habitat

The environment where an animal, plant, or microbe lives and grows. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) The area or type of environment in which a plant or animal normally lives or occurs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

HAFA Short Sale

When the homeowner sells the property for less than the full amount due on the mortgage. When a homeowner qualifies for the HAFA Short Sale, the servicer approves the Short Sale terms prior to listing the home and then accepts the payoff in full satisfaction of the mortgage. (Making Home Affordable)

half-section

320 acres. (HardwickAssociates)

haline�

Term used to indicate dominance of ocean salt. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

halophytic

Salt-loving. Plants that thrive in soils that contain salt and/or sodium. A plant that grows in salty or alkaline soil. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hanger

A support for pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

harbor line

An arbitrary line set by authorities on navigable rivers, beyond which wharves and other structures may not be built. Also designated as line of navigation. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

hard water

Water may be considered hard if it has a hardness greater than the typical hardness of water from the region. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hardness

A characteristic of water determined by the levels of calcium and magnesium. Water hardness is largely the result of geological formations of the water source. Public acceptance of hardness varies. Hardness of more than 300-500 mg/l as calcium carbonate is considered excessive for a public water supply and results in high soap consumption as well as objectional scale in heating vessels and pipes, and sometimes causes objectionable tastes in drinking water. Many consumers object to water harder than 150 mg/l, a moderate figure being 60-120 mg/l. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hardpan

A hard, impervious layer, composed chiefly of clay, that is cemented by relatively insoluble materials, that does not become plastic when mixed with water, and definitely limits the downward movement of water and roots. A cemented or compacted layer of soil near the surface that is essentially impermeable to water. A hard, tight soil. A hard layer that may form just below plow depth on cultivated land. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hard-to-sell asset

Those assets remaining unsold other than cash, securities, and performing single-family residential mortgages. By dollar amount, most of the RTC�s hard to sell assets consisted of commercial mortgages, owned real estate, and subsidiary assets. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

hardwood

The close-grained wood from broad-leaved trees such as oak or maple. (Publications- USA.gov)

harmonic(s)

A sinusoidal quantity having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the frequency of a periodic quantity to which it is related. (US Dept of Energy)

harmonics

Voltages and currents at frequencies other than 60 Hz (or 50 Hz where applicable) that cause heating and other detrimental effects in the power system. (Energycodes.gov)

harrow

An agricultural tool that loosens and works the ground surface. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

harvest

In a recreational fishery, refers to numbers of fish that are caught and kept. See catch. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hatchery

A place for hatching fish eggs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

haul distance

The distance measured along the center line or most direct practical route between the center of the mass of excavation and the center of mass of the fill as finally placed. It is the distance material is moved. Average haul is the average distance a grading material is moved from cut to fill. See overhaul. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

haunches (haunch)

The outside areas between the springline and the bottom of a pipe. In pipe, the sides of the lower third of the circumference. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hayland

A subcategory of Cropland managed for the production of forage crops that are machine harvested. The crop may be grasses, legumes, or a combination of both. Hayland also includes land in set-aside or other short-term agricultural programs. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

hazard

Something (e.g., a dam) that creates the potential for adverse consequences such as loss of life (LOL), property damage, and adverse social and environmental impacts. From a dam safety perspective, impacts may be from floodwaters released from dam structures or waters released by partial or complete failure of the dam. In this case, impacts would be to a defined area downstream. Impacts may also be to an area upstream of the dam from effects of backwater flooding or effects of landslides around the reservoir perimeter. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hazard classification

The rating for a dam based on the potential consequences of failure. The rating is based on potential for loss of life and damage to property that failure of the dam could cause. Such classification is related to the amount of development downstream of a dam. Hazard classification is not associated with the existing condition of a dam and/or its appurtenant structures or the anticipated performance or operation of a dam. Rather, hazard classification is a statement of the most realistic adverse impact on human life and downstream developments should a designated dam fail. Hazard classification is used as a tool for prioritizing program activities, allocating resources for accomplishment of objectives, and scheduling safety of dams reassessments. See high hazard, low hazard, and significant hazard. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hazard communication standard

An OSHA regulation that requires chemical manufacturers, suppliers, and importers to assess the hazards of the chemicals they make, supply, or import, and to inform employers, customers, and workers of these hazards through a Material Safety Data Sheet. (US EPA- Pesticides)

hazard insurance

A form of insurance that protects the owner of the insured property against losses from physical damage such as fire and tornadoes. Mortgage lenders often require a borrower to maintain an amount of hazard insurance on the property that is equal at least to the amount of the mortgage loan. (Ginnie Mae) Insurance coverage that compensates for physical damage to a property from fire, wind, vandalism, or other covered hazards or natural disasters. (Federal Trade Commission) Insurance that is generally required under mortgage contracts to pay for loss or damage to a person�s home or property. (Making Home Affordable) Same or similar to "property insurance." See also "property insurance." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Protection against a specific loss, such as fire, wind etc., over a period of time that is secured by the payment of a regularly scheduled premium. (US Dept of HUD) A form of insurance in which the insurance company protects the insured from certain losses, such as fire, vandalism, storms and certain other natural causes. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) Insurance covering damage to a property caused by hazards such as fire, wind and accident. (HardwickAssociates)

hazardous chemical

EPA's designation for any hazardous material that requires a Material Safety Data Sheet. Such substances are capable of producing adverse physical effects (fire, explosion, etc.) or adverse health effects (cancer, dermatitis, etc.) (US EPA- Pesticides)

hazardous material

Any toxic substance or explosive, corrosive, combustible, poisonous, or radioactive material that poses a risk to the public's health, safety, or property, particularly when transported in commerce. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

hazardous materials

Materials that pose the potential for grave, immediate, future, and genetic injury and illness when handled without proper equipment and precautions. Such materials may be toxic, flammable, explosive, corrosive, combinations of these, or otherwise injurious to life and health. Besides being potentially injurious to the discoverer of the materials, toxic materials may be transported to co-workers, children, or pets from shoes or clothing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hazardous substances

Element or compound other than oil which when discharged into the environment, in any quantity, presents an imminent or substantial threat to public health or welfare. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hazardous waste

A subset of solid wastes that pose substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and meet any of the following criteria: ���is specifically listed as a hazardous waste by EPA;���exhibits one or more of the characteristics of hazardous wastes (ignitability, corrosiveness, reactivity, and/or toxicity); ���is generated by the treatment of hazardous waste; or is contained in a hazardous waste. (US EPA- Pesticides)

hazardous waste indicators

Indicators that may signal the presence of hazardous materials include stressed vegetation or unusual lack of vegetation; dead or sick domestic stock, wildlife, or birds; fish kills or otherwise unexplained stream sterility or diminished species and numbers of flora and fauna; unusual coloration or discoloration of the land surface; and acrid or other chemical odors. However, some of the indicators may be ambiguous. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hazardous waste landfill

A specially permitted, excavated or engineered area in which hazardous waste is deposited and covered. Proper protection of the environment from the materials to be deposited in such a landfill requires careful site selection, the cataloging of types of wastes, good design (including a liner and a leachate collection and treatment system), proper operation, and thorough final closure. (US EPA- Pesticides)

hazardous waste sites

Any spill, authorized or unauthorized dumping, abandoned, or inactive waste disposal sites containing or suspected of containing hazardous materials. Materials may be in drums, cylinders, canisters, sacks, or may be uncontained in piles of solids, pools of liquids, abandoned tailings, ponds, or as clouds of gasses. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

