such as, but not limited to, freeze protection in fire protection systems and water heating. (Energycodes.gov)

mechanical systems

Those elements of building used to control the interior climate. (US Dept of Energy)

mechanically ventilated crawlspace system

A system designed to increase ventilation within a crawlspace, achieve higher air pressure in the crawlspace relative to air pressure in the soil beneath the crawlspace, or achieve lower air pressure in the crawlspace relative to air pressure in the living spaces, by use of a fan. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

mechanic's lien

A lien allowed by statute to contractors, laborers and material suppliers on buildings or other structures upon which work has been performed or materials supplied. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

mechanisms of toxicity

The biochemical method by which a chemical reacts in a living organism. (US EPA- Pesticides)

media

Any organization in the business of informing the public with news or commentary. The various forms of media include print, television, internet, and radio. (Help With My Bank)

median

Middle value in a distribution, above and below which lie an equal number of values. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

median price

The price of the house that falls in the middle of the total number of homes for sale in that area. (US Dept of HUD)

median wind speed

The wind speed with 50 percent probability of occurring. (US Dept of Energy)

medical waste

All wastes from hospitals, clinics, or other health care facilities ("Red Bag Waste") that contain or have come into contact with diseased tissues or infectious microorganisms. Also referred to as infectious waste which is hazardous waste with infectious characteristics, including: contaminated animal waste, human blood and blood products, pathological waste, and discarded sharps (needles, scalpels, or broken medical instruments). (US EPA- Pesticides)

medium btu gas

Fuel gas with a heating value of between 200 and 300 Btu per cubic foot. (US Dept of Energy)

medium pressure

For valves and fittings, implies that they are suitable for working pressures between 125 to 175 pounds per square inch. (US Dept of Energy)

medium term notes

MTMs are traditional fixed?income (i.e., debt) instruments with maturities typically ranging from 1 to 10 years. These notes are "traditional" in that they are sold at par with fixed coupon rates (as opposed to discount instruments which are sold at prices below par and offer implicit interest rates equal to the capital gain (par minus purchase price) divided by purchase price. (National Credit Union Administration) Unsecured general obligations of Fannie Mae with maturities of one day or more and with principal and interest payable in U.S. dollars. (US Dept of HUD)

medium-height dam

A dam between 100 and 300 feet high. See low dam and high dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

medium-size water system

A water system that serves greater than 3,300 and less than or equal to 50,000 persons. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

medium-thick arch dam

An arch dam with a base thickness to structural height ratio between 0.2 and 0.3 (previously defined as between 0.3 and 0.5). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mega

A prefix meaning "million". (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

megawatt

(aka MW) One thousand kilowatts, or 1 million watts; standard measure of electric power plant generating capacity. (US Dept of Energy) One million watts of electrical power (capacity). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

megawatt-hour

One thousand kilowatt-hours or 1 million watt-hours. (US Dept of Energy) (aka MWh) One million watt- hours of electrical energy. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

member bank

Depository institution that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. All federally chartered banks are automatically members of the System. State-chartered banks are divided into those that are members of the System (state member banks) and those that are not (nonmember banks). (Federal Reserve Education) Depository institution that is a member of the Federal Reserve System. All federally chartered banks are automatically members of the System. State-chartered banks are divided into those that are members of the System (state member banks) and those that are not (nonmember banks). (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

membrane (diaphragm)

A membrane or sheet or thin zone or facing, made of a flexible impervious material such as asphaltic concrete, plastic concrete, steel, wood, copper, plastic, etc. A cutoff wall or core wall, if thin and flexible, is sometimes referred to as a "diaphragm wall." (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

memorandum of understanding

(aka MOU) A document providing a general description of the responsibilities that are to be assumed by two or more parties in their pursuit of some goal(s). More specific information may be provided in an associated SOW. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A formal document that states the intentions and/or responsibilities of the signatory parties. A memorandum of understanding does not provide the authority to transfer any funding from Reclamation to another party, but may cover Reclamation services reimbursed by others. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

meniscus

The curved top of a column of liquid in a small tube caused by surface tension. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mercury

Mercury is an essential element used to create light in a fluorescent bulb. Mercury can come as vapor or in a solid amalgam form. ENERGY STAR criteria limits the amount of mercury that can be used in qualified CFLs. Many manufacturers have reduced mercury content even further � some to as low as 1 mg per bulb. (Energy Star.gov)

mercury vapor lamp

A high-intensity discharge lamp that uses mercury as the primary light-producing element. Includes clear, phosphor coated, and self-ballasted lamps. (US Dept of Energy)

merged credit report

A credit report issued by a credit reporting company that combines information from two or three major credit bureaus. (Federal Trade Commission) Raw data pulled from two or more of the major credit-reporting firms. (US Dept of HUD) A credit report derived from data obtained from multiple credit agencies. (HardwickAssociates)

merger

The absorption of an estate, corporation, contract, or an interest in another. (Federal Reserve Education) The legal combination of two entities. (National Credit Union Administration)

meromictic lake

A lake in which some water remains partly or wholly unmixed with the main water mass at circulation periods is said to be meromictic. The process leading to a meromictic state is termed meromixis The perennially stagnant deep layer of a meromictic lake is called the monimolimnion. The part of a meromictic lake in which free circulation can occur is called the mixolimnion. The boundary between the monimolimnion and the mixolimnion is called thechemocline. (Hutchinson, 1957, p. 480. ) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

mesh

In wire screen, the number of openings per lineal inch. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mesohaline�

Term to characterize waters with salinity of 5 to 18ppt, due to ocean-derived salts. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mesophyte, mesophytic�

Any plant growing where moisture and aeration conditions lie between extremes. (Plants typically found in habitats with average moisture conditions, not usually dry or wet.) (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mesosaline�

Term to characterize waters with salinity of 5 to 18ppt, due to land-derived salts. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mesotrophic

Reservoirs and lakes which contain moderate quantities of nutrients and are moderately productive in terms of aquatic animal and plant life. See oligotrophic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

met

An approximate unit of heat produced by a resting person, equal to about 18.5 Btu per square foot per hour. (US Dept of Energy)

metabolic quotient

(aka qCO2) The ratio of microbial activity to microbial biomass. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

metadata

Data about data.� For wetland mapping, the metadata must conform to the most recent FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM). The metadata must include a description of the data verification, quality control, and quality assurance steps performed to meet the accuracy requirements of the wetlands mapping standard. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

metal building

A complete, integrated set of mutually-dependent components and assemblies that form a building consisting of a steel-framed superstructure and metal skin. (Energycodes.gov)

metal building roof

A roof that (a) is constructed with a metal, structural, and weathering surface; (b) has no ventilated cavity; and (c) has the insulation entirely below deck (i.e., includes neither a composite concrete and metal deck construction nor a roof framing system that is separated from the superstructure by a wood substrate), and whose structure consists of one or more of the following configurations: (1) metal roofing in direct contact with the steel framing members, (2) insulation between the metal roofing and the steel framing members, or (3) insulated metal roofing panels installed as described in 1 or 2. (Energycodes.gov)

metal building wall

A wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i.e., does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems). (Energycodes.gov)

metal halide

(aka MH) A high-intensity discharge lamp in which the major portion of the light is produced by radiation of metals that are the product of dissociation of metal halides in the arc discharge. Includes clear and phosphor-coated lamps. (Energy Star.gov)

