F

Fahrenheit. (Energycodes.gov)

facade

The front exposure of any building. Often used to describe an artificial or false front which is not consistent with the construction of the rest of the building. (HardwickAssociates)

facade area

Area of the facade, including overhanging soffits, cornices, and protruding columns, measured in elevation in a vertical plane parallel to the plane of the face of the building. Non-horizontal roof surfaces shall be included in the calculation of vertical facade area by measuring the area in a plane parallel to the surface. (Energycodes.gov)

face

Exposed surface of dam materials (earth, rockfill, or concrete), upstream and downstream. The external surface which limits the structure, see neatlines. The more or less vertical surface of rock exposed by blasting or excavating. The cutting end of a drill hole. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

face value

The principal amount of a bond, which will be paid off at maturity. (Federal Reserve Education)

facilities

Structures associated with Reclamation irrigation projects, municipal and industrial water systems, power generation facilities, including all storage, conveyance, distribution, and drainage systems. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

facing

With reference to a wall or concrete dam, a coating of a different material, masonry or brick, for architectural or protection purposes, e.g., stonework facing, brickwork facing. With reference to an embankment dam, an impervious coating or face on the upstream slope of the dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

factor of safety

The ratio of the ultimate strength of the material to the allowable or working stress. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

facultative plant�

(aka FAC) Plant equally likely to occur in wetlands or nonwetlands (estimated probability 34% - 66%). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

facultative upland plant

(aka FACU) Plant that usually occur in nonwetlands (estimated probability 67% � 99%), but occasionally found in wetlands (estimated probability 1% - 33%). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

facultative wetland plant

(aka FACW) Plant that usually occur in wetlands (estimated probability 67% � 99%), but occasionally found in nonwetlands. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

Fahrenheit

(aka F) Unit of temperature. Degrees Fahrenheit equals (9/5)x(degrees Celsius)+(32). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

failure

The closing of a financial institution by its chartering authority, which rescinds the institution�s charter and revokes its ability to conduct business because the institution is insolvent, critically undercapitalized, or unable to meet deposit outflows. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) An incident resulting in the uncontrolled release of water from a dam. Destroyed and made useless, ceases to function as a dam. More severe and hazardous than a breach. See dam failure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

failure potential assessment

A judgment of the potential for failure of an essential element within the expected life of the project. Five terms are used to describe the assessment: negligible, low, moderate, high, and urgent. A rating of negligible reflects the judgment that failure of the essential element is regarded as very unlikely; low reflects the judgment that failure is unlikely; moderate reflects the judgment that failure is possible and further data collection and/or analyses may be required; high reflects the judgment that failure is very probable; urgent reflects the judgment that failure is imminent. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003

(aka FACT Act or FACTA) The purpose of this Act is to help consumers protect their credit identities and recover from identity theft. �One of the key provisions of this Act is that consumers can request and obtain a free credit report once every 12 months from each of the three nationwide consumer credit reporting companies (Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion). AnnualCreditReport.com provides consumers with the secure means to request their free credit report. (Help With My Bank)

Fair Credit Reporting Act

(aka FCRA) A consumer protection law that imposes obligations on (1) credit bureaus (and similar agencies) that maintain consumer credit histories, (2) lenders and other businesses that buy reports from credit bureaus, and (3) parties who furnish consumer information to credit bureaus. Among other provisions, the FCRA limits the sale of credit reports by credit bureaus by requiring the purchaser to have a legitimate business need for the data, allows consumers to learn the information on them in credit bureau files (including one annual free credit report), and specifies procedure for challenging errors in that data. (Federal Trade Commission) A Federal law, established in 1971 and revised in 1997, that gives consumers the right to see their credit records and correct any mistakes. The FCRA regulates consumer credit reporting and related industries to ensure that consumer information is reported in an accurate, timely, and complete manner. The Act was amended to address the sharing of consumer information with affiliates. (Help With My Bank) A consumer protection law that regulates the disclosure of consumer credit reports by consumer credit reporting agencies and establishes procedures for correcting mistakes on one�s credit record. FCRA can be found in 15 U.S. Code section 1681, et seq. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) Federal act to ensure that credit bureaus are fair and accurate protecting the individual's privacy rights enacted in 1971 and revised in October 1997. (US Dept of HUD) A federal law regulating the way credit agencies disclose consumer credit reports and the remedies available to consumers for disputing and correcting mistakes on their credit history. (HardwickAssociates)

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

(aka FDCPA) The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act is a set of United States statutes added as Title VIII of the Consumer Credit Protection Act. Its purpose is to ensure ethical practices in the collection of consumer debts and to provide consumers with an avenue for disputing and obtaining validation of debt information in order to ensure the information's accuracy. It is often used in conjunction with the Fair Credit Reporting Act. (Help With My Bank)

Fair Housing Act

1968 act (amended in 1974 and 1988) providing the HUD Secretary with fair housing enforcement and investigation responsibilities. A law that prohibits discrimination in all facets of the homebuying process on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability. (US Dept of HUD) A law that prohibits discrimination in all facets of the home buying process on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability. (US Dept of HUD)

fair lending

The prohibition against unlawful discrimination in lending. The Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, familial status, or disability. In addition, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (which is not administrated by HUD) prohibits discrimination because of age, receipt of public assistance, marital status, and the good faith exercise of rights under the Consumer Protection Act. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

fair market rent

(aka FMR) Primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some expiring project-based Section 8 contracts, to determine initial rents for housing assistance payment contracts in the Moderate Rehabilitation Single Room Occupancy program, and to serve as a rent ceiling in the HOME rental assistance program. (US Dept of HUD)

fair market value

The price a property can realistically sell for, based upon comparable selling prices of other properties in the same area. (Ginnie Mae) The price at which property would be transferred between a willing buyer and willing seller, each of whom has a reasonable knowledge of all pertinent facts and is not under any compulsion to buy or sell. (Federal Trade Commission) The price a willing buyer will pay and a willing seller will accept for real or personal property. (Federal Reserve Education) The amount of money that would probably be paid for a property in a sale between a willing seller, who does not have to sell, and a willing buyer, who does not have to buy. (US Dept of HUD) The hypothetical price that a willing buyer and seller will agree upon when they are acting freely, carefully, and with complete knowledge of the situation. (US Dept of HUD) The price at which two unrelated parties, under no duress, are willing to transact business. (HardwickAssociates)

fall

The amount of slope given to horizontal runs of pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fallow

Land plowed and tilled and left unplanted. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

false set

See horsehead. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

familial status

HUD uses this term to describe a single person, a pregnant woman or a household with children under 18 living with parents or legal custodians who might experience housing discrimination. (US Dept of HUD)

fan

A device that moves and/or circulates air and provides ventilation for a room or a building. (US Dept of Energy)

fan coil

A fan-coil terminal is essentially a small air-handling unit that serves a single space without a ducted distribution system. One or more independent terminals are typically located in each room connected to a supply of hot and/or chilled water. At each terminal, a fan in the unit draws room air (sometimes mixed with outside air) through a filter and blows it across a coil of hot water or chilled water and back into the room. (Energycodes.gov) A heat exchanger coil in which a fluid such as water is circulated and a fan blows air over the coil to distribute heat or cool air to the different rooms. (US Dept of Energy)

fan system energy demand

The sum of the nominal power demand (nameplate horsepower) of motors of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned space(s) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors. (Energycodes.gov)

fan velocity pressure

The pressure corresponding to the outlet velocity of a fan; the kinetic energy per unit volume of flowing air. (US Dept of Energy)

Fannie Mae

Nickname for Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA). (Ginnie Mae) A New York stock exchange company. It is a public company that operates under a federal charter and is the nation�s largest source of financing for home mortgages. Fannie Mae does not lend money directly to consumers, but instead works to ensure that mortgage funds are available and affordable, by purchasing mortgage loans from institutions that lend directly to consumers. (Federal Trade Commission) A private corporation that specializes in buying primarily FHA and Va loans. Formerly called the "Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA)." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA); a federally-chartered enterprise owned by private stockholders that purchases residential mortgages and converts them into securities for sale to investors; by purchasing mortgages, Fannie Mae supplies funds that lenders may loan to potential homebuyers. Also known as a Government Sponsored Enterprise (GSE). (US Dept of HUD) A government sponsored enterprise created by Congress to purchase, sell or otherwise facilitate the purchase or sale of mortgage in the secondary mortgage market. These activities support the availability and affordability of mortgage credit. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) Federal National Mortgage Association (also FNMA) is a private corporation, federally chart e re d to provide financial products and services that increase the availability and affordability of housing by purchasing mortgage loans. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A private, shareholder-owned company that works to make sure mortgage money is available for people to purchase homes. Created by Congress in 1938, Fannie Mae is the nation's largest source of financing for home mortgages. (HardwickAssociates)

Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac Loan Limit

The current 2006 Fannie Mae/Freddie Mac loan limit for a single-family home is $417,000 and is higher in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The Fannie Mae loan limit is $533,850 for a two-unit home; $645,300 for a three-unit home; and $801,950 for a four-unit home. Also referred to as the �conventional loan limit.� (Federal Trade Commission)

Fannie Mae-Seller/Servicer

A lender that Fannie Mae has approved to sell loans to it and to service loans on Fannie Mae�s behalf. (Federal Trade Commission)

farad

A unit of electrical capacitance; the capacitance of a capacitor between the plates of which there appears a difference of 1 Volt when it is charged by one coulomb of electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