HDD65

See Heating Degree Day Base 65F (Energycodes.gov)

head

A unit of pressure for a fluid, commonly used in water pumping and hydro power to express height a pump must lift water, or the distance water falls. Total head accounts for friction head losses, etc. (US Dept of Energy) Differential of pressure causing flow in a fluid system, usually expressed in terms of the height of a liquid column that pressure will support. The difference in number of feet between two water surface elevations. Height of water above a specified point. The back-pressure against a pump. The vertical distance between two points in a fluid. The vertical distance that would statically result from the velocity of a moving fluid. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

head loss

The energy lost from a flowing fluid due to friction, transitions, bends, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

header

The framing elements above an opening such as a window or door. (HardwickAssociates) See manifold. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

headers

Double wood pieces supporting joists in a floor or double wood members placed on edge over windows and doors to transfer the roof and floor weight to the studs. (Publications- USA.gov)

heading

In a tunnel, a digging face and its work area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

headrace

See forebay. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

headwall

An upstream wall. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

headwater

The source and upper part of a stream; water upstream of a dam or powerhouse. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

health assessment

An evaluation of available data on existing or potential risks posed by a Superfund site. Every site on the National Priorities List has a health assessment prepared by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (US EPA- Pesticides)

heap

The soil carried above the sides of a body or bucket. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hearth

The floor of a fireplace or the area immediately in front of it. (HardwickAssociates)

heat

A form of thermal energy resulting from combustion, chemical reaction, friction, or movement of electricity. As a thermodynamic condition, heat, at a constant pressure, is equal to internal or intrinsic energy plus pressure times volume. (US Dept of Energy)

heat absorbing window glass

A type of window glass that contains special tints that cause the window to absorb as much as 45% of incoming solar energy, to reduce heat gain in an interior space. Part of the absorbed heat will continue to be passed through the window by conduction and reradiation. (US Dept of Energy)

heat balance

Energy output from a system that equals energy input. (US Dept of Energy)

heat budget, annual (of a lake)

The amount of heat necessary to raise the water from the minimum temperature of winter to the maximum temperature of summer. (Welch, 1952, p. 65.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

heat capacity

The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a given mass 1°F. Numerically, the sum of the products of the mass per unit area of each individual material in the roof, wall, or floor surface multiplied by its individual specific heat. (Energycodes.gov)

heat content

The amount of heat in a quantity of matter at a specific temperature and pressure. (US Dept of Energy)

heat engine

A device that produces mechanical energy directly from two heat reservoirs of different temperatures. A machine that converts thermal energy to mechanical energy, such as a steam engine or turbine. (US Dept of Energy)

heat exchanger

A device used to transfer heat from a fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid where the two fluids are physically separated. (US Dept of Energy)

heat gain

The amount of heat introduced to a space from all heat producing sources, such as building occupants, lights, appliances, and from the environment, mainly solar energy. (US Dept of Energy)

heat loss

The heat that flows from the building interior, through the building envelope to the outside environment. (US Dept of Energy)

heat pipe

A device that transfers heat by the continuous evaporation and condensation of an internal fluid. (US Dept of Energy)

heat pump

One or more factory-made assemblies that include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both heating and cooling functions. (Energycodes.gov) An electricity powered device that extracts available heat from one area (the heat source) and transfers it to another (the heat sink) to either heat or cool an interior space or to extract heat energy from a fluid. (US Dept of Energy)

heat pump water heaters

A water heater that uses electricity to move heat from one place to another instead of generating heat directly. (US Dept of Energy)

heat rate

The ratio of fuel energy input as heat per unit of net work output; a measure of a power plant thermal efficiency, generally expressed as Btu per net kilowatt-hour. (US Dept of Energy)

heat recovery ventilator

A device that captures the heat from the exhaust air from a building and transfers it to the supply/fresh air entering the building to preheat the air and increase overall heating efficiency. (US Dept of Energy)

heat register

The grilled opening into a room by which the amount of warm air from a furnace can be directed or controlled; may include a damper. (US Dept of Energy)

heat sink

A structure or media that absorbs heat. (US Dept of Energy)

heat source

A structure or media from which heat can be absorbed or extracted. (US Dept of Energy)

heat storage

A device or media that absorbs heat for storage for later use. (US Dept of Energy)

heat storage capacity

The amount of heat that a material can absorb and store. (US Dept of Energy)

heat trace

A heating system where the externally applied heat source follows (traces) the object to be heated, e.g., water piping. (Energycodes.gov)

heat transfer

The flow of heat from one area to another by conduction, convection, and/or radiation. Heat flows naturally from a warmer to a cooler material or space. (US Dept of Energy)

heat transfer fluid

A gas or liquid used to move heat energy from one place to another; a refrigerant. (US Dept of Energy)

heat transmission coefficient

Any coefficient used to calculate heat transmission by conduction, convection, or radiation through materials or structures. (US Dept of Energy)

heat traps

Devices or piping arrangements that effectively restrict the natural tendency of hot water to rise in vertical pipes during standby periods. Examples are the U-shaped arrangement of elbows or a 360-degree loop of tubing. (Energycodes.gov)

heat/light output ratio

CFLs use power more efficiently than incandescent lamps, and therefore require less energy to create the same amount of light. About 90 percent of the power used by an incandescent bulb is wasted as heat, while only about 10 percent is converted to light in the visible spectrum. By more efficiently using the power they consume, CFLs are able to provide the same amount of light, while producing much less heat. (Energy Star.gov)

heated slab

Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements or hot air distribution system is in contact with or placed within the slab or the subgrade. (Energycodes.gov)

heated space

Space within a building that is provided with a positive heat supply (see "Positive Heat Supply"). Finished living space within a basement with registers or heating devices designed to supply heat to a basement space shall automatically define that space as heated space. (Energycodes.gov)

heating capacity (also specific heat)

The quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a specific mass of a substance by one degree. (US Dept of Energy)

heating degree day base 65f

For any one day, when the mean temperature is less than 65°F, there are as many degree days as degrees Fahrenheit temperature difference between the mean temperature for the day and 65°F. Annual heating degree days (HDDs) are the sum of the degree days over a calendar year. (Energycodes.gov)

heating degree days

(aka HDD) A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal heating load of a building in winter. For any one day, when the mean temperature is less than 65°F (18°C), there exists as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between the mean temperature for the day and 65°F (18°C). (Energycodes.gov) The number of degrees per day that the daily average temperature (the mean of the maximum and minimum recorded temperatures) is below a base temperature, usually 65 degrees Fahrenheit, unless otherwise specified; used to determine indoor space heating requirements and heating system sizing. Total HDD is the cumulative total for the year/heating season. The higher the HDD for a location, the colder the daily average temperature(s). (US Dept of Energy)

heating fuel units

Standardized weights or volumes for heating fuels. (US Dept of Energy)

heating fuels

Any gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel used for indoor space heating. (US Dept of Energy)

heating load

The rate of heat flow required to maintain a specific indoor temperature; usually measured in Btu per hour. (US Dept of Energy)

heating season

The coldest months of the year; months where average daily temperatures fall below 65 degrees Fahrenheit creating demand for indoor space heating. (US Dept of Energy)

heating seasonal performance factor

(aka HSPF) The total heating output of a heat pump during its normal annual usage period for heating, in Btu, divided by the total electric energy input during the same period, in watt hours, as determined by DOE 10 CFR Part 430, Subpart B, Test Procedures, and based on Region 4. Heat pump heating is expressed in terms of HSPF. New equipment ranges from about 6.8 to 10.0 HSPF. Higher HSPF ratings indicate more efficient equipment. (Energycodes.gov) The measure of seasonal or annual efficiency of a heat pump operating in the heating mode. It takes into account the variations in temperature that can occur within a season and is the average number of Btu of heat delivered for every watt-hour of electricity used by the heat pump over a heating season. (US Dept of Energy)

heating value

��The average number of British thermal units per cubic foot of natural gas as determined from tests of fuel samples. (US Energy Information Administration) The amount of heat produced from the complete combustion of a unit of fuel. The higher (or gross) heating value is that when all products of combustion are cooled to the pre-combustion temperature, water vapor formed during combustion is condensed, and necessary corrections have been made. Lower (or net) heating value is obtained by subtracting from the gross heating value the latent heat of vaporization of the water vapor formed by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system