metal halide lamp

A high-intensity discharge lamp type that uses mercury and several halide additives as light-producing elements. These lights have the best Color Rendition Index (CRI) of the High-Intensity Discharge lamps. They can be used for commercial interior lighting or for stadium lights. (US Dept of Energy)

metal halide lamps

A type of high intensity discharge (HID) lamp in which most of the light is produced by radiation of metal halide and mercury vapors in the arc tube. Available in clear and phosphor-coated lamps. (Energycodes.gov)

metalimnion

Middle layer of a thermally stratified lake or reservoir with a rapid temperature decrease with depth. See stratification and thermocline. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

metallic standard

Tying the value of currency to the market value of precious metals. (Federal Reserve Education)

metamorphic

Rock compressed or changed by pressure, heat, or water. A rock formed from a preexisting rock that is altered ("baked") by high temperatures and pressures, causing minerals to recrystallize but not melt. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

metering

Instruments that measure electric voltage, current, power, etc. (Energycodes.gov)

metes and bounds

A description of land by courses and distances. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A traditional way of describing property, generally expressed in terms of distance from a known landmark or intersection, and then following the boundaries of the property back to its origin. (HardwickAssociates)

methane

A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas composed of one molecule of Carbon and four of hydrogen, which is highly flammable. It is the main constituent of "natural gas" that is formed naturally by methanogenic, anaerobic bacteria or can be manufactured, and which is used as a fuel and for manufacturing chemicals. (US Dept of Energy)

methanol

(aka CH3OH; methyl alcohol or wood alcohol) A light, volatile alcohol produced commercially by the catalyzed reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Methanol is blended with gasoline to improve its operational efficiency. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A clear, colorless, very mobile liquid that is flammable and poisonous; used as a fuel and fuel additive, and to produce chemicals. (US Dept of Energy)

methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether

(aka MTBE) A colorless, flammable, liquid oxygenated hydrocarbon that contains 18.15 percent oxygen. It is a fuel oxygenate produced by reacting methanol with isobutylene. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

metric ton (tonne)

A unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms or 2,204.6 pounds. (US Dept of Energy)

metropolitan area

The accumulated land in and around a city or other municipality which falls under the political and economic influence of that entity. (HardwickAssociates)

metropolitan area (MA)

A large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities that has a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. (US Dept of HUD)

metropolitan planning area

The geographic area in which the metropolitan transportation planning process required by 23 U.S.C. 134 and section 8 of the Federal Transit Act (49 U.S.C. app. 1607) must be carried out. (23CFR420) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

metropolitan planning organization

(aka MPO) That organization required by the Department of Transportation, and designated by the Governor as being responsible for coordination within the State, to carry out transportation planning provisions in a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. (US Dept of HUD) 1) Regional policy body, required in urbanized areas with populations over 50,000, and designated by local officials and the governor of the state. Responsible in cooperation with the state and other transportation providers for carrying out the metropolitan transportation planning requirements of federal highway and transit legislation. 2) Formed in cooperation with the state, develops transportation plans and programs for the metropolitan area. For each urbanized area, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) must be designated by agreement between the Governor and local units of government representing 75% of the affected population (in the metropolitan area), including the central cities or cities as defined by the Bureau of the 19: Census, or in accordance with procedures established by applicable State or local law (23 U.S.C. 134(b)(1)/Federal Transit Act of 1991 Sec. 8(b)(1)). (FHWA2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

metropolitan statistical area

(aka MSA) An area with at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core, as measured by commuting ties. (US Dept of HUD) Areas defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. A Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is 1) A county or a group of contiguous counties that contain at least one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more, or 2) An urbanized area of at least 50,000 inhabitants and a total MSA population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England). The contiguous counties are included in an MSA if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan in character and are socially and economically integrated with the central city. In New England, MSAs consist of towns and cities rather than counties. (DOE4) (DOE5) (FHWA3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

metropolitan status

A building classification referring to the location of the building either located within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) or outside a MSA. (DOE5) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

metropolitan transportation plan

(aka MTP) The official intermodal transportation plan that is developed and adopted through the metropolitan transportation planning process for the metropolitan planning area, in accordance with 23 U.S.C. 134, 23 USC 135 and 49 U.S.C. 5303. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

MH

Manufactured Housing (Fannie Mae) Metal halide (Energy Star.gov)

mica

Group of minerals that form thin, platy flakes, typically with shiny surfaces, especially common in metamorphic rocks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

micro

Small. A prefix meaning "one millionth". (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

microbe or microorganism

An imprecise term referring to any organism too small to see with the naked eye. Generally, �microbes� refers to bacteria, fungi, and sometimes protozoa. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

microbial biomass

The total amount of organisms in the soil, excluding macrofauna and plant roots. Microbial biomass is typically determined through substrate-induced respiration, or fumigation-extraction methods. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

microbial pesticides

Microorganisms that kill or inhibit pests, including insects or other microorganisms. Sometimes microorganisms get rid of pests simply by growing larger in numbers, using up the pests' food supply, and invading the pests' environment. (US EPA- Pesticides)

microbiologicals

See "Biological Contaminants." (US Environmental Protection Agency)

microclimate

The local climate of specific place or habitat, as influenced by landscape features. (US Dept of Energy) The climate of a small area, particularly that of the living space of a certain species, group or community. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

microeconomics

The study of economics in terms of individual areas of activity (as a firm, household or prices). See also macroeconomics. (Federal Reserve Education) The study of economics in terms of individual areas of activity (as a firm, household, or prices). See also macroeconomics. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

microenterprise

A commercial enterprise that has five or fewer employees, one or more of who owns the enterprise. (US Dept of HUD)

microgram per liter

Equivalent to 1 part per billion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

microgroove

A small groove scribed into the surface of a solar photovoltaic cell which is filled with metal for contacts. (US Dept of Energy)

microhabitat

A small, specialized, and effectively isolated location. See macrohabitat. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

micrometer

One millionth of a meter (10-6 m). (US Dept of Energy)

micron

A unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter, and one thousandth of a millimeter. One inch equals 25,400 microns. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

microorganisms

Also called microbes. Very tiny life forms such as bacteria, algae, diatoms, parasites, plankton, and fungi. Some can cause disease. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) Bacteria, yeasts, simple fungi, algae, protozoans, and a number of other organisms that are microscopic in size. Most are beneficial but some produce disease. Others are involved in composting and sewage treatment. (US EPA- Pesticides)

micropolitan statistical area

An area with at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core, as measured by commuting ties. (US Dept of HUD)

microsystem irrigation

Method of precisely applying irrigation water to the immediate root zone of the target plant at very low rates. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

migmatite

Rock composed of a complex mixture of metamorphic rock and igneous granitic rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

migratory

Moving from one area to another on a seasonal basis. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mil

A unit of length equal to 0.001 of an inch. Used in measuring the diameter of wires, and the thickness of fabric and plastic sheeting. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mildews