Farm Credit System

(aka FCS) A network of cooperatively owned lending institutions and related service organizations serving all 50 States and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The FCS specializes in providing farm real estate and rural homeowner loans, operating credit, and related services to farmers, ranchers, and producers or harvesters of aquatic products. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation

(aka FCSIC) An entity of the Farm Credit System (FCS), established by law in 1987, to ensure the timely repayment of principal and interest on FCS debt securities. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

farm loss (water)

Water delivered to a farm which is not made available to the crop to be irrigated. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Farm Ownership loan

Farm Ownership (FO) loans may be made by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to purchase farmland, construct or repair buildings and other fixtures, develop farmland to promote soil and water conservation, or to refinance debt. FO loans are made under both guaranteed and direct loan programs, and are made to producers unable to obtain credit from conventional lenders. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (2002 Farm Act) (P.L. 107-171)

The omnibus food and agriculture legislation (2002 Farm Act) that provided a framework for the Secretary of Agriculture to administer various agricultural and food programs from 2002 to 2007. The legislation was signed into law on May 13, 2002. This farm act replaced production flexibility contract payments of the 1996 Farm Act with direct payments, and introduced counter-cyclical payments and the Conservation Security Program. The 2002 Act was the first farm act to include a separate energy title. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

farmed wetland

A wetland that has been partially drained or are naturally dry enough to allow crop production in some years, but otherwise meets the soil, hydrological, and vegetative criteria defining a wetland. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Farmers Home Administration

(aka FmHA) A federal agency created in the 1930s in the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Its mission is to support American farmers through commodity programs, farmer operating and emergency loans, conservation, domestic and overseas food assistance, and disaster programs. In a 1994 USDA reorganization, FmHA became the Farm Service Agency (FSA). (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Farmers' Markets Promotion Program

See Direct-to-Consumers Marketing Program. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Farmland Protection Program

Established in the 1996 Farm Act, FPP provides funding to State, local, and tribal entities and nongovernmental organizations with existing farmland protection programs to purchase conservation easements or other interests in land that limit nonagricultural uses of the land. The Natural Resources Conservation Service purchases conservation easements by partnering with eligible entities that have pending offers for the acquisition of conservation easements. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

farmsteads and ranch headquarters

A Land cover/use category that includes dwellings, outbuildings, barns, pens, corrals and feedlots next to buildings, farmstead or feedlot windbreaks, and family gardens associated with operating farms and ranches. (Commercial feedlots, greenhouses, poultry facilities, overnight pastures for livestock, and field windbreaks are not considered part of farmsteads.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

fascia

A flat horizontal member of a cornice placed in a vertical position. (Publications- USA.gov) The boards that enclose the eaves. (HardwickAssociates)

fatal flaw

Any problem, lack, or conflict (real or perceived) that will destroy a solution or process. A negative effect that cannot be offset by any degree of benefits from other factors. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fatality

For purposes of statistical reporting on transportation safety, a fatality is considered a death due to injuries in a transportation crash, accident, or incident that occurs within 30 days of that occurrence. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

fatality rate

A multiplication factor based on the estimated severity of the flood, potential warning times, and the judgement related to the understanding of the flood severity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fatty acid analysis

Examination of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in the soil using gas chromatography. Fatty acids are within the cell walls of soil organisms, so the types of fatty acids found in soil are an indicator of the structure and diversity of the soil community. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

fault

A fracture or fracture zone in the earth's crust along which there has been displacement of the two sides relative to one another or in rock along which the adjacent rock surfaces are differentially displaced. Break in rocks along which movement has occurred. A shear with significant continuity that can be correlated between observation points. See active fault. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fault-block (horst)

Uplifted section of rock bounded on both sides by faults. See graben. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

faulting

The movement which produces relative displacement along a fracture in rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fauna

All animals associated with a given habitat, country, area, or period. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fc

Foot-candle (Energy Star.gov)

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which is involved in regulation of pesticides in the U.S., particularly enforcement of tolerances in food and feed products. (US EPA- Pesticides)

feasibility

A determination that something can be done. A feasibility report is required in some planning processes to examine the situation and determine if a workable solution can be developed and implemented. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

feasibility analysis

A study of the cost-benefit relationship of an economic endeavor (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

feasibility estimate

An estimate used for determining the economic feasibility of a project, the probable sequence and cost for construction of a project, and as a guide in the choice between alternative locations or plans. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

feather

In a wind energy conversion system, to pitch the turbine blades so as to reduce their lift capacity as a method of shutting down the turbine during high wind speeds. (US Dept of Energy) To blend the edge of new material smoothly into the old surface. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fecal coliform bacteria

Found in the intestinal tracts of mammals, this bacteria in water or sludge is an indicator of pollution and possible contamination by pathogens. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Federal Advisory Council

(aka FAC) Advisory group made up of one representative (in most cases a banker) from each of the 12 Federal Reserve districts. Established by the Federal Reserve Act, the council meets periodically with the Board of Governors to discuss business and financial conditions and make recommendations. (Federal Reserve Education)

Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation

An organization more commonly referred to as Farmer Mac, which is a secondary (resale) market for agricultural mortgages. Farmer Mac was authorized by the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987 (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (1996 Farm Act) (P.L. 104-127)

The omnibus food and agriculture legislation (Farm Act) signed into law on April 4, 1996, provided a 7-year framework (1996-2002) for the Secretary of Agriculture to administer various agricultural and food programs. The 1996 Act redesigned income support and supply management programs for producers of wheat, corn, grain sorghum, barley, oats, rice, and upland cotton. Production flexibility contract payments were made available under Title I of the 1996 Act (see Agricultural Market Transition Act). The legislation also suspended acreage reduction programs; revised and consolidated Federal milk marketing orders; made program changes for sugar and peanuts; and consolidated and extended environmental programs. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Federal Asset Disposition Association

(aka FADA) A corporation, chartered as a savings and loan and wholly owned by the FSLIC, created in 1985 by the FHLBB to manage and liquidate assets of failed thrifts. One of the RTC�s duties was to liquidate the FADA within 180 days from the enactment of FIRREA. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Aviation Administration

FAA provides a safe, secure, and efficient global aerospace system that contributes to national security and the promotion of US aerospace safety. As the leading authority in the international aerospace community, FAA is responsive to the dynamic nature of customer needs, economic conditions, and environmental concerns. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) Formerly the Federal Aviation Agency, the Federal Aviation Administration was established by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 U.S.C. 106) and became a component of the Department of Transportation in 1967 pursuant to the Department of Transportation (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal Aviation Regulations

(aka FAR) The set of regulatory obligations contained in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations which FAA is charged to enforce in order to promote the safety of civil aviation both domestically and internationally. (FAA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal Credit Union Act

The enabling legislation, passed in 1934, for federal credit unions, federal insurance, the National Credit Union Administration, and the Central Liquidity Facility. (National Credit Union Administration)

Federal Crop Insurance Act

Legislation that provides a framework for the operation of the Federal crop insurance program. Enacted in 1938, with major amendments in 1980, 1994, and 2000. The 2000 amendment is referred to as the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Federal Crop Insurance Corporation

(aka FCIC) Federally owned and operated corporation within USDA that promotes the economic stability of agriculture through a sound system of crop insurance and provides the means for the research and experience necessary to devise and establish such insurance. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Federal Crop Insurance Program

See crop insurance. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

federal deficit

The excess of government spending over its revenue. (Federal Reserve Education)

Federal Deposit Insurance Act (FDI Act)

A 1950 act that, among other things, (1) increased the FDIC deposit insurance limit from $5,000 to $10,000 and (2) granted the FDIC the authority to provide open bank assistance through loans or the purchase of assets to prevent the failure of an insured bank. Under the �essentiality doctrine� of the FDI Act, a bank was eligible for open bank assistance only if the FDIC Board of Directors decided that the continued operation of the institution was �essential.� (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

(aka FDCI) An independent deposit insurance agency created by Congress in 1933 to maintain stability and public confidence in the nation's banking system. The FDIC promotes safety and soundness of insured depository institutions and the U.S. financial system by identifying, monitoring and addressing risks to the deposit insurance funds; minimizes disruptive effects from the failure of banks and savings associations; and ensures fairness in the sale of financial products and the provision of financial services. (Federal Reserve Education) An independent deposit insurance agency created by Congress in 1933 to maintain stability and public confidence in the nation�s banking system. The FDIC promotes safety and soundness of insured depository institutions and the U.S. financial system by identifying, monitoring, and addressing risks to the deposit insurance funds; minimizes disruptive effects from the failure of banks and savings associations; and ensures fairness in the sale of financial products and provision of financial services. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) A government corporation that insures the deposits of all national and State banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System. (Help With My Bank) The U.S. Government agency created in 1933 which maintains the stability of and public confidence in the nation's financial system by insuring deposits and promoting safe and sound banking practices. (HardwickAssociates)

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act

(aka FDICIA) A comprehensive package of legislation, enacted in 1991, that included (1) a �least cost� test, imposed in the resolution process, that required the FDIC to evaluate all resolution alternatives, including liquidation, and to choose the resolution method least costly to the relevant insurance fund; (2) section 131 of FDICIA, which imposed new capital requirements, effective December 19, 1992, whereby institutions were to be closed before they became insolvent, although banks with tangible capital of less than 2 percent of assets were �critically undercapitalized� and subject to immediate closure; and (3) an extension of the time period for the RTC to accept conservatorship and receivership appointments from August 31, 1992, to October 1, 1993, a date after which the FDIC would assume responsibility for failed thrifts and would pay losses from the SAIF. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Emergency Management Agency