(aka HVAC) All the components of the appliance used to condition interior air of a building. (US Dept of Energy)

heave

The upward movement of land surfaces or structures due to subsurface expansion of soil or rock, or vertical faulting of rock. Upward movement of soil caused by expansion or displacement resulting from phenomena such as moisture absorption, removal of overburden, driving of piles, frost action, and loading of an adjacent area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

heavy metal

A common hazardous waste; can damage organisms at low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the food chain. (US EPA- Pesticides)

heavy metals

Metallic elements with high atomic weights, such as, mercury chromium cadmium, arsenic, and lead. Even at low levels these metals can damage living things. They do not break down or decompose and tend to build up in plants, animals, and people causing health concerns. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary)

heavy rail (transit)

An electric railway with the capacity to transport a heavy volume of passenger traffic and characterized by exclusive rights-of-way, multicar trains, high speed, rapid acceleration, sophisticated signaling, and high-platform loading. Also known as: Subway, Elevated (railway), or Metropolitan railway (metro). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

hectare

A measure of area in the metric system similar to an acre. One hectare is equal to 10,000 square meters and 2.4711 acres. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

heel

The end of a rafter that rests on the wall plate. (Publications- USA.gov)

heel of dam

The junction of the upstream face of a concrete gravity dam or arch dam with the ground surface. For an embankment dam, the junction is referred to as the upstream toe of the dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

height of dam

See hydraulic height or structural height. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

height zoning

A municipal restriction on the maximum height of any building or other structure. (HardwickAssociates)

heir

One who might inherit or succeed to an interest in land of an individual who dies without leaving a will (intestate). (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

helical

Spiral. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

heliochemical process

The utilization of solar energy through photosynthesis. (US Dept of Energy)

heliodon

A device used to simulate the angle of the sun for assessing shading potentials of building structures or landscape features. (US Dept of Energy)

heliostat

A device that tracks the movement of the sun; used to orient solar concentrating systems. (US Dept of Energy)

heliothermal

Any process that uses solar radiation to produce useful heat. (US Dept of Energy)

heliothermic

Site planning that accounts for natural solar heating and cooling processes and their relationship to building shape, orientation, and siting. (US Dept of Energy)

heliothermometer

An instrument for measuring solar radiation. (US Dept of Energy)

heliotropic

Any device (or plant) that follows the sun's apparent movement across the sky. (US Dept of Energy)

HELP

Homebuyer Education Learning Program; an educational program from the FHA that counsels people about the home buying process; HELP covers topics like budgeting, finding a home, getting a loan, and home maintenance; in most cases, completion of the program may entitle the homebuyer to a reduced initial FHA mortgage insurance premium-from 2.25% to 1.75% of the home purchase price. (US Dept of HUD)

Hemispherical Bowl Technology

A solar energy concentrating technology that uses a linear receiver that tracks the focal area of a reflector or array of reflectors. (US Dept of Energy)

HEPA

High efficiency particulate air (filter). (US Environmental Protection Agency) High efficiency particulate arrestance (filters). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

herbaceous�

With the characteristics of an herb; a plant with no persistent woody stem above ground. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

herbicide

A pesticide designed to control or kill plants, weeds, or grasses. Almost 70% of all pesticide used by farmers and ranchers are herbicides. These chemicals have wide-ranging effects on non-target species. (US EPA- Pesticides) A compound, usually a man-made organic chemical, used to kill or control plant growth. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

herbivore

Animal that feeds on plants. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

herpetofauna

Reptiles and amphibians. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hertz

(aka Hz) A measure of the number of cycles or wavelengths of electrical energy per second; U.S. electricity supply has a standard frequency of 60 hertz. (US Dept of Energy) The number of complete electromagnetic cycles or waves in one second of an electrical or electronic circuit. A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

heterojunction

A region of electrical contact between two different materials. (US Dept of Energy)

hiatus

A gap or space unintentionally left, when attempting to describe adjoining parcels of land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

HID

High-intensity discharge (Energy Star.gov) High-intensity discharge. (Energycodes.gov)

hidden amenities

Assets of a property which contribute to its value, but are not readily apparent. Examples might include upgraded or premium building materials. (HardwickAssociates)

high dam

A dam over 300 feet high. See low dam and medium-height dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

high hazard

A downstream hazard classification for dams in which more than 6 lives would be in jeopardy and excessive economic loss (urban area including extensive community, industry, agriculture, or outstanding natural resources) would occur as a direct result of dam failure. This classification also applies to structures other than dams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

high occupancy vehicle

(aka HOV) Vehicles carrying two or more people. The number that constitutes an HOV for the purposes of HOV highway lanes may be designated differently by different transportation agencies. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

high occupancy vehicle lane

Exclusive road or traffic lane limited to buses, vanpools, carpools, and emergency vehicles. (APTA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

high output

Ballasts and fluorescent lamps designed to operate at higher power than standard products of the same size in order to provide greater light output. (Energy Star.gov)

high-bay lighting

Interior lighting where the roof truss or ceiling height is greater than approximately 7.6 meters (25 feet) above the floor. (Energy Star.gov)

higher heating value

The maximum heating value of a fuel sample, which includes the calorific value of the fuel (bone dry) and the latent heat of vaporization of the water in the fuel. (See moisture content and net (lower) heating value, below.) (US Dept of Energy)

highest and best use

The most profitable and likely use of a property. Selected from reasonably probable and legal alternative uses, which are found to be physically possible, appropriately supported and financially feasible to result in the highest possible land value. (HardwickAssociates)

high-intensity discharge

(aka HID) A type of electric-discharge lamp in which the light-producing arc is stabilized by wall temperature and the arc tube has a bulb wall loading in excess of 3 watts per square centimeter. HID lamps include groups of lamps known as high-pressure mercury, metal halide, and high-pressure sodium. (Energy Star.gov)

high-intensity discharge lamp

(aka HID lamp) An electric discharge lamp in that light is produced when an electric arc is discharged through a vaporized metal, such as mercury or sodium. Some HID lamps may also have a phosphor coating that contributes to the light produced or enhances the light color. (Energycodes.gov) A lamp that consists of a sealed arc tube inside a glass envelope, or outer jacket. The inner arc tube is filled with elements that emit light when ionized by electric current. A ballast is required to provide the proper starting voltage and to regulate current during operation. (US Dept of Energy)