Thin coatings of powdery fungi that can grow on damp surfaces like bathroom tiles and corners of the bathtub. (US EPA- Pesticides)

mile

A statute mile (5,280 feet). All mileage computations are based on statute miles. (BTS5) (BTS6) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

miles per gallon

A measure of vehicle fuel efficiency. Miles Per Gallon (MPG) represents "Fleet Miles per Gallon". For each subgroup or "table cell", MPG is computed as the ratio of the total number of miles traveled by all vehicles in the subgroup to the total number of gallons consumed. MPGs are assigned to each vehicle using the 37: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification files and adjusted for on-road driving. (DOE4) (DOE5) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

milestone

The meaning given in CAA sections 182(g)(1) and 189(c) for serious and above ozone nonattainment areas and PM10 nonattainment areas, respectively. For all other nonattainment areas, a milestone consists of an emissions level and the date on which that level is to be achieved as required by the applicable CAA provision for reasonable further progress towards attainment. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A measurable action, state, or goal which marks a point of achievement on the way to solving the problem. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

military crest

A ridge that interrupts the view between a valley and a hilltop. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

milk marketing orders

See Federal milk marketing orders. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

mill

A common monetary measure equal to one-thousandth of a dollar or a tenth of a cent. (US Dept of Energy) Monetary cost and billing unit used by utilities; equal to 1/1000 of U.S. dollar (or 1/10 of one cent). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

milli

A prefix meaning "one thousandth". (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

milligram per liter

(aka mg/l) A measure of concentration used in the measurement of fluids. Mg/l is the most common way to present a concentration in water and is roughly equivalent to parts per million. (US EPA- Pesticides) Equivalent to 1 part per million. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

million acre-feet

(aka maf) The volume of water that would cover 1 million acres to a depth of 1 foot. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

millisecond delay (short period delay)

A type of delay cap with a definite but extremely short interval between initiation, or passing of current, and explosion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mine tailings dam

An industrial waste dam in which the waste materials come from mining operations or mineral processing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mineral

A naturally occurring inorganic substance with definite chemical and physical properties and a definite crystal structure. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mineral rights

The legal right to exploit and enjoy the benefits of any minerals located below the surface of a parcel of land. (HardwickAssociates)

mineral soil�

Soil composed of predominantly mineral rather than organic materials. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mineralization

The conversion of organic compounds into inorganic, plant-available compounds such as ammonium. This is accomplished by soil organisms as they consume organic matter and excrete wastes. (See immobilization.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mines, quarries, and pits

Uses of land for extraction of ores, minerals, and rock materials; a subcategory of the Land cover/use category Barren land. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

minimization

Measures or techniques that reduce the amount of wastes generated during industrial production processes; this term also is applied to recycling and other efforts to reduce the volume of waste going to landfills. This term is interchangeable with waste reduction and waste minimization. (US EPA- Pesticides)

minimum balance

The amount of money required to be on deposit in an account to qualify the depositor for special services or to waive a service charge. (Help With My Bank)

minimum data set

The smallest set of soil properties that can be used to characterize or measure soil quality. The MDS will vary based on the intended land use, soil type, and climate. The first MDS was suggested by Larson and Pierce and included the following: nutrient availability, total organic C, particle size or texture, labile organic C, plant-available water capacity, soil structure, soil strength, maximum rooting depth, pH, and electrical conductivity. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

minimum efficiency reporting value

Consumers can select a particle removal air filter by looking at its efficiency in removing airborne particles from the air stream that passes through it. This efficiency is measured by the minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) for air filters installed in the ductwork of HVAC systems. The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, or ASHRAE developed this measurement method. MERV ratings (ranging from a low of 1 to a high of 20) also allow comparison of air filters made by different companies. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

minimum flow

Negotiated lowest flow in a regulated stream that will sustain an aquatic population of agreed-upon levels. Flow may vary seasonally. Lowest flow in a specified period of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

minimum operating level

The lowest level to which the reservoir is drawn down under normal operating conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

minimum payment

The minimum dollar amount that must be paid each month on a loan, line of credit, or other debt. (Help With My Bank)

mining

Usually removal of soil or rock having value because of its chemical composition. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

minor

One who because of insufficient age or status is legally incapable of making contracts. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

minor arterials (highway)

Roads linking cities and larger towns in rural areas. In urban areas, roads that link but do not penetrate neighborhoods within a community. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

minor oilseeds

See other oilseeds. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

minority carrier

A current carrier, either an electron or a hole, that is in the minority in a specific layer of a semiconductor material; the diffusion of minority carriers under the action of the cell junction voltage is the current in a photovoltaic device. (US Dept of Energy)

minority carrier lifetime

The average time a minority carrier exists before recombination. (US Dept of Energy)

minority neighborhood

A neighborhood in which the percentage of persons of a particular racial or ethnic minority is at least 20 points higher than that minority's percentage in the housing market as a whole; the neighborhood's total percentage of minority persons is at least 20 points higher than the total percentage of minorities for the housing market area as a whole; or in the case of a metropolitan area, the neighborhood's total percentage of minority persons exceeds 50 percent of its population. (US Dept of HUD)

minority resolution program

A resolution program that favors a minority individual, a minority-owned business, or a minority depository institution. For example, the Completion Act gave a bidding preference to minority bidders and acquirers in connection with the resolution of failed institutions located in �predominantly minority neighborhoods.� (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

minority-owned business

A business in which more than 50 percent of the ownership or control is held by one or more minority individuals; and more than 50 percent of the net profit or loss of which accrues to one or more minority individuals. (US Dept of HUD)

misrepresentation

A statement by one party in a transaction that is incorrect or misleading. Most misrepresentations are deemed to be intentional and thus may constitute fraud. Others, however, some are rendered through simple mistakes, oversights or negligence. (HardwickAssociates)

missing payment

A payment that has been made but not credited to the appropriate account. (Help With My Bank)

mites

Tiny eight-legged animals that live off plants, animals or stored food. (US EPA- Pesticides)

miticides

Kill mites that feed on plants and animals (US EPA- Pesticides)

mitigation

Term usually used to refer to various changes or improvements made in a home; for instance, to reduce the average level of radon. (US Dept of HUD) Measures taken to reduce adverse effects on the environment. (US EPA- Pesticides)

mitigation (measures)

Methods or plans to reduce, offset, or eliminate adverse project impacts. Action taken to avoid, reduce the severity of, or eliminate an adverse impact. Mitigation can include one or more of the following: Avoiding impacts. Minimizing impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of an action. Rectifying impacts by restoration, rehabilitation, or repair of the affected environment. Reducing or eliminating impacts over time. Compensating for the impact by replacing or providing substitute resources or environments to offset the loss. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mixed face

In tunneling, digging in dirt and rock in the same heading at the same time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mixing valve

A valve operated by a thermostat that can be installed in solar water heating systems to mix cold water with water from the collector loop to maintain a safe water temperature. (US Dept of Energy)

mixohaline�

Term to characterize water with salinity of 0.5 to 30ppt, due to ocean salts. The term is roughly equivalent to the term brackish. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mixosaline�

Term to characterize waters with salinity of 0.5 to 30ppt, due to land-derived salts. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mobile home

To be eligible for coverage under the National Flood Insurance Program, a mobile home must be on a permanent foundation and meet specific anchoring requirements for it location. See manufactured (mobile) home. (Help With My Bank) A housing unit manufactured in a factory and designed to be transported to a site. This category can include large homes that are not truly mobile but are constructed in the same manner as mobile homes, as opposed to conventional on-site construction. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mobile source

1) The mobile source-related pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM-10 and PM 2.5). 2) Mobile sources include motor vehicles, aircraft, seagoing vessels, and other transportation modes. The mobile source related pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and small particulate matter (PM-10). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mobile source air toxics

Identified by the EPA, MSATs are the 21 hazardous air pollutants generated in large part by transportation sources. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mobility

