jacket

The enclosure on a water heater, furnace, or boiler. (US Dept of Energy)

jalousies

Windows with movable, horizontal glass slats angled to admit-ventilation and keep out rain. This term is also used for outside shutters of wood constructed in this way. (Publications- USA.gov)

jamb

An upright surface that lines an opening for a door or window. (Publications- USA.gov) The side of a door frame. (HardwickAssociates)

JDC Program

An RTC equity partnership program. The ownership entity was a limited partnership, in which an investor with collection experience was the general partner and the RTC was a limited partner. There were 30 partnerships created under this program, with an average book value of $414 million in JDCs per partnership. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

jeopardy opinion

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) opinion that an action is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a listed species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat. The opinion includes reasonable and prudent alternatives, if any. See no jeopardy opinion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

jet-flow gate

A gate consisting of a wheel-mounted leaf moved vertically by a motor-driven screw hoist. High pressure gate resembling a ring follower gate in general configuration, but designed for regulating flow with minimal cavitation damage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

jetting

A method of compacting soil using a hose or other device, with a high velocity stream of water, worked down through the depth of soil placed. Drilling with high pressure water or air jets. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

jetting pump

A water pump that develops very high discharge pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

jetty

Pier or other structure built out into a body of water to influence the current or tide, or to protect a harbor or shoreline. A long fill or structure extending into water from the shore, that serves to change the direction or velocity of water flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

job hazard analysis

(aka JHA) A study of a job or activity to identify hazards or potential accidents associated with each step or task, and develop solutions that will eliminate, nullify, or prevent such hazards or accidents. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

jobless claims

A weekly compilation of the number of individuals who filed for unemployment insurance for the first time. It predicts trends in the labor market. (Federal Reserve Education)

jogging

The frequent starting and stopping of an electric motor. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

joint

See expansion joint, cold joint, construction joint, contraction joint, and control joint. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

joint account

An account owned by two or more persons. Either party can conduct transactions separately or together as set forth in the deposit account contract. (Help With My Bank)

joint administration

A court-approved mechanism under which two or more cases can be administered together. (Assuming no conflicts of interest, these separate businesses or individuals can pool their resources, hire the same professionals, etc.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

joint float

An arrangement by which a group of currencies maintain a fixed relationship relative to each other, but move jointly relative to another currency in response to supply and demand conditions in the exchange market. (Federal Reserve Education) An arrangement by which a group of currencies maintain a fixed relationship relative to each other, but move jointly relative to another currency in response to supply and demand conditions in the exchange market. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

joint information center

A single location where public information officials gather to collaborate on, and coordinate the release of, emergency public information. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

joint petition

One bankruptcy petition filed by a husband and wife together. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

joint resolution

A legislative measure that requires the approval of both houses of Congress and is submitted (just as a bill is) to the president for possible signature into law. Joint resolutions are also used to propose constitutional amendments to the Constitution. These resolutions require a two-thirds affirmative vote in each house but are not submitted to the president; they become effective when ratified by three-quarters of the states. Joint resolutions that become law are published annually in Statutes at Large. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

joint tenancy

Equal ownership of property by two or more parties, each with the right of survivorship. (Ginnie Mae) An estate where two or more persons hold real estate jointly for life, where each owns an undivided interest in the property, and commonly includes a right of survivorship whereby following the death of one or more joint title owners, title vests in any surviving joint tenants. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A situation where two or more parties own a piece of property together. Each of the owners has an equal share, and may not dispose of or alter that share without the consent of the other owners. (HardwickAssociates)

joint tenancy (with rights of survivorship)