(aka FEMA) Federal agency responsible for the emergency evaluation and response to all disasters, natural and man-made. FEMA oversees the administration of flood insurance programs and the designation of certain areas as flood prone. (Help With My Bank) The federal agency under which the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) is administered. In March 2003, FEMA became part of the newly created U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Federal agency responsible for enforcing the legislation for disaster and emergency planning and response. See FEMA. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Federal Employment for Persons with Disabilities

The Federal Government's Selective Placement programs include a special hiring authority for hiring people with disabilities. (Ginnie Mae)

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

(aka FERC) The federal agency with jurisdiction over, among other things, gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) This is an independent regulatory agency within the U.S. DOE that has jurisdiction over interstate electricity sales, wholesale electric rates, natural gas pricing, oil pipeline rates, and gas pipeline certification. It also licenses and inspects private, municipal, and state hydroelectric projects and oversees related environmental matters. (US Dept of Energy) Established in 1977 (replacing the Federal Power Commission) the the primary responsibility of ensuring the Nation's consumers adequate energy supplies at just and reasonable rates and providing regulatory incentives for increased productivity, efficiency, and competition. Its primary functions are to establish and enforce rates and regulations regarding interstate aspects of the electric, natural gas, and oil industries. It also issues licenses for non-Federal hydroelectric plants and certifies small power production and cogeneration facilities. See FERC. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Federal Finance System

(aka FFS) An automated accounting system used by the DOI for tracking obligations and expenditures. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal Financing Bank

(aka FFB) A bank established by the Federal Financing Bank Act of 1973 with a mission to (1) assure coordination between federal borrowing programs and the overall economic and fiscal policies of the federal government and (2) reduce the cost of federal and federally assisted borrowings from the public. The FFB has become the vehicle through which most federal agencies finance their programs involving the sale or placement of credit market instruments, including agency securities. The FFB is under the general supervision of the secretary of the Treasury, and it is managed and staffed by Treasury employees. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

federal funds

Short-term transactions in immediately available funds between depository institutions and certain other institutions that maintain accounts with the Federal Reserve; usually not collateralized. (Federal Reserve Education) Short-term transactions in immediately available funds between depository institutions and certain other institutions that maintain accounts with the Federal Reserve; usually not collateralized. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

federal funds rate (funds rate)

The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which a depository institution lends immediately available funds (balances at the Federal Reserve) to another depository institution overnight. The rate may vary from depository institution to depository institution and from day to day. (Federal Reserve Education) The interest rate at which banks borrow surplus reserves and other immediately available funds. The federal funds rate is the shortest short-term interest rate, with maturities on federal funds concentrated in overnight or one-day transactions. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

Federal Highway Administration

(aka FHWA) A branch of the US Department of Transportation that administers the federal-aid Highway Program, providing financial assistance to states to construct and improve highways, urban and rural roads, and bridges. The FHWA also administers the Federal Lands Highway Program, including survey, design, and construction of forest highway system roads, parkways and park roads, Indian reservation roads, defense access roads, and other Federal lands roads. The Federal agency within the U.S. Department of Transportation responsible for administering the Federal-Aid Highway Program. Became a component of the Department of Transportation in 1967 pursuant to the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. app. 1651 note). It administers the highway transportation programs of the Department of Transportation under pertinent legislation (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal Home Loan Bank Board

(aka FHLBB) The agency of the federal government that supervises all federal savings and loan associations and federally insured state-chartered savings and loan associations. The FHLBB also operates the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, which insures accounts at federal savings and loan associations and those state-chartered associations that apply and are accepted. In addition, the FHLBB directs the Federal Home Loan Bank System, which provides a flexible credit facility for member savings institutions to promote the availability of home financing. The FHL Banks also own the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, established in 1970 to promote secondary markets for mortgages. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) A five-member board established on July 22, 1932, by the Federal Home Loan Bank Act. The board was authorized to establish Federal Home Loan Banks with the authority to regulate and supervise S&Ls, as well as to lend money to S&Ls, which would in turn finance home loans. The FHLBB retained these basic responsibilities until the passage of FIRREA in August 1989. FIRREA created the Federal Housing Finance Board to succeed the FHLBB, and some of the FHLBB�s functions were transferred to the FDIC, the RTC, and the OTS. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Former name for "Office of Thrift Supervision." See also "Office of Thrift Supervision." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Federal Home Loan Bank System

A system of savings and loans, banks and other lenders whose primary business is the making of housing loans. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

Federal Home Loan Banks

(aka FHLBs) A system of banks created in 1932 by the Federal Home Loan Bank Act, which established 12 regional FHLBs to encourage home loans by local thrifts during the Great Depression that began in 1929. The FHLBB was responsible for overseeing the FHLBs from 1932 to 1989, when FIRREA transferred this function to the Federal Housing Finance Board. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

A quasi-governmental, federally-sponsored organization that acts as a secondary market investor to buy and sell mortgage loans. Freddie Mac sets many of the guidelines for conventional mortgage loans, as does Fannie Mae. (Ginnie Mae) (aka FHLMC or Freddie Mac) Commonly used name for the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), a government sponsored entity that provides a secondary market for conforming conventional residential mortgage loans by purchasing them from primary lenders. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A corporate instrumentality of the United States, created by Congress on July 24, 1970. Freddie Mac is owned by its shareholders and accountable to its shareholders and a board of directors. Its primary mission is to increase the availability of money from mortgage lenders to homebuyers and investors in multi-family residential property. As one of the biggest buyers of home mortgages in the United States, Freddie Mac is a secondary market conduit between mortgage lenders and investors. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) An organization that purchases conventional mortgage loans and sells securities based on pools of these loans. Also called "Freddie Mac." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Federal Housing Administration

(aka FHA) An agency within the Department of Housing and Urban Development that sets underwriting standards and insures residential mortgage loans made by private lenders. One of FHA's objectives is to help make affordable mortgages available to homeowners with low or moderate income. FHA loans may be high loan-to-value, and they are limited by loan amount. FHA mortgage insurance requires a fee of 1.5 percent of the loan amount to be paid at closing, as well as an annual fee of 0.5 percent of the loan amount added to each monthly payment. (Ginnie Mae) A federal agency established to advance homeownership opportunities. The FHA provides mortgage insurance to approved lending institutions. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) An agency within the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) that insures mortgages and loans made by private lenders. (Federal Trade Commission) Provides mortgage insurance on loans made by FHA-approved lenders throughout the United States and its territories. FHA insures mortgages on single-family, multifamily, and manufactured homes and hospitals. It is the largest insurer of mortgages in the world, insuring over 34 million properties since its inception in 1934. (US Dept of HUD) A division of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development that insures mortgage loans for a variety of purposes, but primarily for those related to residential housing. Congress originally created the FHA in 1934 to make homeownership possible for first-time homebuyers. Today the FHA helps low- to middle-income families to purchase a home without making a large down payment, encourages improvement in housing standards and conditions, and provides a system of government-guaranteed mortgage insurance. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) An agency, within the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, that administers loan programs, loan guarantee programs, and loan insurance programs designed to make more housing available. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Established in 1934 to advance homeownership opportunities for all Americans; assists homebuyers by providing mortgage insurance to lenders to cover most losses that may occur when a borrower defaults; this encourages lenders to make loans to borrowers who might not qualify for conventional mortgages. (US Dept of HUD) A sub-agency of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development created in the 1930's to facilitate the purchase of homes by low-income, first-time home buyers. It currently provides federally-subsidized mortgage insurance for private lenders. (HardwickAssociates)

federal land

See Ownership. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) A land ownership category designating land that is owned by the Federal Government. It does not include, for example, trust lands administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs or Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) land. No data are collected for any year that land is in this ownership. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

Federal Lands Highway Program

(aka FLHP) Provides funds to construct roads and trails within (or, in some cases, providing access to) Federal lands. There are four categories of FLHP funds: Indian Reservation Roads, Public Lands Highways, Park Roads and Parkways, and Refuge Roads. Funds available to the US Forest Service may be used for forest development roads and trails. To be eligible for funding, projects must be open to the public and part of an approved Federal land management agency general management plan. 23 U.S.C. 204. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal manufactured home construction and safety standard

A reasonable standard for the construction, design, and performance of a manufactured home which meets the needs of the public including the need for quality, durability, and safety. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

Federal margin call

A broker's demand upon a customer for cash, or securities needed to satisfy the required Regulation T down payment for a purchase or short sale of securities. (Federal Reserve Education) A broker�s demand upon a customer for cash or securities needed to satisfy the required Regulation T down payment for a purchase or short sale of securities. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

federal milk marketing orders

Regulations issued by the Secretary of Agriculture specifying minimum prices that regulated handlers must pay for milk and other conditions under which milk can be bought and sold within a specified area. The orders establish minimum class prices according to the products for which milk is used that are then "blended" as a weighted average. The 1996 Farm Act required consolidation of the Federal milk marketing orders into 10-14 regional orders, down from 33. In 2008, there were 10 Federal milk marketing orders. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations

(aka FMCSR) The regulations are contained in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Chapter III, Subchapter B. (FHWA2) (FHWA4) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal National Mortgage Association

(aka FNMA or Fannie Mae) A quasi-governmental, federally-sponsored organization that acts as a secondary market investor to buy and sell mortgage loans. Fannie Mae (FNMA) sets many of the guidelines for conventional mortgage loans, as does Freddie Mac. (Ginnie Mae) A government sponsored entity that, as a secondary mortgage loan institution, is the largest single holder of residential mortgage loans in the United States. Fannie Mae primarily buys conforming conventional residential loans from primary lenders. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A tax-paying corporation, owned entirely by private stockholders, established in 1938 to provide additional liquidity to the mortgage market. In 1968, the original Fannie Mae was reorganized into two corporations: the privately-owned Fannie Mae and the government-owned Ginnie Mae. Fannie Mae purchases and sells residential mortgages insured by the Federal Housing Administration or guaranteed by the Veterans� Administration, as well as conventional home mortgages. Purchases of mortgages are financed by the sale of mortgage-backed securities to private investors. Fannie Mae operates with regulatory oversight from both the U.S. Treasury Department and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Open Market Committee

(aka FOMC) Twelve-member committee made up of the seven members of the Fed's Board of Governors; the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; and, on a rotating basis, the presidents of four other Reserve Banks. The FOMC meets eight times a year to set Federal Reserve guidelines regarding the purchase and sale of government securities in the open market as a means of influencing the volume of bank credit and money in the economy. It also establishes policy relating to System operations in the foreign exchange markets. (Federal Reserve Education)

federal organizations

Agencies, departments, or their components of the Federal Government that have a role in dam safety emergency planning and preparedness (i.e., Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, National Weather Service, etc.). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Federal Policy Fee

A flat charge that the policyholder must pay on each new or renewal policy to defray certain administrative expenses incurred in carrying out the National Flood Insurance Program. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Federal Power Act

Enacted in 1920, and amended in 1935, the Act consists of three parts. The first part incorporated the Federal Water Power Act administered by the former Federal Power Commission, whose activities were confined almost entirely to licensing non-Federal hydroelectric projects. Parts II and II were added with the passage of the Public Utility Act. These parts extended the Act's jurisdiction to include regulating the interstate transmission electrical energy and rates for its sale as wholesale in interstate commerce. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is now charged with the administration of this law. See Federal Power Act of 1920. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Federal Railroad Administration

(aka FRA) The purpose of the Federal Railroad Administration is to promulgate and enforce rail safety regulations, administer railroad financial assistance programs, conduct research and development in support of improved railroad safety and national rail transportation policy, provide for the rehabilitation of Northeast corridor rail passenger service, and consolidate government support of rail transportation activities. The FRA was created pursuant to section 3(e)(1) of the Department of Transportation Act of 1966 (49 U.S.C. app. 1652). (OFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal Register

Published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the Federal Register is the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of federal agencies and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents. (US Dept of HUD) Daily publication which provides a uniform system for making regulations and legal notices issued by the Executive Branch and various departments of the Federal government available to the public. (USCG1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) The official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of federal agencies, departments, and organizations, as well as executive orders and other presidential documents. It is published by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

Federal Reserve Act of 1913

Federal legislation that established the Federal Reserve System. (Federal Reserve Education) Federal legislation that established the Federal Reserve System. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

Federal Reserve Bank

(aka FRB) One of the 12 operating arms of the Federal Reserve System, located throughout the nation, that together with their 25 branches carry out various System functions, including operating a nationwide payments system, distributing the nation's currency and coin, supervising and regulating member banks and bank holding companies and serving as banker for the U.S. Treasury. (Federal Reserve Education) One of the 12 regional banks in the Federal Reserve System. The 12 FRBs and their 25 branches, which are managed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, perform a variety of functions, including operating a nationwide payments system, distributing the nation�s currency, supervising and regulating member banks and bank holding companies, and serving as banker for the U.S. Treasury. The FRBs supervise and examine state chartered banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System (state member banks). (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Reserve District (Reserve District or District)

One of the twelve geographic regions served by a Federal Reserve Bank. (Federal Reserve Education)

Federal Reserve float

Float is checkbook money that appears on the books of both the check writer (the payer) and the check receiver (the payee) while a check is being processed. Federal Reserve float is float present during the Federal Reserve's check collection process. To promote efficiency in the payments system and provide certainty about the date that deposited funds will become available to the receiving depository institutions (and the payee), the Federal Reserve credits the reserve accounts of banks that deposit checks according to a fixed schedule. However, processing certain checks and collecting funds from the banks on which these checks are written may take more time than the schedule allows. Therefore, the accounts of some banks may be credited before the Federal Reserve is able to collect payment from other banks, resulting in Federal Reserve float. (Federal Reserve Education) Checkbook money that, for a period of time, appears on the books of both the payor and payee due to the lag in the collection process. Federal Reserve float often arises during the Federal Reserve�s check collection process. In order to promote an efficient payments mechanism with certainty as to the date funds become available, the Federal Reserve has employed the policy of crediting the reserve accounts of depository institutions depositing checks (the payee) according to an availability schedule before the Federal Reserve is able to obtain payment from the payor. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

Federal Reserve note

Currency issued by the Federal Reserve. Nearly all of the nation's circulating paper currency consists of Federal Reserve notes printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and issued to the Federal Reserve Banks which put them into circulation through commercial banks and other depository institutions. Federal Reserve notes are obligations of the U.S. government. (Federal Reserve Education)

Federal Reserve System

(aka Fed) The central bank of the United States, created by Congress and made up of a seven-member Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks, and their 24 branches. (Federal Reserve Education) The central bank of the United States. The Fed, as it is commonly called, regulates the U.S. monetary and financial system. The Federal Reserve System is composed of a central governmental agency in Washington, D.C. (the Board of Governors) and twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks in major cities throughout the United States. You can divide the Federal Reserve's duties into four general areas: Conducting monetary policy; Regulating banking institutions and protecting the credit rights of consumers; Maintaining the stability of the financial system; Providing financial services to the U.S. government (Help With My Bank) The central banking system of the United States, founded by Congress in 1913 to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. Over the years, the Fed�s role in banking and the economy has expanded. The Fed administers the nation�s monetary policy using three major tools: open market operations, the reserve requirement, and the discount rate. The Fed also plays a major role in the supervision and regulation of the U.S. banking system. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the Federal Reserve Board) is made up of seven members appointed to 14-year terms by the president of the United States and confirmed by the Senate. The chairman and vice chairman of the board, however, serve four-year terms. The Federal Reserve Board�s policies are carried out by the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation

(aka FSLIC) The federal corporation chartered by Congress in 1934 to insure deposits in savings institutions. The FSLIC also served as a conservator or receiver for troubled or failed insured savings associations. Effective April 1, 1980, for insured savings and loan institutions, the FSLIC insured savings accounts up to $100,000. The FSLIC functioned under the direction of the FHLBB, which provided certain administrative services and conducted the examination and supervision of insured S&Ls. In 1989, Congress abolished the FSLIC, transferring its resolution, conservatorship, and receivership functions to the RTC and its responsibilities for the deposit insurance fund to the Savings Association Insurance Fund, which is administered by the FDIC. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Federal savings bank

A type of "savings and loan association." See also "savings and loan association." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Federal Tax Deposit

(aka FTD) Federal Tax Deposits are made up of withholding taxes from employee's paycheck. This withholding includes employee's income tax and FICA (Social Security and Medicare). Employers send withheld money to an authorized financial institution or Federal Reserve Bank. (Federal Reserve Education)

Federal Transit Administration

(aka FTA) A branch of the US Department of Transportation that is the principal source of federal financial assistance to America's communities for planning, development, and improvement of public or mass transportation systems. FTA provides leadership, technical assistance, and financial resources for safe, technologically advanced public transportation to enhance mobility and accessibility, to improve the Nation's communities and natural environment, and to strengthen the national economy. (Formerly the Urban Mass Transportation Administration) operates under the authority of the Federal Transit Act, as amended (49 U.S.C. app. 1601 et seq.). The Federal Transit Act was repealed on July 5, 1994, and the Federal transit laws were codified and re-enacted as chapter 53 of Title 49, United States Code. The Federal Transit Administration was established as a component of the Department of Transportation by section 3 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1968 (5 U.S.C. app.), effective July 1, 1968. The missions of the Administration are 1) to assist in the development of improved mass transportation facilities, equipment, techniques, and methods, with the cooperation of mass transportation companies both public and private. 2) to encourage the planning and establishment of areawide urban mass transportation systems needed for economical and desirable urban development, with the cooperation of mass transportation companies both public and private. and 3) to provide assistance to State and local governments and their instrumentalities in financing such systems, to be operated by public or private mass transportation companies as determined by local needs; and 4) to provide financial assistance to State and local governments to help implement national goals relating to mobility for elderly persons, persons with disabilities, and economically disadvantaged persons. (OFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Federal-aid Highway Program