The ability to move or be moved from place to place. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mode

A specific form of transportation, such as automobile, subway, bus, rail, or air. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

model building codes

The building codes published by the 4 Model Code Organizations and commonly adopted by state or other jurisdictions to control local construction activity. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

model code organizations

Includes the following agencies and the model building codes they promulgate: �Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA National Building Code/1993 and BOCA National Mechanical Code/1993); �International Conference of Building Officials (Uniform Building Code/1991 and Uniform Mechanical Code/1991); �Southern Building Code Congress, International, Inc. (Standard Building Code/1991 and Standard Mechanical Code/1991); �Council of American Building Officials (CABO One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code/1992 and CABO Model Energy Code/1993). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

Model Energy Code

The Model Energy Code (MEC) was first published in 1983, with subsequent full editions published in 1986, 1989, 1992, 1993, and 1995. The MEC became the IECC, first published in 1998. (Energycodes.gov)

modeling

Use of mathematical equations to simulate and predict real events and processes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

moderate frequency flood

A flood of lesser magnitude than the IDF, used for the service spillway design when supplemented by a separate auxiliary spillway. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

moderate income

Households whose incomes are between 81 percent and 95 percent of the median income for the area, as determined by HUD, with adjustments for smaller or larger families. HUD may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 95 percent of the median for the area on the basis of HUD's findings that such variations are necessary because of prevailing levels of construction costs, fair market rents, or unusually high or low family incomes. (US Dept of HUD)

modernize

To accept or adopt modern ways, style, or ideas. (Federal Reserve Education)

modification

A change in the terms of the mortgage note, such as a reduction in the interest rate or a change in maturity date. (Ginnie Mae) Any change to the terms of a mortgage loan, including changes to the interest rate, loan balance, or loan term. (Federal Trade Commission) When a lender agrees to modify the terms of a mortgage without refinancing the loan. (US Dept of HUD)

modification agreement

A document that evidences a change in the terms of a mortgage loan, without refinancing the loan. Commonly, changes are made to the interest rate, repayment terms, guarantors, or property securing the loan. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

modification decision analysis

The process of determining with confidence whether dam safety deficiencies exist for maximum loading conditions. The MDA process is a technical, state-of-the-art evaluation whose complexity can range from the simplified SEED Analysis Report evaluations using available data, to advanced engineering and geologic analyses conducted using material properties and other data obtained from detailed field and laboratory investigations. The MDA evaluates suspected safety of dam deficiencies, identifies the critical types of loading conditions that may cause dam failure, (e.g., earthquake, flood, and static reservoir loading), and eliminates or verifies suspected deficiencies which are capable of causing failure of the dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

modified degree-day method

A method used to estimate building heating loads by assuming that heat loss and gain is proportional to the equivalent heat-loss coefficient for the building envelope. (US Dept of Energy)

modified homogeneous earthfill dam

A homogeneous earthfill dam that uses pervious material specially placed in the embankment to control seepage. See embankment dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

modified mercalli scale

An earthquake intensity scale which has twelve divisions ranging from I (not felt by people) to XII (nearly total damage). For more information on the modified Mercalli scale, visit the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

modified payoff

A variation of the straight deposit payoff. In a modified payoff, the FDIC sells some of the assets of a failed or failing institution to an acquirer, whereas in a straight deposit payoff the FDIC directly pays the insured amount of each insured depositor and liquidates the remaining assets. (Also see straight deposit payoff.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

modified whole bank P&A

A purchase and assumption transaction in which the acquiring institution assumes the deposits and certain other liabilities of the failed institution. In addition to purchasing the cash and cash equivalent assets, the acquiring institution also receives an exclusive call option to purchase fixed assets owned by the failed institution. (Also see whole bank P&A.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

modular building

A building that is usually transported to its site on a steel frame or special trailer because it does not have a permanent chassis like a manufactured (mobile) home. A modular building is classified and rated under one of the other building types. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

module

The smallest self-contained, environmentally protected structure housing interconnected photovoltaic cells and providing a single dc electrical output; also called a panel. (US Dept of Energy)

mohr circle

A graphical representation of the stresses acting on the various planes at a given point. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

moisture

Water diffused in the atmosphere or the ground. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

moisture barrier

Treated paper or metal that retards or bars water vapor, used to keep moisture from passing into walls or floors. (Publications- USA.gov)

moisture content

The water content of a substance (a solid fuel) as measured under specified conditions being the: Dry Basis, which equals the weight of the wet sample minus the weight of a (bone) dry sample divided by the weight of the dry sample times 100 (to get percent); Wet Basis, which is equal to the weight of the wet sample minus the weight of the dry sample divided by the weight of the wet sample times 100. (US Dept of Energy)

moisture content (water content)

The ratio of the weight of water in a soil sample to the weight of the dry soil, expressed as a percentage. See optimum moisture content. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

moisture control

The process of controlling indoor moisture levels and condensation. (US Dept of Energy)

moisture equivalent

The ratio of (a) the weight of water which the soil, after saturation, will retain against a centrifugal force 1,000 times the force of gravity, to (b) the weight of the soil when dry. The ratio is stated as a percentage. (Meinzer, 1923, p. 25; see also Briggs and McLane, 1907, p. 5. ) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

mold

A group of organisms that belong to the kingdom Fungi. In this course, the terms fungi and mold are used interchangeably. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

molding

A strip of decorative material having a plane or curved narrow surface prepared for ornamental application. These strips are often used to hide gaps at wall junctures. (Publications- USA.gov)

molds

Furry fungi that grow on damp surfaces. (US EPA- Pesticides)

molluscicides

Kill snails and slugs (US EPA- Pesticides)

monetary

Of or pertaining to money or its means to circulation. (Federal Reserve Education)

monetary aggregates

See money supply. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

monetary base

Those assets that depository institutions can use to meet their legal reserve requirements. The monetary base consists of deposits (reserves) held by depository institutions at Federal Reserve Banks plus Treasury currency and coins outstanding. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

Monetary Control Act of 1980

(aka MCA) Act which requires that all banks and all institutions that accept deposits from the public make periodic reports to the Federal Reserve System. Starting in September 1981, the Fed charged banks for a range of services that it had provided free in the past, including check clearing, wire transfer of funds and the use of automated clearinghouse facilities. (Federal Reserve Education)

monetary equilibrium

When the quantity of money supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. (Federal Reserve Education)

monetary policy

A central bank's actions to influence the availability and cost of money and credit, as a means of helping to promote national economic goals. Tools of monetary policy include open market operations, discount policy and reserve requirements. (Federal Reserve Education)

monetize

To convert assets into money. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

money

Anything that serves as a generally accepted medium of exchange, a standard of value and a means to save or store purchasing power. In the United States, currency (the bulk of which is Federal Reserve notes), coin and funds in checking and similar accounts at depository institutions are examples of money. (Federal Reserve Education)

money market

Figurative expression for the informal network of dealers and investors over which short-term debt securities are purchased and sold. Money market securities generally are highly liquid securities that mature in less than one year, typically in less than ninety days. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

money market account

A type of investment in which funds are invested in short-term securities. (Federal Trade Commission)

money market deposit account

A savings account that offers a higher rate of interest in exchange for larger than normal deposits. Insured by the FDIC, these accounts have limits on the number of transactions allowed and may require higher balances to receive the higher rate of interest. (Help With My Bank)