highly erodible land

(aka HEL) Soils with an erodibility index (EI) equal to or greater than eight are defined as HEL. An EI of 8 indicates that without any cover or conservation practices, the soil will erode at a rate eight times the soil tolerance level. Fields containing at least one-third or 50 acres (whichever is less) of HEL are designated as highly erodible for the purpose of HEL conservation provisions. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

highly erodible land conservation

Includes conservation compliance and sodbuster provisions. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

high-pressure gate

A gate consisting of a rectangular leaf encased in a body and bonnet and equipped with a hydraulic hoist for moving the gate leaf. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

high-pressure sodium lamp

(aka HPS) A high-intensity discharge lamp in which light is produced by radiation from sodium vapor operating at a partial pressure of about 1.33 x 104 pascals (100 torr). Includes clear and diffuse-coated lamps. (Energy Star.gov) A type of High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp that uses sodium under high pressure as the primary light-producing element. These high efficiency lights produce a golden white color and are used for interior industrial applications, such as in warehouses and manufacturing, and for security, street, and area lighting. (US Dept of Energy)

high-rise building

High-rise condominium buildings have 5 or more units and at least 3 floors excluding enclosure even if it is the lowest floor for rating purposes. An enclosure below an elevated building, even if it is the lowest floor for rating purposes, cannot be counted as a floor to avoid classifying the building as low rise. Under the NFIP, townhouses/rowhouses are not considered high-rise buildings, regardless of the number of floors. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

high-rise residential building

Hotels, motels, apartments, condominiums, dormitories, and other residential-type facilities that provide complete housekeeping or transient living quarters and are over three stories in height above grade. Hotels, motels, and other buildings with itinerant occupancies are covered by the "commercial" code regardless of height. (Energycodes.gov)

high-tier tariff rate

See over-quota tariff in ERS WTO Briefing Room Glossary. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

highway

Is any road, street, parkway, or freeway/expressway that includes rights-of-way, bridges, railroad-highway crossings, tunnels, drainage structures, signs, guardrail, and protective structures in connection with highways. The highway further includes that portion of any interstate or international bridge or tunnel and the approaches thereto (23 U.S.C. 101a). (FHWA2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program

(aka HBRRP) Established under 23 U.S.C., Section 144, to enable the several states to replace and rehabilitate highway bridges when it is determined that the bridge is unsafe because of structural deficiencies, physical deterioration, or functional obsolescence. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Highway Trust Fund

(aka HTF) An account established by law to hold Federal highway user taxes that are dedicated for highway and transit related purposes. The HTF has two accounts: the Highway Account, and the Mass Transit Account. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

highway-rail grade crossing (rail)

A location where one or more railroad tracks are crossed by a public highway, road, street, or a private roadway at grade, including sidewalks and pathways at or associated with the crossing. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

highway-user tax

A charge levied on persons or organizations based on their use of public roads. Funds collected are usually applied toward highway construction, reconstruction, and maintenance. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

hip

The external angle formed by the juncture of two slopes of a roof. (Publications- USA.gov)

hip roof

A roof that slants upward on three or four sides. (Publications- USA.gov)

historic

A building or space that has been specifically designated as historically significant by the adopting authority, is listed in "The National Register of Historic Places," or has been determined to be eligible for listing by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior. (Energycodes.gov)

historic building

Any building that is: �Listed individually in the National Register of Historic places (a listing maintained by the Department of the Interior) or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as meeting the requirements for individual listing on the National Register; or �Certified or preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined by the Secretary of the Interior to qualify as a registered historic district; or �Individually listed in a state inventory of historic places in states with preservation programs that have been approved by the Secretary of the Interior; or �Individually listed on a local inventory of historic places in communities with historic preservation programs that have been certified either: --By an approved state program as determined by the Secretary of the Interior; or --Directly by the Secretary of the Interior in states without approved programs. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

historic preservation

Protection and treatment of the nation's significant historic buildings, landmarks, landscapes, battlefields, tribal communities, and archeological sites; prominent federally-owned buildings; and State and privately-owned properties. [National Park Service, Historic Preservation Services] (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

historic structure

A building that is officially recognized for its historic significance and has special status under the 1976 Tax Reform Act which encourages rehabilitation and discourages demolition or substantial alteration of the structure. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

histosols�

Organic soils. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

HMFA

See HUD metro fmr area (US Dept of HUD)

HO

High output (Energy Star.gov)

hoe

A shovel that digs by pulling a broom-and-stick-mounted bucket toward itself. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hogback

Ridge formed by erosion of resistant, steeply inclined sedimentary layers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hoist

The mechanism by which a bucket or blade is lifted, or the process of lifting it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hold

Used to indicate that a certain amount of a customer's balance may not be withdrawn until an item has been collected, or until a specific check or debit is posted. (Help With My Bank)

holder

Also the person or company which receives the financial payment or the mortgage either directly from the borrower or from a mortgage servicer. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A person or entity, other than the lender, who owns all or part of the guaranteed portion of the loan with no servicing responsibilities. When the single note option is used and the lender assigns a part or all of the guaranteed note to an assignee, the assignee becomes a holder only when the Agency receives notice and the transaction is completed through use of an assignment guarantee agreement form approved by the Agency. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

hole

The vacancy where an electron would normally exist in a solid; behaves like a positively charged particle. (US Dept of Energy)

hollow gravity dam (cellular gravity dam)

A dam which has the outward appearance of a gravity dam but is of hollow construction. A dam constructed of concrete and/or masonry on the outside but having a hollow interior and relying on its weight for stability. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hollow-jet valve

A valve having a closing member that moves upstream to shut off the flow. The hollow-jet valve discharges a hollow or annular jet dispersed over a wide area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Home Affordable Foreclosure Alternatives Program

(aka HAFA) A program that provides opportunities for homeowners who can no longer afford to stay in their home but want to avoid foreclosure to transition to more affordable housing through a short sale or deed-in-lieu of foreclosure. (Making Home Affordable)

Home Affordable Modification Program

(aka HAMP) A program that provides eligible homeowners the opportunity to modify their mortgages to make them more affordable. (Making Home Affordable)

Home Affordable Refinance Program

(aka HARP) A program that provides homeowners with loans owned or guaranteed by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac an opportunity to refinance into more affordable monthly payments. (Making Home Affordable)

Home Affordable Unemployment Program

(aka UP) A program that provides homeowners a temporary forbearance, which is a temporary period of time during which a regular monthly mortgage payment is reduced or suspended. (Making Home Affordable)

home and garden user sector (or market)

Involves pesticides applied by homeowners to homes and gardens, including lawns; single and multiple unit housing. Does not include pesticides for home/garden applications by professional applicators. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Home Energy Rating Systems

(aka HERS) A nationally recognized energy rating program that gives builders, mortgage lenders, secondary lending markets, homeowners, sellers, and buyers a precise evaluation of energy losing deficiencies in homes. Builders can use this system to gauge the energy quality in their home and also to have a star rating on their home to compare to other similarly built homes. (US Dept of Energy)

Home Equity Conversion Mortgage

(aka HECM) A special type of mortgage developed and insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) that enables older home owners to convert the equity they have in their homes into cash, using a variety of payment options to address their specific financial needs. Sometimes called a �reverse mortgage.� (Federal Trade Commission) A reverse or reverse annuity mortgage in which HUD through FHA guarantees that the borrower will receive monthly payments from the insurer (FHA) in the event the lender is unable to make payments to the borrower. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) Also known as a reverse annuity mortgage. It allows home owners (usually older) to convert equity in the home into cash. Normally paid by the lender in monthly payments. HECM's typically do not have to be repaid until the borrower is no longer occupying the home. (HardwickAssociates)