(aka FAHP) An umbrella term for most of the Federal programs providing highway funds to the States. This is not a term defined in law. As used in this document, FAHP is comprised of those programs authorized in Titles I and V of TEA-21 that are administered by FHWA. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

federal-aid highways

Those highways eligible for assistance under Title 23 U.S.C. except those functionally classified as local or rural minor collectors. (23CFR500) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

federally regulated institution

For purposes of the Agencies� appraisal regulations and these Guidelines, an institution that is supervised by a federal financial institutions regulatory agency. This includes a national or a state-chartered bank and its subsidiaries, a bank holding company and its non-bank subsidiaries, a federal savings association and its subsidiaries, a federal savings and loan holding company and its subsidiaries, and a credit union. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) For purposes of the Agencies� appraisal regulations and these Guidelines, an institution that is supervised by a federal financial institutions regulatory agency. This includes a national or a state-chartered bank and its subsidiaries, a bank holding company and its non-bank subsidiaries, a federal savings association and its subsidiaries, a federal savings and loan holding company and its subsidiaries, and a credit union. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

federally related mortgage loan or mortgage loan

As follows: (1) Any loan (other than temporary financing, such as a construction loan): (i) That is secured by a first or subordinate lien on residential real property, including a refinancing of any secured loan on residential real property upon which there is either: (A) Located or, following settlement, will be constructed using proceeds of the loan, a structure or structures designed principally for occupancy of from one to four families (including individual units of condominiums and cooperatives and including any related interests, such as a share in the cooperative or right to occupancy of the unit); or (B) Located or, following settlement, will be placed using proceeds of the loan, a manufactured home; and (ii) For which one of the following paragraphs applies. The loan: (A) Is made in whole or in part by any lender that is either regulated by or whose deposits or accounts are insured by any agency of the Federal Government; (B) Is made in whole or in part, or is insured, guaranteed, supplemented, or assisted in any way: (1) By the Secretary or any other officer or agency of the Federal Government; or (2) Under or in connection with a housing or urban development program administered by the Secretary or a housing or related program administered by any other officer or agency of the Federal Government; (C) Is intended to be sold by the originating lender to the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (or its successors), or a financial institution from which the loan is to be purchased by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (or its successors); (D) Is made in whole or in part by a ��creditor��, as defined in section 103(f) of the Consumer Credit Protection Act (15 U.S.C. 1602(f)), that makes or invests in residential real estate loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year. For purposes of this definition, the term ��creditor�� does not include any agency or instrumentality of any State, and the term ��residential real estate loan�� means any loan secured by residential real property, including single-family and multifamily residential property; (E) Is originated either by a dealer or, if the obligation is to be assigned to any maker of mortgage loans specified in paragraphs (1)(ii) (A) through (D) of this definition, by a mortgage broker; or (F) Is the subject of a home equity conversion mortgage, also frequently called a ��reverse mortgage,�� issued by any maker of mortgage loans specified in paragraphs (1)(ii) (A) through (D) of this definition. (2) Any installment sales contract, land contract, or contract for deed on otherwise qualifying residential property is a federally related mortgage loan if the contract is funded in whole or in part by proceeds of a loan made by any maker of mortgage loans specified in paragraphs (1)(ii) (A) through (D) of this definition. (3) If the residential real property securing a mortgage loan is not located in a State, the loan is not a federally related mortgage loan. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

federally related transaction

As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, any real estate-related financial transaction in which the Agencies or any regulated institution engages or contracts for, and that requires the services of an appraiser. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) Means any real estate-related financial transactions entered into after the effective date hereof that: (1) The FDIC or any regulated institution engages in or contracts for; and (2) Requires the services of an appraiser. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

federally-funded��

Financial support for the mapping project comes directly or indirectly from one or more federal agencies.� (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

fedwire

Electronic funds transfer network operated by the Federal Reserve. Fedwire is usually used to transfer large amounts of funds and U.S. government securities from one institution's account at the Federal Reserve to another institution's account. It is also used by the U.S. Department of the Treasury and other federal agencies to collect and disburse funds. (Federal Reserve Education)

fee

Any cost that the borrower(s) must pay for services. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

fee appraiser

A certified, professional appraiser who forms an opinion of the fair market value of property and receives a set fee in exchange. (HardwickAssociates)

fee simple

The maximum form of ownership, with the right to occupy a property and sell it to a buyer at any time. Upon the death of the owner, the property goes to the owner's designated heirs. Also known as fee absolute. (Ginnie Mae) A complete, unencumbered ownership right in a piece of property. (HardwickAssociates)

fee simple estate

The greatest interest in a parcel of land that it is possible to own. Sometimes designated simply as "Fee." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A form or ownership, or holding title to real estate. It is the most complete form of title, having an unconditional and unlimited interest of perpetual duration. (HardwickAssociates)

feeder

A power line for supplying electricity within a specified area. (US Dept of Energy)

feeder conductors

The wires that connect the service equipment to the branch circuit breaker panels. (Energycodes.gov)

feedstock

Raw material supplied to a machine or processing plant from which other products can be made. For example, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene are raw chemicals used to produce plastic tiles, mats, fenders, cushions, and traffic cones. (US EPA- Pesticides) A raw material that can be converted to one or more products. (US Dept of Energy)

feldspar

Group of light-colored minerals often found as crystals in intrusive igneous rocks. The most common rock-forming mineral. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

FEMA

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fenestration

All areas (including the frames) in the building envelope that let in light, including windows, plastic panels, clerestories, skylights, glass doors that are more than one-half glass, and glass block walls. A skylight is a fenestration surface having a slope of less than 60 degrees from the horizontal plane. Other fenestration, even if mounted on the roof of a building, is considered vertical fenestration. (Energycodes.gov) The arrangement, proportion, and design of windows in a building. (US Dept of Energy)

fenestration area

Total area of the fenestration measured using the rough opening and including the glazing, sash, and frame. For doors where the glazed vision area is less than 50% of the door area, the fenestration area is the glazed vision area. For all other doors, the fenestration area is the door area. (Energycodes.gov)

FERC

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fermentation

The decomposition of organic material to alcohol, methane, etc., by organisms, such as yeast or bacteria, usually in the absence of oxygen. (US Dept of Energy)

ferry boat

A boat providing fixed-route service across a body of water. (APTA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

ferryboat (transit)

Vessels that carry passengers and/or vehicles over a body of water. Generally steam or diesel-powered, ferryboats may also be hovercraft, hydrofoil, and other high-speed vessels. The vessel is limited in its use to the carriage of deck passengers or vehicles or both, operates on a short run on a frequent schedule between two points over the most direct water routes other than in ocean or coastwise service, and is offered as a public service of a type normally attributed to a bridge or tunnel. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

fetch

The straight line distance across a body of water subject to wind forces. The distance which wind passes over water. The fetch is one of the factors used in calculating wave heights in a reservoir. The area in which waves are generated by a wind having a fairly constant direction and speed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

F-Factor

The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors, expressed in Btu/h x F. (Energycodes.gov)

FFDCA

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is the law which controls pesticide residues in food and feed, along with FIFRA. (US EPA- Pesticides)

FHA

See also: Federal Housing Administration (Ginnie Mae)

FHA loan

A government-backed mortgage loan supported by the US FHA and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans)

FHA mortgage

A mortgage that is insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). (HardwickAssociates)

FHA mortgage loan

A mortgage loan insured by the FHA. Since the 1930s, FHA has insured first mortgages enabling lenders to loan a very high percentage of the purchase price. See "Federal Housing Administration." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

FHA-Insured loan

A loan that is insured by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). (Federal Trade Commission)

fiat money

Money that has little or no intrinsic value as a commodity; it is costless to produce, usually taking the form of tokens or pieces of paper, and is not redeemable for any commodity. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

fiat paper money (or fiat currency)

Paper currency that has value because the government has decreed that it is a "legal tender" for making tax payments and often for discharging other debts and payments as well. Fiat money does not represent a claim on some other form of money or commodity such as gold and silver. (Federal Reserve Education)

fiberglass insulation

A type of insulation, composed of small diameter pink, yellow, or white glass fibers, formed into blankets or batts, or used in loose-fill and blown-in applications. (US Dept of Energy)

FICO score

FICO is an abbreviation for Fair Isaac Corporation and refers to a person's credit score based on credit history. Lenders and credit card companies use the number to decide if the person is likely to pay his or her bills. A credit score is evaluated using information from the three major credit bureaus and is usually between 300 and 850. (US Dept of HUD)

fidelity bonds

Insurance provided to indemnify employees against loss by reason of the dishonesty of employees or as a result of the nonperformance of contracts. In fidelity insurance contracts, the insurance company issues fidelity insurance bonds as a guarantee against loss arising from the default or dishonesty of the insured person. Fidelity bonds are issued for three classes of risk: larceny, culpable negligence, and unfaithful discharge of duty. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

fiduciary

Undertaking to act as executor, administrator, guardian, conservator, or trustee for a family trust, authorized trust, or testamentary trust, or receiver or trustee in bankruptcy. (Help With My Bank)

field

A cultivated area of land that is marked out for a particular crop or cropping sequence. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

field capacity

See Field-moisture capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

field capacity (field moisture capacity)

Depth of water retained in the soil after ample irrigation or heavy rain when the rate of downward movement has substantially decreased, usually one to three days after irrigation or rain, expressed as a depth of water in inches or feet. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

field tile

Short lengths of clay pipe that are installed as subsurface drains. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

field-moisture capacity

The quantity of water which can be permanently retained in the soil in opposition to the downward pull of gravity. (Horton, 1935, p. 3.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

field-moisture deficiency

The quantity of water, which would be required to restore the soil moisture to field-moisture capacity. (Horton, 1935, p. 3.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