money market fund

An open-ended mutual fund that invests in short-term debts and monetary instruments such as Treasury bills and pays money market rates of interest. Money market funds usually offer checkwriting privileges. They are not insured by the FDIC. (Help With My Bank)

money market rates

See short-term interest rates. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

money market savings account

A type of savings account offered by a financial institution. (Federal Reserve Education)

money multiplier

The relationship between the monetary base and the money supply. The multiplier explains the money supply has expanded through the banking system by distribution of excess reserves. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

money supply

Total quantity of money available for transactions and investment; measure of the U.S. stock include M1, M2 and M3. (Also referred to as the money stock or simply money.) (Federal Reserve Education)

money trusts

Small groups of powerful banking and financial interests located in the money centers of New York and Philadelphia during the 1800s and early 1900s. (Federal Reserve Education)

monitoring

The process of periodic review of the primary inspection agencies, by the Secretary or by a State agency under an approved State plan pursuant to section 5422 of this title, in accordance with regulations promulgated under this chapter, giving due consideration to the recommendations of the consensus committee under section 5403(b) of this title, which process shall be for the purpose of ensuring that the primary inspection agencies are discharging their duties under this chapter. and (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

monitoring soil quality

Tracking trends in quantitative indicators or the functional capacity of the soil in order to determine the success of management practices or the need for additional management changes. Monitoring involves the orderly collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from the same locations over time. (Compare to assessing.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

monitoring well

A well used to take water quality samples or to measure ground water levels. (US EPA- Pesticides)

monocline

Bend or steplike fold in rock layers where all strata are inclined in the same direction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

monocoque gate

A thin-shell radial gate in which the usual skin plate and cross-beam framework are replaced by a hollow shell having an approximate elliptical cross section. This type of gate deviates considerably from the conventional beam and skin-plate design in that the shell itself is relied upon to withstand the beam action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

monoculture

The planting, cultivation, and harvesting of a single species of crop in a specified area. (US Dept of Energy)

monolithic

Fabricated as a single structure. (US Dept of Energy)

monomictic

Lakes and reservoirs which are relatively deep, do not freeze over, and undergo a single stratification and mixing cycle during the year. These lakes and reservoirs usually become destratified during the mixing cycle, usually in the fall. Warm-water lakes which turn over annually, usually in winter, and where the temperature never falls below 4 degrees C. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

monthly gross income

The total income of all homeowners who sign a mortgage before any taxes or other deductions are made. (Making Home Affordable)

months to first scheduled amortization

For an interest-only mortgage loan, the number of months remaining until the mortgage loan begins to amortize. For non-interest only mortgage loans, this will be blank. (Fannie Mae)

months to next rate change

For an adjustable-rate mortgage loan, the number of months until the next interest rate change date for the mortgage loan. (Also known as Months to Roll.) (Fannie Mae)

monument of survey

Visible marks or indications left on natural or other objects indicating the lines and boundaries of a survey. May be posts, pillars, stones, cairns, and other such objects. May also be fixed natural objects, blazed trees, roads and even a water course. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

moral hazard

The risk that a party to a transaction has not entered into a contract in good faith, has provided misleading information about its assets, liabilities or credit capacity, or has an incentive to take unusual risks in a desperate attempt to earn a profit before the contract settles. (Federal Reserve Education) Moral hazard occurs when a party insulated from risk may behave differently than it would behave if it were fully exposed to the risk. Moral hazard arises because an individual or institution does not take the full consequences and responsibilities of its doings, and therefore has a tendency to act less carefully than it alternately would, leaving another party to hold some responsibility for the consequences of those actions. For example, a person with insurance against automobile theft may be less cautious about locking his or her car, because the negative consequences of vehicle theft are (partially) the responsibility of the insurance company. (National Credit Union Administration) A potentially costly side effect of most insurance. Persons or companies insured against a particular risk have a tendency to assume more risk. For example, deposit insurance tends to encourage banks to hold riskier portfolios than they otherwise would. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

morbidity

Rate of incidence of disease. (US EPA- Pesticides)

morning glory spillway

A circular or glory hole form of a drop inlet spillway. Usually free standing in the reservoir and so called because of its resemblance to the morning glory flower. See shaft spillway. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mortality

Death rate. (US EPA- Pesticides)

mortgage

A legal instrument in which property serves as security for the repayment of a loan. In some states, a deed of trust is used rather than a mortgage. (Ginnie Mae) A loan using your home as collateral. In some states the term mortgage is also used to describe the document you sign [to grant the lender a lien on your home]. It may also be used to indicate the amount of money you borrow, with interest, to purchase your house. The amount of your mortgage is usually the purchase price of the home minus your down payment. (Freddie Mac) A lien on the property that secures a loan. The borrower is the mortgagor; the lender is the mortgagee. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A contract, signed by a borrower when a home loan is made, that gives the lender the right to take possession of the property if the borrower fails to pay off, or defaults on, the loan. (Federal Trade Commission- Shopping for a Mortgage) A loan using your home as collateral. In some states the term mortgage is also used to describe the document you sign (to grant the lender a lien on your home). It also may be used to indicate the amount of money you borrow, with interest, to purchase your house. The amount of your mortgage often is the purchase price of the home minus your down payment. (Federal Trade Commission) A debt instrument used in a real estate transaction where the property is the collateral for the loan. A mortgage gives the lender a right to take possession of the property if the borrower fails to pay off the loan. (Help With My Bank) A legal document that pledges property to a lender as security for the repayment of a loan. The term is also used to refer to the loan itself. (Making Home Affordable) An interest in land created by a written instrument providing security for the performance of a duty or the payment of a debt. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Includes all forms of debt for which real property, that is, land and/or buildings, is given as security. Such security may be in one or more of the following: First mortgage A mortgage having priority over all other voluntary liens against the property. A first mortgage gives the lender a first claim against the owner's rights in the property if the owner fails to meet the required payments on the mortgage. Second mortgage A junior mortgage that ranks after a first mortgage in priority. Properties may have two, three, or more mortgages, deeds of trust, or land contracts, as liens at the same time. Legal priority would determine whether they are called a first, second, third, etc. lien. Deed of trust An instrument used in many states in place of a mortgage. The difference between a mortgage and a deed of trust is that a deed of trust involves a third party, known as the trustee, who has technical title to the property. Trust deeds, trusts, mortgage bonds, and vendor's liens are similar terms used in various parts of the country. Contract to purchase An arrangement for the sale of real estate whereby the buyer may use, occupy, and enjoy land, but no deed is given by the seller (and no title passes) until all or a specified part of the sale price has been paid. A purchaser who is buying the property by means of a contract to purchase may not consider himself/herself to be the owner since the seller actually has the title. However, for this survey, the purchaser is considered to be the owner. Contract for deed, land contract, purchase agreement, agreement of sale, and assumption agreement are similar terms used frequently in some areas of the country. Home equity line of credit Allows the property owner to borrow against the equity in the home from time to time without reapplying for a loan. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The transfer of an interest in property to a lender as a security for a debt. This interest may be transferred with a Deed of Trust in some states. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) A lien on the property that secures the Promise to repay a loan. A security agreement between the lender and the buyer in which the property is collateral for the loan. The mortgage gives the lender the right to collect payment on the loan and to foreclose if the loan obligations are not met. (US Dept of HUD) A written instrument evidencing or creating a lien against real property for the purpose of providing collateral to secure the repayment of a loan. For program purposes, this may include a deed of trust or any similar document. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) An instrument used to encumber land as security for a debt. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A financial arrangement wherein an individual borrows money to purchase real property and secures the loan with the property as collateral. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgage acceleration clause