Home Equity Line of Credit

(aka HELOC) A type of revolving loan, that enables a home owner to obtain multiple advances of the loan proceeds at his or her own discretion, up to an amount that represents a specified percentage of the borrower�s equity in the property. (Federal Trade Commission) A line of credit secured by the equity in a consumer's home. It can be used for home improvements, debt consolidation, and other major purchases. Interest paid on the loan is generally tax deductible (consult a tax advisor to be sure). The funds may be accessed by writing checks against the line of credit or by getting a cash advance. (Help With My Bank) A way of borrowing money against the equity in one�s home to pay for things such as home repairs, college education, or other personal uses. (Making Home Affordable) See "home equity line of credit" under "mortgage." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A mortgage loan, usually in second mortgage, allowing a borrower to obtain cash against the equity of a home, up to a predetermined amount. (US Dept of HUD) A type of mortgage loan that allows the borrower to draw cash against the equity in his home. (HardwickAssociates)

home equity loan

A mortgage on the borrower's principal residence, usually for the purpose of making home improvements or debt consolidation. (Ginnie Mae) A home equity loan allows you to tap into your home's built-up equity, which is the difference between the amount that your home could be sold for and the amount that you still owe. Homeowners often use a home-equity loan for home improvements, to pay for a new car, or to finance their child's college education. The interest paid is usually tax-deductible. Because the loan is secured by your home's equity, if you default, the bank may foreclose on your house and take ownership of it. This type of loan is sometimes referred to as a second mortgage or borrowing against your home. (Help With My Bank) A loan backed by the value of a home (real estate). If the borrower defaults or does not pay the loan, the lender has some rights to the property. The borrower can usually claim a home equity loan as a tax deduction. (US Dept of HUD)

home hazard insurance

See homeowner's insurance (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

home inspection

A thorough review of the physical aspects and condition of a home by a professional home inspector. This inspection should be completed prior to closing so that any repairs or changes can be completed before the transfer of the home is completed. (Ginnie Mae) A professional inspection of a home to determine the condition of the property. The inspection should include an evaluation of the plumbing, heating and cooling systems, roof, wiring, foundation and pest infestation. (Freddie Mac) A professional inspection of a home to determine the condition of the property. The inspection should include an evaluation of the plumbing, heating and cooling systems, roof, wiring, foundation and pest infestation. (Federal Trade Commission) An inspection of the mechanical, electrical, and structural aspects of your home. You will pay a fee for this inspection, and the inspector will provide you a written report evaluating the condition of the home. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) An examination of the structure and mechanical systems to determine a home's quality, soundness and safety; makes the potential homebuyer aware of any repairs that may be needed. The homebuyer generally pays inspection fees. (US Dept of HUD) A complete examination of a building to determine its structural integrity and uncover any defects in materials or workmanship which may adversely affect the property or decrease its value. (HardwickAssociates)

home inspector

A person who performs professional home inspections. Usually, with an extensive knowledge of house construction methods, common house problems, how to identify those problems and how to correct them. (HardwickAssociates)

Home Investment Partnerships Program

(aka HOME) Provides formula grants to states and localities that communities use � often in partnership with local nonprofit groups � to fund a wide range of activities that build, buy, and/or rehabilitate affordable housing for rent or homeownership, or to provide direct rental assistance to low-income people. (US Dept of HUD)

home ownership

The state of living in a structure that one owns. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

home repair loan

Used for repairs and additions to existing structures without affecting existing mort g a g e . Typically 10 years or less in length. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

home warranty

Offers protection for mechanical systems and attached appliances against unexpected repairs not covered by homeowner's insurance; coverage extends over a specific time period and does not cover the home's structure. (US Dept of HUD)

homeless

An individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; as well an individual who has a primary nighttime residence that is a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations, an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings. (US Dept of HUD)

homeless prevention

Activities or programs designed to prevent the incidence of homelessness, including, but not limited to: (1) short-term subsidies to defray rent and utility arrearages for families that have received eviction or utility termination notices; (2) security deposits or first month�s rent to permit a homeless family to move into its own apartment; (3) mediation programs for landlord-tenant disputes; (4) legal services programs that enable representation of indigent tenants in eviction proceedings; (5) payments to prevent foreclosure on a home; and (6) other innovative programs and activities designed to prevent the incidence of homelessness. (US Dept of HUD)

homeowners� association

An organization of homeowners residing within a particular area whose principal purpose is to ensure the provision and maintenance of community facilities and services for the common benefit of the residents. (Federal Trade Commission)

homeowner's association

An organization of home owners in a particular neighborhood or development formed to facilitate the maintenance of common areas and to enforce any building restrictions or covenants. (HardwickAssociates)

homeowner�s insurance

A form of insurance that protects the owner of the insured property against loss from theft, liability and most common disasters. (Ginnie Mae) A policy that protects you and the lender from fire or flood, which damages the structure of the house; a liability, such as an injury to a visitor to your home; or damage to your personal property, such as your furniture, clothes or appliances (Federal Trade Commission) An insurance policy that combines personal liability insurance and hazard insurance for a home and its contents. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans)

homeowner's insurance

A policy that protects you and the lender from fire or flood, which damages the structure of the house; a liability, such as an injury to a visitor to your home; or damage to your personal property, such as your furniture, clothes or appliances (Freddie Mac) (aka home hazard insurance) An insurance policy that protects your home and your possessions inside from serious loss, such as theft or fire. This insurance is usually required by all lenders to protect their investment and must be obtained before closing on your loan. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) An insurance policy, also called hazard insurance, that combines protection against damage to a dwelling and its contents including fire, storms or other damages with protection against claims of negligence or inappropriate action that result in someone's injury or property damage. Most lenders require homeowners insurance and may escrow the cost. Flood insurance is generally not included in standard policies and must be purchased separately. (US Dept of HUD) A policy which covers a home owner for any loss of property due to accident, intrusion or hazard. (HardwickAssociates)

homeowner�s warranty

(aka HOW) Insurance offered by a seller that covers certain home repairs and fixtures for a specified period of time. (Federal Trade Commission)

homeowner's warranty

An insurance policy covering the repair of systems and appliances within the home for the coverage period. (HardwickAssociates)

homeownership education classes

Classes that stress the need to develop a strong credit history and offer information about how to get a mortgage approved, qualify for a loan, choose an affordable home, go through financing and closing processes, and avoid mortgage problems that cause people to lose their homes. (US Dept of HUD)

homeownership zone program

(aka HOZ) Allows communities to reclaim vacant and blighted properties, increase homeownership, and promote economic revitalization by creating entire neighborhoods of new, single-family homes, called HOZs. (US Dept of HUD)

homestead credit

Property tax credit program, offered by some state governments, that provides reductions in property taxes to eligible households. (US Dept of HUD)

homestead property

A family's principle property, composed of a house and a lot, which can be filed as a homestead by State law. The homestead status--which protects USDA farm loan borrowers who lack the financial means to make timely payments--is ineligible for a restructured loan and renders loan borrowers unable to buy out the loan at the net recovery value of the collateral property, allowing them instead to convey the property to USDA in lieu of loan payments. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

homogeneous earthfill dam

An embankment dam construction throughout of more or less uniform earth materials, except for possible inclusion of internal drains or blanket drains. Used to differentiate it from a zoned earthfill dam. An embankment type dam constructed of only one type of material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

homojunction

The region between an n-layer and a p-layer in a single material, photovoltaic cell. (US Dept of Energy)

hopper

A storage bin or a funnel that is loaded from the top, and discharges through a door or chute in the bottom. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