FIFRA

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act was enacted in June 25, 1947. The Act instructs the EPA to regulate: 1) the registration of all pesticides used in the United States, 2) the licensing of pesticide applicators, 3) re-registration of all pesticide products, 4) the storage, transportation, disposal and recall of all pesticide products. FIFRA's home page provides many more details. (US EPA- Pesticides)

fifteen-year mortgage

A loan with a term of 15 years. Although the monthly payment on a 15-year mortgage is higher than that of a 30-year mortgage, the amount of interest paid over the life of the loan is substantially less. (Ginnie Mae)

filament

The wire inside an incandescent light bulb that produces light. (Energy Star.gov) A coil of tungsten wire suspended in a vacuum or inert gas-filled bulb. When heated by electricity the tungsten "filament" glows. (US Dept of Energy)

fill

Manmade deposits of natural soils or the process of the depositing. Manmade deposits of natural soils or rock products and waste materials designed and installed in such a manner as to provide drainage, yet prevent the movement of soil particles due to flowing water. An earth or broken rock structure or embankment. Soil or loose rock used to raise a grade. Soil that has no value except as bulk. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fill factor

The ratio of a photovoltaic cell's actual power to its power if both current and voltage were at their maxima. A key characteristic in evaluating cell performance. (US Dept of Energy)

fill-type insulation

Loose insulating material which is applied by hand or blown into wall spaces mechanically. (Publications- USA.gov)

filter (air)

A device that removes contaminants, by mechanical filtration, from the fresh air stream before the air enters the living space. Filters can be installed as part of a heating/cooling system through which air flows for the purpose of removing particulates before or after the air enters the mechanical components. (US Dept of Energy)

filter (filter zone)

One or more layers of granular material which is incorporated in an embankment dam and is graded (either naturally or by selection) to allow seepage through or within the layers while preventing the migration of material from adjacent zones. A layer or combination of layers of pervious materials designed and installed in such a manner as to provide drainage, yet prevent the movement of soil particles due to flowing water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

filter cake (mud cake)

A deposit of mud on the walls of a drill hole. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fin

A thin sheet of material (metal) of a heat exchanger that conducts heat to a fluid. (US Dept of Energy)

final claim payment

The amount due to the lender (or the Agency) after disposition of the security collateral is complete and the proceeds from such sale as well as the initial claim payment, if any, are applied against the allowable claim amount. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

final map product��

The final map product directed by this Standard is the incorporation of the interpreted and mapped wetlands within a project area into the Fish and Wildlife Service Wetland Database. Additional final map products may be required by the funding federal agencies. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

final rule

A regulation that has gone through the review and public comment process and is published in official form in the Federal Register (or the equivalent State publication). Final rules are published with an effective date, as of which they have the force of law. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

final value estimate

The opinion of value of a piece of property resulting from an appraisal following the USPAP guidelines. (HardwickAssociates)

finance

Charge or cost of credit, including interest paid by a customer for a consumer loan. Under the Truth in Lending Act, the finance charge must be disclosed to the customer in advance. See also Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1988. (Federal Reserve Education)

finance charge

The total dollar amount paid to get credit. (Federal Reserve Education) The total cost of credit a customer must pay on a consumer loan, including interest. The Truth in Lending Act requires disclosure of the finance charge. (Help With My Bank)

finance company

A company that makes loans to individuals. (Federal Reserve Education) A company that makes loans primarily for consumer purchases. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

finance lease

See open-end lease. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

financial

Reference to transactions involving money. (Federal Reserve Education)

financial advisers

Contractors in the private sector who are hired to help select assets for portfolio sales, manage the due diligence process, provide sellers with an opinion about the market value of the assets, find buyers, and negotiate the final terms and conditions of sales contracts. The expertise provided by financial advisors was especially useful to the FDIC and the RTC in organizing and executing their mortgage-backed securities programs. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

financial analysis

Estimating costs, establishing a revenue baseline, comparing revenues with costs and evaluating new revenue sources. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) Procedure that considers only tangible factors when evaluating various alternatives. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Financial Assistance/Subsidy Arrangement

The arrangement between an insurance company and FEMA to initiate the company's participation in the Write Your Own (WYO) Program. It establishes the duties of the company and the government. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

financial capacity

Refers to the ISTEA requirement that an adequate financial plan for funding and sustaining transportation improvements be in place prior to programming Federally-funded projects. Generally refers to the stability and reliability of revenue in meeting proposed costs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

financial holding company

A financial entity engaged in a broad range of banking-related activities, created by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999. These activities include: insurance underwriting, securities dealing and underwriting, financial and investment advisory services, merchant banking, issuing or selling securitized interests in bank-eligible assets, and generally engaging in any non-banking activity authorized by the Bank Holding Company Act. The Federal Reserve Board is responsible for supervising the supervising the financial condition and activities of financial holding companies. Similarly, any non-bank commercial company that is predominantly engaged in financial activities, earning 85% or more of its gross revenues from financial services, may choose to become a financial holding company. These companies are required to sell any non-financial (commercial) businesses within ten years. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

financial institution

An institution that uses its funds chiefly to purchase financial assets (loans, securities) as opposed to tangible property. Financial institutions can be classified according to the nature of the principal claims they issue. See also depository institution. (Federal Reserve Education) An institution that uses its funds chiefly to purchase financial assets (loans, securities) as opposed to tangible property. Financial institutions can be classified according to the nature of the principal claims they issue. See also depository institution. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act (FIRREA)

Legislation that established the Resolution Trust Corporation and the Oversight Board of the RTC as instrumentalities of the United States. Enacted by Congress on August 9, 1989, it includes section 21A of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (U.S. Code, volume 12, 1441[a]), as added by section 501(a) of FIRREA (Public Law No. 101-73, section 501[a], 103 Statute 83, 363-393). Resulting from the thrift crisis of the late 1980s, FIRREA revised the structure of the deposit insurance system creating a new Bank Insurance Fund and a Savings Association Insurance Fund, both of which were to be administered by the FDIC. FIRREA abolished the FHLBB and the FSLIC. FIRREA divided the Federal Home Loan Bank System into three parts: the OTS, under the general oversight of the secretary of the Treasury; the SAIF; and the Federal Housing Finance Board, which was responsible for overseeing the lending activities of the 12 regional Federal Home Loan Banks. A separate FDIC fund, the FSLIC Resolution Fund, was established to assume the assets and liabilities of the FSLIC except for those transferred to the RTC. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

financial instrument

Any written instrument having monetary value or evidencing a monetary transaction. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

financial planning

The process of defining and evaluating funding sources, sharing the information, and deciding how to allocate the funds. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

financial programming

A short-term commitment of funds to specific projects identified in the regional Transportation Improvement Program (see TIP). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Financial Regulatory Agency

An organization authorized by statute for ensuring the safe and sound operation of financial institutions chartered to conduct business under that agency's jurisdiction. The primary regulators are the following: �OCC (Office of the Comptroller of the Currency) �FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) �FRB (Federal Reserve Board) �NCUA (National Credit Union Administration) �State regulatory agencies (Help With My Bank)

financial services institution

The Agencies� appraisal regulations do not contain a specific definition of the term ?financial services institution.? The term is intended to describe entities that provide services in connection with real estate lending transactions on an ongoing basis, including loan brokers. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) The Agencies� appraisal regulations do not contain a specific definition of the term �financial services institution.� The term is intended to describe entities that provide services in connection with real estate lending transactions on an ongoing basis, including loan brokers. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

financing

Borrowing money to buy something. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

financing fee

The fee a lender charges to originate a loan. The fee is based on a percentage of the loan amount; one point is equivalent to one percent. (Federal Reserve Education)

financing statement

A document filed with the Register of Deeds or Secretary of State securing the title to personal property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

finding of no significant impact

(aka FONSI) A NEPA compliance document which affirms that an environmental assessment found that alternatives were evaluated and a proposed action would have no significant impact on the human environment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fine particulates

Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in size (PM-2.5). A micron is one millionth of a meter. See "Particulate matter" below. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

fines

Portion of a soil finer that a No. 200 U.S. Standard sieve. Clay or silt particles in soil. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

finger drains

A series of parallel drains of narrow width (instead of a continuous drainage blanket) draining to the downstream toe of the embankment dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

finish

Both a noun and a verb to describe the exterior surface of building elements (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) and furniture, and the process of applying it. (US Dept of Energy)

finished (habitable) area

An enclosed area having more than 20 linear feet of finished interior walls (paneling, etc.) or used for any purpose other than solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

finished grade

The elevation or surface of the earth after all earthwork has been completed (also finish grade). The final grade required by specifications. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fire classification

Classifications of fires developed by the National Fire Protection Association. (US Dept of Energy)

fire insurance

Same or similar to "property insurance." See also "property insurance." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

fireplace

A wood or gas burning appliance that is primarily used to provide ambiance to a room. Conventional, masonry fireplaces without energy saving features, often take more heat from a space than they put into it. (US Dept of Energy)

fireplace insert

A wood or gas burning heating appliance that fits into the opening or protrudes on to the hearth of a conventional fireplace. (US Dept of Energy)

fire-rating

The ability of a building construction assembly (partition, wall, floor, etc.) to resist the passage of fire. The rating is expressed in hours. (US Dept of Energy)

firewall

A wall to prevent the spread of fire; usually made of non-combustible material. (US Dept of Energy)

firing rate

The amount of BTUs/hour or kWs produced by a heating system from the burning of a fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

firm energy (power)