A clause allowing a lender, under certain circumstances, demand the entire balance of a loan is repaid in a lump sum. The acceleration clause is usually triggered if the home is sold, title to the property is changed, the loan is refinanced or the borrower defaults on a scheduled payment. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage backed security

A bond or other financial obligation secured by a pool of mortgage loans. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mortgage banker

A lender that originates, closes, services and sells mortgage loans to the secondary market. (Ginnie Mae) An individual or firm that originates, purchases, sells, and/or services loans secured by mortgages on real property. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A company that originates loans and resells them to secondary mortgage lenders like Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. (US Dept of HUD) A specialized lending institution that lends money solely with respect to real estate and secures its loans with mortgages on the real estate. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A financial institution that provides primary and secondary mortgages to home buyers. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgage banker/mortgage company

A company providing mortgage financing with its own funds. Although the mortgage banker or company uses its own funds, these funds are generally borrowed and the financing is either short term or, if long term, the mortgages are sold to investors within a short time. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mortgage broker

An intermediary between a borrower and a lender. A mortgage broker's expertise lies in helping borrowers find financing that they might not otherwise find themselves. (Ginnie Mae) An independent finance professional who specializes in bringing together borrowers and lenders to complete real estate mortgages. (Freddie Mac) An individual or firm that receives a commission for matching borrowers with lenders. Mortgage brokers typically do not fund the loans they help originate. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) An individual or firm that brings borrowers and lenders together for the purpose of loan origination. A mortgage broker typically takes loan applications and may process loans. A mortgage broker also may close the loan. (Federal Trade Commission) A person (not an employee of a lender) or entity that renders origination services and serves as an intermediary between a borrower and a lender in a transaction involving a federally related mortgage loan, including such a person or entity that closes the loan in its own name in a table funded transaction. A loan correspondent approved under 24 CFR 202.8 for Federal Housing Administration programs is a mortgage broker for purposes of this part. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) A firm that originates and processes loans for a number of lenders. (US Dept of HUD) A person or company that buys and sells mortgages for another on commission or who arranges for and negotiates mortgage contracts. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A person or organization that serves as a middleman to facilitate the mortgage process. Brokers often represent multiple mortgage bankers and offer the most appropriate deal to each buyer. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgage broker fees (special rule)

Fees charged by a mortgage broker (including fees paid by the consumer directly to the broker or to the creditor for delivery to the broker) are finance charges even if the creditor does not require the consumer to use a mortgage broker and even if the creditor does not retain any portion of the charge. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

mortgage fraud

A knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact in a mortgage loan application to induce another to approve the granting of a mortgage loan. For the purpose of this paper, mortgage fraud refers solely to fraudulent schemes pertaining to residential mortgage loans. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

mortgage holder

An entity that holds (owns) mortgages or deeds of trust. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mortgage insurance

(aka MI or PMI) Money paid to insure the lender against loss due to foreclosure or loan default. Mortgage insurance is required on conventional loans with less than a 20 percent down payment. FHA mortgage insurance requires a payment of 1.5 percent of the loan amount to be paid at closing, as well as an annual fee of 0.5 percent of the loan amount added to each monthly payment. (Ginnie Mae) Insurance needed for mortgages with low down payments (usually less than 20% of the price of the home). (Freddie Mac) Insurance that protects lenders against losses caused by a borrower�s default on a mortgage loan. MI typically is required if the borrower�s down payment is less than 20 percent of the purchase price. (Federal Trade Commission) Insurance that protects lenders against losses caused by a rhomeowner's default on a mortgage loan. MI typically is required if the homeowner's down payment is less than 20% of the purchase price. (Making Home Affordable) A policy that guarantees repayment to a lender of a mortgage loan in the event of default. See "insured mortgage;" "FHA;" "VA;" "FmHA;" "private mortgage insurance." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A policy that protects lenders against some or most of the losses that can occur when a borrower defaults on a mortgage loan; mortgage insurance is required primarily for borrowers with a down payment of less than 20% of the home's purchase price. Insurance purchased by the buyer to protect the lender in the event of default. Typically purchased for loans with less than 20 percent down payment. The cost of mortgage insurance is usually added to the monthly payment. Mortgage insurance is maintained on conventional loans until the outstanding amount of the loan is less than 80 percent of the value of the house or for a set period of time (7 years is common). Mortgage insurance also is available through a government agency, such as the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or through companies (Private Mortgage Insurance or PMI). (US Dept of HUD) Insurance that covers the lender against losses incurred as a result of a default on a home loan. This is usually required on all loans that have a loan-to-value higher than eighty percent. Mortgages that have an 80% LTV that do not require mortgage insurance have higher interest rates. The lenders then pay the mortgage insurance themselves. In addition, FHA loans and some first-time homebuyer programs require mortgage insurance regardless of the loan-to-value. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) A policy that fulfills those obligations of a mortgage when the policy holder defaults or is no longer able to make payments. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgage insurance company

A company that insures, to lenders, conventional loan repayment in the event of default and/or foreclosure. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mortgage insurance percentage

The percentage of mortgage insurance coverage obtained for an insured conventional mortgage loan and used in the event of default to calculate the insurance benefit, as defined by the underlying master primary insurance policy (Fannie Mae)

mortgage insurance premium

(aka MIP) The amount paid by a borrower for mortgage insurance, either to a government agency such as the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or to a private mortgage insurance (PMI) company. (Federal Trade Commission) A monthly payment -usually part of the mortgage payment - paid by a borrower for mortgage insurance. (US Dept of HUD) A fee that is often included in mortgage payments that pays for mortgage insurance coverage. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgage interest

The interest rate charge for borrowing the money for the mortgage. It is used to calculate the interest payment on the mortgage each month. (Ginnie Mae)

mortgage interest deduction

The interest cost of a mortgage, which is a tax - deductible expense. The interest reduces the taxable income of taxpayers. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage lender

The lender providing funds for a mortgage. Lenders also manage the credit and financial information review, the property and the loan application process through closing. (Freddie Mac) The lender providing funds for a mortgage. Lenders also manage the credit and financial information review, the property and the loan application process through closing. (Federal Trade Commission)

mortgage life and disability insurance

Term life insurance bought by borrowers to pay off a mortgage in the event of death or make monthly payments in the case of disability. The amount of coverage decreases as the principal balance declines. There are many different terms of coverage determining amounts of payments and when payments begin and end. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage life insurance

A type of insurance that will pay off a mortgage if the borrower dies while the loan is outstanding; a form of credit life insurance. (Federal Trade Commission) A term life insurance policy for the amount of the declining balance of a loan that is secured by a mortgage or deed of trust. This is not the same as mortgage insurance and should not be reported as such. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A policy that fulfills the obligations of a mortgage when the policy holder dies. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgage loan

A temporary and conditional pledge of property to a creditor as security for the repayment of debt. (Federal Reserve Education) A loan made by a lender to a borrower for the financing of real property. (Help With My Bank)

mortgage margin

For an adjustable-rate mortgage loan, the rate that is added to the index value to establish the new interest rate (after applying all applicable caps and floors) accruing on the loan at each interest rate change date. (Also known as Gross Margin and Loan Margin.) (Fannie Mae)

mortgage modification

A change in the terms of a loan, usually the interest rate and/or term, in response to the homeowner's inability to make the payments under the existing contract. (Making Home Affordable) A loss mitigation option that allows a borrower to refinance and/or extend the term of the mortgage loan and thus reduce the monthly payments. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage note