HOPWA

See HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS. (US Dept of HUD)

horizontal accuracy��

Refers to a feature�s spatial relationship to the base imagery. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

horizontal ground loop

In this type of closed-loop geothermal heat pump installation, the fluid-filled plastic heat exchanger pipes are laid out in a plane parallel to the ground surface. The most common layouts either use two pipes, one buried at six feet, and the other at four feet, or two pipes placed side-by-side at five feet in the ground in a two-foot wide trench. The trenches must be at least four feet deep. Horizontal ground loops are generally most cost-effective for residential installations, particularly for new construction where sufficient land is available. Also see closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems. (US Dept of Energy)

horizontal-axis wind turbines

Turbines in which the axis of the rotor's rotation is parallel to the wind stream and the ground. (US Dept of Energy)

hornblende

Black blade-like mineral common in igneous and metamorphic rocks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hornfels

Fine-grained, gray-green metamorphic rock produced by "baking" of sedimentary rocks by an igneous intrusion in which sedimentary features may still be preserved. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

horsehead (false set)

A temporary support for forepoles used in tunneling soft ground. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

horsepower

(aka hp) A unit of rate of operation. Electrical hp: a measure of time rate of mechanical energy output; usually applied to electric motors as the maximum output; 1 electrical hp is equal to 0.746 kilowatts or 2,545 Btu per hour. Shaft hp: a measure of the actual mechanical energy per unit time delivered to a turning shaft; 1 shaft Hp is equal to 1 electrical Hp or 550 foot pounds per second. Boiler Hp: a measure to the maximum rate to heat output of a steam generator; 1 boiler Hp is equal to 33,480 Btu per hour steam output. (US Dept of Energy) A measurement of power that includes the factors of force and speed. The force required to lift 33,000 pounds one foot in one minute. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

horsepower hour

(aka hph) One horsepower provided over one hour; equal to 0.745 kilowatt-hour or 2,545 Btu. (US Dept of Energy)

horst

See fault-block. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

horticultural cropland

A subcategory of Cropland used for growing fruit, nut, berry, vineyard, and other bush fruit and similar crops. Nurseries and other ornamental plantings are included. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

horticulture crops

See specialty crops. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

hot air furnace

A heating unit where heat is distributed by means of convection or fans. (US Dept of Energy)

hot dry rock

A geothermal energy resource that consists of high temperature rocks above 300 F (150 C) that may be fractured and have little or no water. To extract the heat, the rock must first be fractured, then water is injected into the rock and pumped out to extract the heat. In the western United States, as much as 95,000 square miles (246,050 square km) have hot dry rock potential. (US Dept of Energy)

hot water heating systems

#VALUE!

hot water supply boiler

A boiler used to heat water for purposes other than space heating. (Energycodes.gov)

household

All the people who occupy a housing unit. A household includes the related family members and all the unrelated people, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the housing unit. A person living alone in a housing unit, or a group of unrelated people sharing a housing unit such as partners or roomers, is also counted as a household. (US Dept of HUD)

household or domestic waste

Solid waste, composed of garbage and rubbish, which normally originates from residential, private households, or apartment buildings. Domestic waste may contain a significant amount of toxic or hazardous waste from improperly discarded pesticides, paints, batteries, and cleaners. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Housing Affordability Index

An index that indicates what proportion of homebuyers can afford to buy an average-priced home in specified areas. The most well known housing affordability index is published by the National Association of Realtors. (Ginnie Mae)

Housing and Urban Development

HUD is the Federal agency responsible for national policy and programs that address America's housing needs, that improve and develop the Nation's communities, and enforce fair housing laws. HUD's business is helping create a decent home and suitable living environment for all Americans, and it has given America's communities a strong national voice at the Cabinet level. HUD plays a major role in supporting homeownership by underwriting homeownership for lower- and moderate-income families through its mortgage insurance programs. (Ginnie Mae) A U.S. government agency responsible for the major federal housing programs, such as FHA insurance and community development programs. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; established in 1965, HUD works to create a decent home and suitable living environment for all Americans; it does this by addressing housing needs, improving and developing American communities, and enforcing fair housing laws. (US Dept of HUD)

housing counseling agency

Provides counseling and assistance to individuals on a variety of issues, including loan default, fair housing, and home buying. (US Dept of HUD)

housing expense

The sum of a homeowner�s mortgage payment, hazard insurance, property taxes, and homeowner association fees. (Making Home Affordable)

housing expense ratio

The percentage of your gross monthly income that goes toward paying for your housing expenses. (Freddie Mac) The percentage of your gross monthly income that goes toward paying for your housing expenses. (Federal Trade Commission)

housing expenses-to-income ratio

See also: Debt-to-Income Ratio (Ginnie Mae)

housing finance agency

(akak HFA) State or local agencies responsible for financing and preserving low- and moderate-income housing within a state. (US Dept of HUD) A state or local government instrumentality duly authorized to issue housing bonds or otherwise provide financing for housing. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

housing market area

A geographic region from which it is likely that renters/purchasers would be drawn for a given housing project. A housing market area most often corresponds to a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). (US Dept of HUD)

housing opportunities for persons with aids

(aka HOPWA) Provides housing assistance and supportive services to low-income people with HIV/AIDS and their families. HOPWA funds may also be used for health care and mental health services, chemical dependency treatment, nutritional services, case management, assistance with daily living, and other supportive services. (US Dept of HUD)

housing stock

The number of existing housing units based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the 19: Census and referable to the same point or period in time. (US Dept of HUD)

housing unit

A housing unit is a house, apartment, group of rooms or a single room occupied as separate living quarters; that is, 1. When the occupants live separately from all other persons on the property AND 2. When there is direct access from the outside or through a common hall. Also regard as a housing unit is a vacant room or group of rooms that are intended for occupancy as separate living quarters. A housing unit may be occupied by a family or by a person living alone. It may also be occupied by two or more unrelated persons who share the living quarters. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Howell Bunger valve

See fixed cone valve. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

HOZ

See HOMEOWNERSHIP ZONE PROGRAM (US Dept of HUD)

HPS

High-pressure sodium (Energy Star.gov)

hub

The enlarged end of a bell and spigot cast-iron pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hub height

The height above the ground that a horizontal axis wind turbine's hub is located. (US Dept of Energy)

HUD

See also: Housing and Urban Development (Ginnie Mae) See Housing and Urban Development (US Dept of HUD) See Housing and Urban Development (US Dept of HUD) Department of Housing and Urban Development; regulates Fannie Mae and Ginny Mae, FHA and USDA loans (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Energycodes.gov)

HUD 1

A form settlement (closing) statement required by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) where federally related mortgages are being made on residential properties. It is a balance sheet showing the source of funds and the distribution of funds in connection with the purchase and/or mortgaging of residential property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

HUD median income

Median family income for a particular county or metropolitan statistical area (MSA), as estimated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (HardwickAssociates)