Non-interruptible energy and power guaranteed by the supplier to be available at all times, except for uncontrollable circumstances. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

firm yield

The maximum quantity of water that can be guaranteed with some specified degree of confidence during a specific critical period. The critical period is that period in a sequential record that requires the largest volume from storage to provide a specified yield. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

firn (firn snow)

Old snow on the top of glaciers, granular and compact but not yet converted into ice. It is a transitional stage between snow and ice. Also called ne've'. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

firn line

The highest level to which the fresh snow on a glacier's surface retreats during the melting season. (Matthes, 1949, p. 161.) The line separating the accumulation area from the ablation area. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

first law of thermodynamics

States that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only changed from one form to another. First Law efficiency measures the fraction of energy supplied to a device or process that it delivers in its output. Also called the law of conservation of energy. (US Dept of Energy)

first mortgage

A mortgage that is the primary lien against a property. (Federal Trade Commission) A real estate loan which is in a first lien position, taking priority over all other liens. In case of a foreclosure, the first mortgage will be repaid before any other mortgages. (Help With My Bank) A mortgage that has a first-priority claim against the property in the event the homeowner defaults on the loan. (Making Home Affordable) The mortgage with first priority if the loan is not paid. (US Dept of HUD) The primary loan or mortgage secured by a piece of property. (HardwickAssociates)

first payment date

The date of the first scheduled mortgage loan payment to be made by the borrower under the terms of the mortgage loan documents. (Fannie Mae)

first principal & interest payment date

For an interest-only mortgage loan, the due date of the first monthly scheduled amortizing principal and interest (P&I) payment. For non-interest only mortgage loans, this will be blank. (Fannie Mae)

first Responders

(aka initial responders) Individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release and who have been trained to initiate an emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

first-time home buyer

A person with no ownership interest in a principal residence during the three-year period preceding the purchase of the security property. (Federal Trade Commission)

first-time homebuyer indicator

An indicator that denotes if a borrower or co-borrower qualifies as a first-time homebuyer (Fannie Mae)

fiscal agency services

Services performed by the Federal Reserve Banks for the U.S. government. These include maintaining deposit accounts for the Treasury Department, paying U.S. government checks drawn on the Treasury, and issuing and redeeming savings bonds and other government securities. (Federal Reserve Education)

fiscal constraint

Making sure that a given program or project can reasonably expect to receive funding within the time allotted for its implementation. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

fiscal policy

The federal government's decisions about the amount of money it spends and collects in taxes to achieve a full employment and noninflationary economy. (Federal Reserve Education)

fiscal year

(aka FY) The yearly accounting period beginning October 1 and ending September 30 of the subsequent calendar year. Fiscal years are denoted by the calendar year in which they end (e.g. FY 1991 began October 1, 1990, and ended September 30, 1991). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) The U.S. Government's 12-month financial year, from October to September, of the following calender year; e.g.: FY 1998 extends from Oct. 1, 1997 to Sept. 30, 1988. (US Dept of Energy)

Fish & Wildlife Service

(aka FWS) The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the principal Federal agency responsible for conserving, protecting and enhancing fish, wildlife and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people. FWS is an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fish ladder (fishway)

An inclined trough which carries water from above to below a dam so that fish can easily swim upstream. There are various types, some with baffles to reduce the velocity of the water and some consisting of a series of boxes with water spilling down from one to the next. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fish weir

A type of fish ladder. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fishery

The aquatic region in which a certain species of fish lives. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fishing

The operation of recovering an object left or dropped in a drill hole. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fixed amount-frequency scheduling

Method of irrigation scheduling that involves water delivery at a fixed rate or a fixed volume and at constant intervals. Examples include rotation and continuous flow methods. Considered a rigid form of scheduling. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fixed cone valve

(aka Howell Bunger valve) A cylinder gate mounted with the axis horizontal. See valve. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fixed exchange rate system

Exchange rates between currencies that are set at predetermined levels and don't move in response to changes in supply and demand. (Federal Reserve Education)

fixed expenses

Payments that do not vary from month to month. (US Dept of HUD)

fixed payment mortgage

A loan secured by real property which features a periodic payment of interest and principal that is constant over the term of the loan. All fixed payment mortgages are fixed rate mortgages, but some fixed rate mortgages may have variable payments, such as graduated payment mortgages (GPM). (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

fixed rate

A traditional approach to determining the finance charge payable on an extension of credit. A predetermined and certain rate of interest is applied to the principal. (Federal Reserve Education)

fixed rate loan

The interest rate and the payment remain the same over the life of the loan. The consumer makes equal monthly payments of principal and interest until the debt is paid in full. (Help With My Bank)

fixed-period adjustable-rate mortgage

An adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM) that offers a fixed rate for an initial period, typically three to ten years, and then adjusts every six months, annually, or at another specified period, for the remainder of the term. Also known as a �hybrid loan.� (Federal Trade Commission)

fixed-rate loans

Loans that generally have repayment terms of 15, 20, or 30 years. Both the interest rate and the monthly payments (for principal and interest) stay the same during the life of the loan. (Federal Trade Commission- Shopping for a Mortgage)

fixed-rate mortgage

(aka FRM) A mortgage whose rate remains constant throughout the life of the mortgage. (Ginnie Mae) A mortgage with an interest rate that does not change during the entire term of the loan. (Freddie Mac) A mortgage with payments that remain the same throughout the life of the loan because the interest rate and other terms are fixed and do not change. (Help With My Bank) A mortgage loan with a fixed interest rate that remains the same for the life of the loan. (Making Home Affordable) A loan secured by real property featuring an interest rate that is constant for the term of the loan. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A mortgage with an interest rate that does not change over the life of the loan, and as a result, monthly payments for principal and interest do not change. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) A mortgage with payments that remain the same throughout the life of the loan because the interest rate and other terms are fixed and do not change. (US Dept of HUD) A mortgage in which the interest rate is fixed and will never change. USDA loans are generally always Fixed rate loans. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) A mortgage which has a fixed rate of interest over the life of the loan. (HardwickAssociates)

fixed-route

Term applied to transit service that is regularly scheduled and operates over a set route; usually refers to bus service. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

fixed-wheel gate (fixed-roller gate, fixed-axle gate)

A gate consisting of a rectangular leaf mounted on wheels, particularly suited for high head situations. A gate having wheels or rollers mounted on the end posts of the gate. The wheels bear against rails fixed in side grooves or gate guides. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fixture

Personal property permanently attached to real estate or real property that becomes a part of the real estate. (US Dept of HUD) Any piece of personal property which becomes permanently affixed to a piece of real property. (HardwickAssociates) A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps and the parts designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamp(s), and connect the lamp(s) to the power supply. (Energy Star.gov) The component of a luminaire that houses the lamp or lamps, positions the lamp, shields it from view, and distributes the light. The fixture also provides for connection to the power supply, which may require the use of a ballast. (Energycodes.gov)

fixtures

Any item of property so attached to real property that it becomes a part of the real property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

flail

A hammer hinged to an axle so that is can be used to break or crush material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flame spread classification

A measure of the surface burning characteristics of a material. (US Dept of Energy)

flame spread rating

A measure of the relative flame spread, and smoke development, from a material being tested. The flame spread rating is a single number comparing the flame spread of a material with red oak, arbitrarily given the number 100 and asbestos cement board with a flame spread of 0. Building codes require a maximum flame spread of 25 for insulation installed in exposed locations. (US Dept of Energy)

flammable

Describes any material that can be ignited easily and that will burn rapidly. (US EPA- Pesticides)

flange

A ridge that prevents a sliding motion. A rib or rim for strength or for attachments. A rim or collar attached to one end of a pipe to give support. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flap gate

A gate hinged along one edge, usually either the top or bottom edge. Examples of bottom-hinged flap gates are tilting gates and fish belly gates - so called from their shape in cross section. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flare

��A tall stack equipped with burners used as a safety device at wellheads, refining facilities, gas processing plants, and chemical plants. Flares are used for the combustion and disposal of combustible gases. The gases are piped to a remote, usually elevated, location and burned in an open flame in the open air using a specially designed burner tip, auxiliary fuel, and steam or air. Combustible gases are flared most often due to emergency relief, overpressure, process upsets, startups, shutdowns, and other operational safety reasons. Natural gas that is uneconomical for sale is also flared. Often natural gas is flared as a result of the unavailability of a method for transporting such gas to markets. (US Energy Information Administration)

flash flood

A flood which follows within a few hours of heavy or excessive rainfall. A flood of short duration with a relatively high peak rate of flow, usually resulting from a high intensity rainfall over a small area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flash flood warning

Flash flooding has been reported or is imminent. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flash flood watch

Flash flooding is possible within the designated watch area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flash point

The lowest temperature at which evaporation of a substance produces enough vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air. (US EPA- Pesticides)

flashboards

Temporary barriers, consisting of either timber, concrete or steel, anchored to the crest of a spillway as a means of increasing the reservoir storage. Flashboards can be removed, lowered, or carried away at the time of flooding either by a tripping device or by deliberate failure of the flashboards or their supports. Structural members of timber, concrete, or steel placed in channels or on the crest of a spillway to raise the reservoir water level but that may be quickly removed in the event of a flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flashing