A legal document obligating a borrower to repay a loan at a stated interest rate during a specified period; the agreement is secured by a mortgage that is recorded in the public records along with the deed. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage payment

The amount of money paid on a monthly basis for principal, interest, property taxes, hazard insurance and homeowner�s association fees, if applicable. (Making Home Affordable)

mortgage payment guideline

The calculation within HAMP that helps determine a homeowners eligibility. It is calculated as 31% of the homeowner�s current monthly gross income. If the monthly mortgage payment is above this amount, a homeowner may be eligible for HAMP. (Making Home Affordable)

mortgage pool

A collection of loans of similar nature which are sold as a unit in the secondary market or used to back a security which is then sold in the capital markets. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Mortgage Portfolio Protection Program

A program designed to help lending institutions to maintain compliance with the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended. Policies written under the MPPP can be placed only through a WYO Company. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

mortgage qualifying ratio

Used to calculate the maximum amount of funds that an individual traditionally may be able to afford. A typical mortgage qualifying ratio is 28: 36. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage rate

The cost or the interest rate you pay to borrow the money to buy your house. (Freddie Mac) The interest rate you pay to borrow the money to buy your house. (Federal Trade Commission)

mortgage revenue bonds

Issued by communities as a means of providing lower cost mortgage funds to certain qualified borrowers. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

mortgage score

A score based on a combination of information about the borrower that is obtained from the loan application, the credit report, and property value information. The score is a comprehensive analysis of the borrower's ability to repay a mortgage loan and manage credit. (US Dept of HUD)

mortgage servicing

Performing the necessary duties of a mortgagee, such as collecting payments, releasing the lien upon payment in full, foreclosing if in default, and making sure the taxes are paid, insurance is in force, etc. Servicing may be done, for a fee, by the lender or by a company acting for the lender. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mortgage term

The length of time that a mortgage is scheduled to exist. Example: a 30-year mortgage term is for 30 years. (Ginnie Mae)

mortgage-backed security

A mortgage?backed security (MBS) is an asset?backed security or debt obligation that represents a claim on the cash flows from mortgage loans, most commonly on residential property. First, mortgage loans are purchased from banks, mortgage companies, and other originators. Then, these loans are assembled into pools. This is done by government agencies, government?sponsored enterprises, and private entities, which may offer features to mitigate the risk of default associated with these mortgages. Mortgage-backed securities represent claims on the principal and payments on the loans in the pool, through a process known as Securitization. These securities are usually sold as bonds, but financial innovation has created a variety of securities that derive their ultimate value from mortgage pools. (National Credit Union Administration) An ordinary bond backed by an interest in a pool of mortgages or trust deeds. The interest and principal payments collected on the underlying mortgages are the source of income to the bondholders. The RTC, which began issuing one-to-four family residential mortgage-backed securities in June 1991, was instrumental in developing the MBS market in the early 1990s. Most mortgage-backed securities have AA or AAA bond ratings. (Also see securitization.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) (aka MBS) A Fannie Mae security that represents an undivided interest in a group of mortgages. Principal and interest payments from the individual mortgage loans are grouped and paid out to the MBS holders. (US Dept of HUD) A security evidencing either the ownership of an interest in a mortgage loan or pools of mortgage loans, or a separate obligation secured by a mortgage loan or pool of mortgage loans. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

mortgaged property

The real property that is security for the federally related mortgage loan. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

mortgagee

The lender. (Ginnie Mae) The institution or individual to whom a mortgage is given. (Federal Trade Commission) The lender in a mortgage loan relationship. (Help With My Bank) The lender. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The lender in a mortgage agreement. Mortgagor - The borrower in a mortgage agreement. (US Dept of HUD) The mortgage lender. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The entity that lends money in a real estate transaction. (HardwickAssociates)

mortgagee's policy

See "Lender's Policy ." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

mortgagor

The borrower. (Ginnie Mae) The owner of real estate who pledges property as security for the repayment of a debt; the borrower. (Federal Trade Commission) The borrower in a mortgage loan relationship. (Property is used as collateral to make payment.) (Help With My Bank) The borrower. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The borrower in a mortgage agreement (US Dept of HUD) The mortgage borrower. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The entity that borrows money in a real estate transaction. (HardwickAssociates)

moss

Photosynthetic plants with small leaves that unfurl when moistened (thus the moss appears to swell). When dry, mosses are dark and dull-colored; when moistened, the color changes markedly to a bright, light green to brown. This makes them easy to distinguish from lichens. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

motion to lift the automatic stay

A request by a creditor to allow the creditor to take action against the debtor or the debtor's property that would otherwise be prohibited by the automatic stay. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

motor

A machine supplied with external energy that is converted into force and/or motion. (US Dept of Energy)

motor efficiency

The ratio of energy delivered by a motor to the energy supplied to it during a fixed period or cycle. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

motor power rated

The rated output power from the motor. (Energycodes.gov)

motor speed

The number of revolutions that the motor turns in a given time period (i.e. revolutions per minute, rpm). (US Dept of Energy)

motor vehicle emissions budget

The portion of the total allowable emissions defined in the submitted or approved control strategy implementation plan revision or maintenance plan for a certain date for the purpose of meeting reasonable further progress milestones or demonstrating attainment or maintenance of the NAAQS, for any criteria pollutant or its precursors, allocated to highway and transit vehicle use and emissions. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

motor vehicle sales

Unit sales of domestically-produced cars and light-duty trucks. Figures are good indicators of trends in consumer spending. (Federal Reserve Education)

motorbus (transit)

A rubber-tired, self-propelled, manually steered bus with a fuel supply onboard the vehicle. Motorbus types include intercity, school, and transit. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

motorcycle

A two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle designed to transport one or two people, including motor scooters, minibikes, and mopeds. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

motorized vehicle

Includes all vehicles that are licensed for highway driving. Specifically excluded are snow mobiles and minibikes. (FHWA3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

mottling, soil

Irregular spots of different colors that vary in number and size. Mottling generally indicates poor aeration and impeded drainage. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

movable insulation

A device that reduces heat loss at night and during cloudy periods and heat gain during the day in warm weather. A movable insulator could be an insulative shade, shutter panel, or curtain. (US Dept of Energy)

ms connectors

Surface delays for use when shooting with detonating cord. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

MTBE

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) is an ether compound used as a gasoline blending component to raise the oxygen content of gasoline. MTBE is made by combining isobutylene (from various refining and chemical processes) and methanol (usually made from natural gas). (US Dept of Energy)

muck

Mud rich in humus. Stone, dirt, debris, or useless material; or an organic soil of very soft consistency. Finely blasted rock, particularly from underground. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mud

Generally, any soil containing enough water to make it soft. A mixture of soil and water in a fluid or weakly solid state. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mud�

Wet soft earth composed predominantly of clay and silt--fine mineral sediments less than 0.074 mm in diameter (Black 1968; Liu 1970). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

mud flat

A Land cover/use subcategory under Barren land. A mud area with less than 5 percent vegetative cover. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mudflat

A mud-covered, gently sloping tract of land alternately covered and left bare by water. The muddy, nearly level bed of a dry lake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mudflow