HUD metro fmr area

Indicates that only a portion of the OMB-defined core-based statistical area (CBSA) is in the area to which the income limits or FMRs apply. HUD is required by OMB to alter the name of metropolitan geographic entities it derives from the CBSAs when the geography is not the same as that established by OMB. (US Dept of HUD)

HUD user

An information resource from HUD's Office of Policy Development and Research offering a wide range of low- and no-cost content of interest to housing and community development researchers, government officials, academics, policymakers, and the American public. HUD USER is the primary source for federal government reports and information on housing policy and programs, building technology, economic development, urban planning, and other housing-related topics. (US Dept of HUD)

HUD-1 Form

A standardized form prescribed by the Department of Housing and Urban Development that provides an itemization listing of funds paid at closing. Items that appear on the statement include RE commissions, loan fees, points, taxes, initial escrow amounts, and other parties receiving distributions. The HUD-l statement is also known as the "closing statement" or "settlement sheet.� (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

HUD�1 or HUD�1A settlement statement

The statement that is prescribed by the Secretary in this part for setting forth settlement charges in connection with either the purchase or the refinancing (or other subordinate lien transaction) of 1- to 4-family residential property. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

HUD-1 Settlement Statement

A final listing of the costs of the mortgage transaction. It provides the sales price and down payment, as well as the total settlement costs required from the buyer and seller. (Freddie Mac) A final listing of the closing costs of the mortgage transaction. It provides the sales price and down payment, as well as the total settlement costs required from the buyer and seller. (Federal Trade Commission) A disclosure form provided to the borrower during closing or settlement of a residential real estate transaction that itemizes all actual settlement costs of all mortgage loan transactions. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A statement that itemizes the services provided to you and the fees charged for those services. This form is filled out by the person who will conduct the settlement. You can ask to see your settlement statement at least one day prior to your settlement. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) Also known as the "settlement sheet," or "closing statement" it itemizes all closing costs; must be given to the borrower at or before closing. Items that appear on the statement include real estate commissions, loan fees, points, and escrow amounts. (US Dept of HUD) A standardized, itemized list, published by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), of all anticipated CLOSING COSTS connected with a particular property purchase. (HardwickAssociates)

human environment

Natural and physical environment and the relationship of people with that environment, including all combinations of physical, biological, cultural, social, and economic factors in a given area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

human time scale

That portion of the pedogenic time scale that covers periods of centuries, decades, or less. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

humidifier

A device used to maintain a specified humidity in a conditioned space. (US Dept of Energy)

humidifier fever

A respiratory illness caused by exposure to toxins from microorganisms found in wet or moist areas in humidifiers and air conditioners. Also called air conditioner or ventilation fever. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

humidistat

A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity. (Energycodes.gov)

humidity

A measure of the moisture content of air; may be expressed as absolute, mixing ratio, saturation deficit, relative, or specific. (US Dept of Energy)

Humphrey-Hawkins Act

Informal name for the Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978, from the names of the act's original sponsors. (Federal Reserve Education)

humus

Highly decomposed plant and animal residue that is a part of soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Decayed organic matter. A dark fluffy swamp soil composed chiefly of decayed vegetation. A brown or black material formed by the partial decomposition of vegetable or animal matter. The organic portion of the soil remaining after prolonged microbial decomposition. See peat. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

HVAC

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning; a home's heating and cooling system. (US Dept of HUD) Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. (Energycodes.gov) Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning system. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

HVAC system

The equipment, distribution network, and terminals that provide either collectively or individually the processes of heating, ventilating, or air conditioning to a building. (Energycodes.gov)

HVAC zone

A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions (e.g., temperature) can be maintained throughout using a single sensor (e.g., thermostat or temperature sensor). (Energycodes.gov)

hybrid ARM

These ARMs are a mix�or a hybrid�of a fi xed-rate period and an adjustable-rate period. The interest rate is fi xed for the fi rst several years of the loan; aft er that period, the rate can adjust annually. For example, hybrid ARMs can be advertised as 3/1 or 5/1�the fi rst number tells you how long the fi xed interest-rate period will be and the second number tells you how oft en the rate will adjust aft er the initial period. For example, a 3/1 loan has a fi xed rate for the fi rst 3 years and then the rate adjusts once each year beginning in year 4. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages) These loans are a mix or a hybrid of a fixed-rate period and an adjustable-rate period. For example, a 3/1 ARM will have a fixed interest rate for the first three years and then will adjust annually until the loan is paid off. The first number tells you how long the fixed interest-rate period will be and the second number tells you how often it will adjust after the initial period. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

hybrid loan

An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) that offers a fixed rate for an initial period, typically three to ten years, and then adjusts every six months, annually, or at another specified period, for the remainder of the term. (Federal Trade Commission)

hybrid system

A renewable energy system that includes two different types of technologies that produce the same type of energy; for e.g., a wind turbine and a solar photovoltaic array combined to meet a power demand. (US Dept of Energy)

hydraucone

A draft tube in which the emerging water impinges on a plate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic

Powered by water. Having to do with water in motion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic conductivity

(aka Ksat) A quantitative measure of how easily water flows through soil. (Compare to infiltration and permeability.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

hydraulic efficiency

Efficiency of a pump or turbine to impart energy to or extract energy from water. The ability of hydraulic structure or element to conduct water with minimum energy loss. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic fill

Fill material that is transported and deposited using water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic fill dam

An embankment dam constructed of materials, often dredged, which are conveyed and/or placed by suspension in flowing water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic fill structure

A dam or impoundment made of hydraulic fill. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic grade line

(aka HGL) The hydraulic grade line lies below the energy grade line by an amount equal to the velocity head at the section. The two lines are parallel for all sections of equal cross sectional area. The distance between the pipe centerline and the hydraulic grade line is the pressure head, or piezometric height, at the section. The line showing the pressure head, or piezometric height, at any point in a pipe. The slope of the hydraulic grade line is known as the hydraulic gradient. The hydraulic gradient is the slope of the water surface in an open channel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulic gradient

The direction of ground water flow due to changes in the depth of the water table. (US EPA- Pesticides)

hydraulic height

Height to which the water rises behind the dam, and is the difference between the lowest point in the original streambed at the axis or the centerline crest of the dam, or the invert of the lowest outlet works, whichever is lower, and the maximum controllable water surface. See structural height. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydraulics

Having to do with the mechanical properties of water in motion and the application of these properties in engineering. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydric

Characterized by, or thriving in, an abundance of moisture. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydric soil�

Soil that is wet long enough to periodically produce anaerobic conditions, thereby influencing the growth of plants. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

hydrocarbon gas liquids

(aka HGL) A group of hydrocarbons including ethane, propane, normal butane, isobutane, and natural gasoline, and their associated olefins, including ethylene, propylene, butylene, and isobutylene. As marketed products, HGL represents all natural gas liquids (NGL) and olefins. EIA reports production of HGL from refineries (liquefied refinery gas, or LRG) and natural gas plants (natural gas plant liquids, or NGPL). Excludes liquefied natural gas (LNG). (US Energy Information Administration)

hydrocarbons

(aka HC) Chemicals that consist entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons contribute to air pollution problems like smog. (US EPA- Pesticides) Colorless gaseous compounds originating from evaporation and the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

hydroelectric plant

Electric powerplant using falling water as its motive force. A power plant that produces electricity from the power of rushing water turning turbine-generators. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydroelectric power

Electrical energy produced by flowing water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydroelectric power plant