Two or more owners share equal ownership and rights to the property. If a joint owner dies, his or her share of the property passes to the other owners, without probate. In joint tenancy, ownership of the property cannot be willed to someone who is not a joint owner. (US Dept of HUD)

joint use capacity

The reservoir capacity assigned to flood control purposes during certain periods of the year and to conservation purposes during other periods of the year. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

joint venture

An agreement between two or more parties who invest in a single business or property; similar to a limited partnership. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

joist

A small rectangular sectional member arranged parallel from wall to wall in a building, or resting on beams or girders. They support a floor or the laths or furring strips of a ceiling. (Publications- USA.gov) A beam used to support floors or roofs. (Energy Star.gov) A structural, load-carrying building member with an open web system that supports floors and roofs utilizing wood or specific steels and is designed as a simple span member. (US Dept of Energy)

joists

Horizontal beams laid on edge to support flooring or a ceiling. (HardwickAssociates)

jones act

Cargo preference legislation that requires shipping of most government cargo, including foreign food aid, on U.S.-built, owned, crewed, and operated vessels. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

joule

A metric unit of energy or work; the energy produced by a force of one Newton operating through a distance of one meter; 1 Joule per second equals 1 Watt or 0.737 foot-pounds; 1 Btu equals 1,055 Joules. (US Dept of Energy) A measure of energy, work or quantity of heat. One joule is the work done when a force of one newton is displaced a distance of one meter in the direction of force. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Joule's Law

The rate of heat production by a steady current in any part of an electrical circuit that is proportional to the resistance and to the square of the current, or, the internal energy of an ideal gas depends only on its temperature. (US Dept of Energy)

judgment

A legal decision; when requiring debt repayment, a judgment may include a property lien that secures the creditor's claim by providing a collateral source. (US Dept of HUD) An obligation to pay; created by a court and evidenced by an official certificate. A judgment may include loan principal, unpaid interest, unpaid taxes, legal fees, court costs, and other collection expenses. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) A legal decision; when requiring debt repayment, a judgment may include a property lien that secures the creditor's claim by providing a collateral source. (US Dept of HUD) A decree of a court. In practice this is the lien or charge upon the lands of a debtor resulting from the Court 's award of money to a creditor. See "Judgment Lien." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) An official court decision. If the judgment requires payment from one party to another, the court may put a lien against the payee's property as collateral. (HardwickAssociates)

judgment docket

The record book of a County Clerk where a judgment is entered in order that it may become a lien upon the property of the debtor. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

judgment lien

A lien on the property of a debtor resulting from the decree of a court. (Federal Trade Commission) The charge upon the lands of a debtor resulting from the decree of a court properly entered into the judgment docket. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

judgments, deficiencies, and charge-offs

(aka JDC) The three categories of the assets of a failed institution marketed together by the RTC in its JDC program. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

judicial foreclosure

A type of foreclosure conducted as a civil suit in a court of law. (HardwickAssociates)

jumbo loan

A nonconforming loan that is larger than the limits set by the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) or Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC) guidelines. (Ginnie Mae) A loan that exceeds the mortgage amount eligible for purchase by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. Also called �non-conforming loan.� (Federal Trade Commission) Or non-conforming loan, is a loan that exceeds Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's loan limits. Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae loans are referred to as conforming loans. (US Dept of HUD) A mortgage loan for an amount greater than the limits set by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Often called non-conforming loans. (HardwickAssociates)

junction

A region of transition between semiconductor layers, such as a p/n junction, which goes from a region that has a high concentration of acceptors (p-type) to one that has a high concentration of donors (n-type). (US Dept of Energy)

junior mortgage

A loan that is subordinate to the primary loan or first-lien mortgage loan, such as a second or third mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission) Any mortgage of lessor priority than a first mortgage. Second mortgages, third mortgages, and most home equity loans are junior mortgages. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

junk bond

High-yield, high-risk debt that, in many cases, was issued to finance corporate takeovers. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

jurisdiction

Boundary of authorization for a State, county, and/or city emergency management agency. A term used to describe the level of management responsibility an entity has for a specific area using its rules and regulations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

jurisdictional exception

An assignment condition established by applicable law or regulation, which precludes an appraiser from complying with a part of USPAP. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

just in time

(aka JIT) Cargo or components that must be at a destination at the exact time needed. The container or vehicle is the movable warehouse. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

juvenile

Young fish older than 1 year but not capable of reproduction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

juvenile salmon

All early lifestages of downstream migrating salmon (fry through smolt). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)