A river of liquid and flowing mud on the surfaces of normally dry land areas, as when earth is carried by a current of water. Other earth movements, such as landslide, slope failure, or a saturated soil mass moving by liquidity down a slope, are not mudflows. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) A well-mixed mass of water and alluvium which, because of its high viscosity and low fluidity as compared with water, moves at a much slower rate, usually piling up and spreading over the fan like a sheet of wet mortar or concrete. (Woolley, 1946, p. 75.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

mudstone

Fine-grained sedimentary rock formed from hardened clay and silt that lacks the thin layers typical of shale. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mulch

Material spread on the ground to reduce soil erosion and evaporation of water. Any substance spread or allowed to remain on the soil surface to conserve soil moisture and shield soil particles from the erosive forces of raindrops and runoff. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

mullion

Slender framing which divides the lights or panes of windows. (Publications- USA.gov)

multi-family

A multi-family building is a residential building three stories or fewer in height that contains three or more attached dwelling units. Multi-family buildings include apartments, condominiums, townhouses, and rowhouses. Hotels and motels are considered commercial rather than residential buildings. (Energycodes.gov)

multifamily housing

A building with more than four residential rental units. (US Dept of HUD)

multifamily mortgage

A mortgage loan on a building with five or more dwelling units. (Federal Trade Commission)

multifamily project

A project designed with five or more living units. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

multifamily properties

Typically, buildings with five or more dwelling units. (Federal Trade Commission)

multi-family properties

Any collection of buildings that are designed and built to support the habitation of more than four families. (HardwickAssociates)

multijunction device

A high-efficiency photovoltaic device containing two or more cell junctions, each of which is optimized for a particular part of the solar spectrum. (US Dept of Energy)

multilateralism

An international policy intended to free international trade from the restrictions of bilateralism. Multilateralism represents an effort to permit nations to specialize in production and exchange in accordance with the principle of comparative advantage. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

multimodal

The availability of transportation options using different modes within a system or corridor. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

multimodal transportation

Often used as a synonym for intermodalism. Congress and others frequently use the term intermodalism in its broadest interpretation as a synonym for multimodal transportation. Most precisely, multimodal transportation covers all modes without necessarily including a holistic or integrated approach. (BTS2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

multiple arch dam

A buttress dam, the upstream part of which comprises a series of arches. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

multiple investor fund (MIF)

An RTC equity partnership created in early 1993 and targeted for the large institutional investor market. The two MIF transactions disposed of approximately 1,000 nonperforming and subperforming commercial mortgages, with an aggregate book value of approximately $2 billion. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

multiple listing service

(aka MLS) A clearinghouse through which member real estate brokerage firms regularly and systematically exchange information on listings of real estate properties and share commissions with members who locate purchasers. The MLS for an area is usually operated by the local, private real estate association as a joint venture among its members designed to foster real estate brokerage services. (Federal Trade Commission)

multiple use

Use of water or land for more than one purpose. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

multiple-purpose reservoir (multipurpose reservoir)

A reservoir planned to operate for more than one purpose. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

multipurpose dam

A dam constructed for two or more purposes (e.g. storage, flood control, navigation, power generation, recreation, or fish and wildlife enhancement.) (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

multipurpose project

A project designed for irrigation, power, flood control, municipal and industrial, recreation, and fish and wildlife benefits, in any combinations of two or more (contrasted to single-purpose projects serving only one need). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

multi-stage pump

A pump that has more than one impeller. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

multi-zone system

A building heating, ventilation, and/or air conditioning system that distributes conditioned air to individual zones or rooms. (US Dept of Energy)

municipal

A type of ownership pertaining to land belonging to the local government of a town or city. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

municipal bond

A bond issued by cities, counties, states and local governmental agencies to finance public projects, such as construction of bridges, schools and highways. (Federal Reserve Education)

municipal solid waste

(aka MSW) Waste material from households and businesses in a community that is not regulated as hazardous. (US Dept of Energy)

municipal utility (municipally-owned electric system)

A utility that is owned and operated by a city. In most cases, municipal utility rates are set at the city level, either by the municipal administration or by a local utility board or commission. In some limited circumstances, state-level regulation applies. Municipal utilities often have access to low-cost power from federal hydroelectric projects and can obtain low interest loans, and they are exempt from income and other taxes at the federal and state levels. These factors contribute to lower financing costs for plant and equipment. Municipal utilities serve roughly 14 percent of the nation's electric customers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

municipal waste

As defined in the Energy Security Act (P.L. 96-294; 1980) as "any organic matter, including sewage, sewage sludge, and industrial or commercial waste, and mixtures of such matter and inorganic refuse from any publicly or privately operated municipal waste collection or similar disposal system, or from similar waste flows (other than such flows which constitute agricultural wastes or residues, or wood wastes or residues from wood harvesting activities or production of forest products)." (US Dept of Energy)

municipal waste to energy project (or plant)

A facility that produces fuel or energy from municipal solid waste. (US Dept of Energy)

municipalization

The process by which a municipal entity assumes responsibility for supplying utility service to its constituents. In supplying electricity, the municipality may generate and distribute the power or purchase wholesale power from other generators and distribute it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

munsell notation

A designation of color by degrees of three simple variables - hue. value, and chroma. For example, a notation of 10YR 6/4 is a color with hue of 10YR, value of 6, and chroma of 4. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mutagenicity

The property of a chemical that causes the genetic characteristics of an organism to change in such a way that future generations are permanently affected. (US EPA- Pesticides)

mutual

A savings institution organized in a nonstock business form. Neither mutual savings banks nor mutual savings institutions have stockholders. All depositors in a mutual institution have a share in the ownership of the institution, according to the amounts of their deposits. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

mutual fund

A pool of money managed by an investment company. (Federal Reserve Education) A fund operated by an investment company that raises money from shareholders and invests it in stocks, bonds, options, commodities, or money market securities. These funds offer investors the advantages of diversification and professional management. To participate, the investor may pay fees and expenses. (Mutual funds are not covered by FDIC insurance.) (Help With My Bank)

mutual funds

A fund that pools the money of its investors to buy a variety of securities. (Freddie Mac) A fund that pools the money of its investors to buy a variety of securities. (Federal Trade Commission)

mutual savings bank

An institution owned by its depositors and operated for their benefit. Most of these banks are in the northeastern United States and hold a large portion of their assets in home mortgage loans. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

mutual savings banks

Banks which accept deposits primarily from individuals and place a large portion of their funds into mortgage loans. These institutions are prominent in many of the northeastern states. Savings banks generally have broader asset and liability powers than savings and loan associations but narrower powers than commercial banks. Savings banks are authorized to offer checking-type accounts. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

mutualists

Two species that have evolved together into a mutually beneficial relationship. For example, mycorrhizal fungi get carbon compounds from plant roots and help deliver water and nutrients to the root. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mvoc (microbial volatile organic compound)

A chemical made by mold that is a gas at room temperature and may have a moldy or musty odor. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

mycelium

A bundle of fungal hyphae that form the vegetative body of many fungal organisms. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mycorrhizal associations

A symbiotic association of certain fungi with roots. The fungi receive energy and nutrients from the plant. The plant receives improved access to water and some nutrients. Except for brassicas (mustard, broccoli, canola) and chenopods (beets, lamb�s-quarters, chard, spinach), most plants form mycorrhizal associations. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

mycotoxin

A toxin produced by a mold. (US Environmental Protection Agency)