A power plant that produces electricity by the force of water falling through a hydro turbine that spins a generator. (US Dept of Energy)

hydroelectric unit (hydrounit)

An electric generator and turbine combination which is driven by water flow, thereby converting mechanical energy to electric energy. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrogen

A chemical element that can be used as a fuel since it has a very high energy content. (US Dept of Energy)

hydrogenated amorphous silicon

Amorphous silicon with a small amount of incorporated hydrogen. The hydrogen neutralizes dangling bonds in the amorphous silicon, allowing charge carriers to flow more freely. (US Dept of Energy)

hydrogeochemistry

Chemistry of ground water and surface water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrogeologic conditions

Conditions stemming from the interaction of ground water and the surrounding soil and rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrogeologic cycle

The natural process of recycling water from the atmosphere down to (and through) the earth and back to the atmosphere again. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrogeologist

A person who studies and works with ground water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrogeology

The geology of ground water, with particular emphasis on the chemistry and movement of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrograph

A graph showing stage, flow, velocity, or other property of water with respect to time. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A graphical representation of the stage or discharge as a function of time at a particular point on a watercourse; a time-discharge curve of the unsteady flow of water. A graph showing, for a given point on a stream, river, or conduit, the discharge, stage, velocity, available power, rate of runoff, or other property of water with respect to time. This can be measured or modeled. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrography

The science of the measurement, description, and mapping of the surface waters of the earth, with special reference to their use for navigation. Those parts of a map, collectively, that represent surface waters. (US Fish & Wildlife Service) Scientific study of physical aspects of all waters on the Earth's surface. Water features in 7.5-minute quads include lakes, shorelines, and drainage routing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrologic budget

An accounting of the inflow to, outflow from, and storage in, a hydrologic unit, such as a drainage basin, aquifer, soil zone, lake, reservoir, or irrigation project. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

hydrologic cycle

A convenient term to denote the circulation of water from the sea, through the atmosphere, to the land; and thence, with many delays, back to the sea by overland and subterranean routes, and in part by way of the atmosphere; also the many short circuits of the water that is returned to the atmosphere without reaching the sea. (After Meinzer, 1949, p. 1.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The cycle of water movement from the atmosphere to the earth and back again through these steps; evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, percolation, runoff and storage. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Cycle of water movement from atmosphere to Earth by precipitation and its return to the atmosphere by interception, evaporation, runoff, infiltration, percolation, storage, and transpiration. The natural recycling process powered by the sun that causes water to evaporate into the atmosphere, condense and return to earth as precipitation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrologic equation

The equation balancing the hydrologic budget. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

hydrologic unit code

An eight-digit number used to identify a geographic area representing part or all of a surface drainage basin or distinct hydrologic feature. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrology

The science encompassing the behavior of water as it occurs in the atmosphere, on the surface of the ground, and underground. (Am. Soc. Civil Engineers, 1949, p. 1.) The science that relates to the water of the earth. (Meinzer, 1923, p. 9.) The science treating of the waters of the earth, their occurrence, distribution, and movements. (Jarvis and others, 1936, p. 464.) In practice the study of the water of the oceans and the atmosphere is considered part of the sciences of oceanography and meteorology. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Scientific study of water in nature: its properties, distribution, and behavior. The science that treats the occurrence, circulation properties, and distribution of the waters of the earth and their reaction to the environment. Science dealing with the properties, distribution and flow of water on or in the earth. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydromet

A system of data collection platforms that gathers hydrometeorological data, and transmits that data via GOES Satelite to a computer downlink. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Hydrometeorological Report (HMR)

A series of hydrometeorological reports published by the National Weather Service (NWS) addressing meteorological issues related mainly to developing estimates of probable maximum precipitation used in the determination of the probable maximum flood for design of water control structures. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrometer

A device for measuring the specific gravity of fluids. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydronic heating systems

A type of heating system where water is heated in a boiler and either moves by natural convection or is pumped to heat exchangers or radiators in rooms; radiant floor systems have a grid of tubing laid out in the floor for distributing heat. The temperature in each room is controlled by regulating the flow of hot water through the radiators or tubing. (US Dept of Energy)

hydrophilic

Having a strong affinity (liking) for water. The opposite of hydrophobic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrophobic

Having a strong aversion (dislike) for water. The opposite of hydrophilic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrophyte, hydrophytic�

Any plant growing in water or on a substrate that is at least periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

hydrostatic

Relating to pressure or equilibrium of fluids. The pressures and forces resulting from the weight of a fluid at rest. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hydrothermal fluids

These fluids can be either water or steam trapped in fractured or porous rocks; they are found from several hundred feet to several miles below the Earth's surface. The temperatures vary from about 90 F to 680 F (32 C to 360 C) but roughly 2/3 range in temperature from 150 F to 250 F (65.5 C to 121.1 C). The latter are the easiest to access and, therefore, the only forms being used commercially. (US Dept of Energy)

hyetograph

Graphical representation of rainfall intensity against time. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

hyperconcentrated flow

Moving mixture of sediment and water between 40 and 80 percent water by volume. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hyperhaline�

Term to characterize waters with salinity greater than 40ppt, due to ocean-derived salts. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

hypersaline�

Term to characterize waters with salinity greater than 40ppt, due to land-derived salts. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

hypersensitivity

Great or excessive sensitivity. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

hypersensitivity diseases

Diseases characterized by allergic responses to pollutants. The hypersensitivity diseases most clearly associated with indoor air quality are asthma, rhinitis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is a rare but serious disease that involves progressive lung damage as long as there is exposure to the causative agent. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

hypersensitivity pneumonitis

A group of respiratory diseases that cause inflammation of the lung (specifically granulomatous cells). Most forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are caused by the inhalation of organic dusts, including molds. (US Environmental Protection Agency) A group of respiratory diseases that cause inflammation of the lung (specifically granulomatous cells). Most forms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis are caused by the inhalation of organic dusts, including molds. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

hyphae

Long chains of cells formed by fungi usually occurring between aggregates rather than within micropores. (Compare to mycelium.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

hypocenter

The point or focus within the earth which is the center of an earthquake and the origin of its elastic waves. The location within the Earth where the sudden release of energy is initiated. The focus of an earthquake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hypolimnetic

Pertaining to the lower, colder portion of a lake or reservoir which is separated from the upper, warmer portion (epilimnion) by the thermocline. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hypolimnion

See Thermal stratification. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The lower, or bottom, layer of a lake or reservoir with essentially uniform colder temperatures. The lowest layer in a thermally stratified lake or reservoir. This layer consists of colder, more dense water, has a constant temperature and no mixing occurs. See stratification. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hyporheic zone

Ground water habitats created by the movement of river water from the active channel to areas to the side and beneath the active channel. Uniquely adapted organisms that can provide food for fish live in the ground water habitat. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

hypothetical condition

A condition, directly related to a specific assignment, which is contrary to what is known by the appraiser to exist on the effective date of the assignment results, but is used for the purpose of analysis. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) As defined in USPAP, a condition that is contrary to what exists but is supposed for the purpose of analysis. An example of a hypothetical condition is when an appraiser assumes a particular property�s zoning is different from what the zoning actually is. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) As defined in USPAP, a condition that is contrary to what exists but is supposed for the purpose of analysis. An example of a hypothetical condition is when an appraiser assumes a particular property�s zoning is different from what the zoning actually is. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

hypsography

Elevation measurement system based on a sea level datum. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)