Noncorrosive metal used around angles or junctions in roofs and exterior walls to prevent leaks. (Publications- USA.gov) The metal used around the base of roof mounted equipment, or at the junction of angles used to prevent leaking. (HardwickAssociates) Material for allowing proper drainage around the joints and angles of the roof and penetrations through the roof and walls. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Metal, usually galvanized sheet metal, used to provide protection against infiltration of precipitation into a roof or exterior wall; usually placed around roof penetrations such as chimneys. (US Dept of Energy)

flashpoint

The minimum temperature at which sufficient vapor is released by a liquid or solid (fuel) to form a flammable vapor-air mixture at atmospheric pressure. (US Dept of Energy)

flash-steam geothermal plants

When the temperature of the hydrothermal liquids is over 350 F (177 C), flash-steam technology is generally employed. In these systems, most of the liquid is flashed to steam. The steam is separated from the remaining liquid and used to drive a turbine generator. While the water is returned to the geothermal reservoir, the economics of most hydrothermal flash plants are improved by using a dual-flash cycle, which separates the steam at two different pressures. The dual-flash cycle produces 20% to 30% more power than a single-flash system at the same fluid flow. (US Dept of Energy)

flat�

A level landform composed of unconsolidated sediments -- usually mud or sand. Flats may be irregularly shaped or elongate and continuous with the shore, whereas bars are generally elongate, parallel to the shore, and separated from the shore by water. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

flat plate solar photovoltaic module

An arrangement of photovoltaic cells or material mounted on a rigid flat surface with the cells exposed freely to incoming sunlight. (US Dept of Energy)

flat plate solar thermal/heating collectors

Large, flat boxes with glass covers and dark-colored metal plates inside that absorb and transfer solar energy to a heat transfer fluid. This is the most common type of collector used in solar hot water systems for homes or small businesses. (US Dept of Energy)

flat roof

A slightly sloped roof, usually with a tar and gravel cover. Most commercial buildings use this kind of roof. (US Dept of Energy)

flat slab or slab and buttress dam

A buttress dam with buttresses which support the flat slab of reinforced concrete which forms the upstream face. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flat-black paint

Nonglossy paint with a relatively high absorptance. (US Dept of Energy)

flatirons

Triangular-shaped landforms along mountain ranges formed by erosion of steeply inclined rock layers or hogbacks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fleet angle

The angle between the position of a rope or cable at the extreme end wrap on a drum and a line drawn perpendicular to the axis of the drum. The fleet angle is used to indicate how effective or efficient the rope or cable is for raising a load. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flex acreage

See normal flex acreage and optional flex acreage. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

flexible payment mortgage

(aka FPM) A home-purchase loan plan that allows the borrower to pay interest-only for the first several years of the term. Monthly payments must be sufficient to cover interest on the principal, and after 5 years, payments must be sufficient to amortize the principal over the remaining term. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

flexible pipe

Pipe designed to transmit the backfill load to the soil at the sides of the pipe. Flexible pipe must be supported on both the bottom and on the sides of the pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fling

Refers to a near field long period pulse from a strong ground motion resulting in a unidirectional ground heave after rupture. Great kinetic energy may be associated with a fling and is important in near field records. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flip bucket

An energy dissipator located at the downstream end of a spillway and shaped so that water flowing at a high velocity is deflected upwards in a trajectory away from the foundation of the spillway. See stilling basin. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

float

A sum of money that represents checks that are outstanding. (Federal Reserve Education) 1) The amount of uncollected funds represented by checks in the possession of one bank but drawn on other banks. 2) The time that elapses between the day a check is deposited and the day it is presented for payment to the financial institution on which it is drawn. (Help With My Bank) The act of allowing an interest rate and discount points to fluctuate with changes in the market. (US Dept of HUD)

floatable days

The number of days during the recreation season on which it is safe to allow floating activities on recreation facilities. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

floatable flows

River flows which make rafting and other floating recreation possible. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

floating exchange rate

A fixed exchange rate is when the value of a currency is fixed by governmental action at some officially determined level in terms of another currency. (Federal Reserve Education)

floating exchange rate system

The flexible exchange rate system in which the exchange rate is determined by the market forces of supply and demand without intervention. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

floating plant�

A non-anchored plant that floats freely in the water or on the surface; e.g., water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) or common duckweed (Lemna minor). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

floating-leaved plant�

A rooted, herbaceous hydrophyte with some leaves floating on the water surface; e.g., white water lily (Nymphaea odorata), floating-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton natans). Plants such as yellow water lily (Nuphar luteum) which sometimes have leaves raised above the surface are considered floating-leaved plants or emergents, depending on their growth habit at a particular site. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

float-zone process

In reference to solar photovoltaic cell manufacture, a method of growing a large-size, high-quality crystal whereby coils heat a polycrystalline ingot placed atop a single-crystal seed. As the coils are slowly raised the molten interface beneath the coils becomes a single crystal. (US Dept of Energy)

floc

Loose, open-structured mass formed in a suspension by the aggregation of minute particles. Clumps of bacteria and particulate impurities that have come together and formed a cluster. Found in flocculation tanks and settling or sedimentation basins. Clumps of impurities removed from water during the purification process; formed when alum is added to impure water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flocculation

The process of forming flocs. A step in water filtration in which alum is added to cause particles to clump together. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood

A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of two or more acres of normally dry land area or of two or more properties (at least one of which is the policyholder's property) from: --Overflow of inland or tidal waters; or --Unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters from any source; or --Mudflow; or Collapse or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or similar body of water as a result of erosion or undermining caused by waves or currents of water exceeding anticipated cyclical levels that result in a flood as defined above. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Type of lamp where beam angle is usually 30 percent or more. (Energy Star.gov) An overflow or inundation that comes from a river or other body of water (Barrows, 1948, p. 4), and causes or threatens damage. Any relatively high streamflow overtopping the natural or artificial banks in any reach of a stream. (Leopold and Maddock, 1954, p. 249-251.) A relatively high flow as measured by either gage height or discharge quantity. (Jarvis and others, 1936, p. 463.) A glossary of flood terms is given in "The Flood Control Controversy." (Leopold and Maddock, 1954, p. 249-251.) See Annual flood. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A temporary rise in water levels resulting in inundation of areas not normally covered by water. May be expressed in terms of probability of exceedance per year such as 1-percent chance flood or expressed as a fraction of the probable maximum flood or other reference flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood boundary

Line drawn or outer edge of colored (inundation) area on an inundation map to show the limit of flooding. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood certification

A common term for a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form (SFHDF). This determines whether land or a building is located within a Special Flood Hazard Area for purposes of flood insurance requirements under the National Flood Insurance Pro g r a m . (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

flood certification fee

A fee charged by independent mapping firms to identify properties located in areas designated as flood zones. (Federal Trade Commission) A fee for the assessment of your property to determine if it is located in a flood prone area. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

flood control capacity

Reservoir capacity assigned to the sole purpose of regulating flood inflows to reduce flood damage downstream. See exclusive flood control capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood control pool (flood pool)

Reservoir volume above active conservation capacity and joint use capacity that is reserved for flood runoff and then evacuated as soon as possible to keep that volume in readiness for the next flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood crest

See Flood peak. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood event

See Flood wave. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood frequency

Refers to the probability (in percent) that a flood will occur in a given year. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood gate

A gate to control flood releases from a reservoir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Flood Hazard Boundary Map

(aka FHBM) Official map of a community issued by FEMA, where the boundaries of the flood, mudflow, and related erosion areas having special hazards have been designated. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

flood hydrograph

A graph showing, for a given point on a stream, the discharge, height, or other characteristic of a flood with respect to time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood insurance

A form of insurance that protects the owner of the insured property against losses stemming from flood damage. The Federal Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 requires that federally-regulated lenders determine if real estate to be used to secure a loan is located in a Specially Flood Hazard Area (SFHA). If the property is located in a SFHA area, the borrower must obtain and maintain flood insurance on the property. Most insurance agents can assist in obtaining flood insurance. (Ginnie Mae) Insurance that compensates for physical property damage resulting from flooding. It is required for properties located in federally designated flood hazard zones. (Federal Trade Commission) Flood insurance protects against water from an overflowing river or a hurricane's tidal surge and also covers damage from water that builds up during storms. (Help With My Bank) Insurance that protects homeowners against losses from a flood; if a home is located in a flood plain, the lender will require flood insurance before approving a loan. (US Dept of HUD) Supplemental insurance which covers a home owner for any loss due to water damage from a flood. Often required by lenders for homes located in FEMA-designated flood zones. (HardwickAssociates)

Flood Insurance Rate Map

(aka FIRM) Official map of a community on which FEMA has delineated the Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs), the Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), and the risk premium zones applicable to the community. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

flood irrigation

Method of irrigating where water is applied from field ditches onto land which has no guide preparation such as furrows, borders or corrugations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood peak

The highest value of the stage or discharge attained by a flood; thus, peak stage or peak discharge. Flood crest has nearly the same meaning, but since it connotes the top of the flood wave, it is properly used only in referring to stage--thus, crest stage, but not crest discharge. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood plain

A strip of relatively flat and normally dry land alongside a stream, river, or lake that is covered by water during a flood. (Help With My Bank) A strip of relatively smooth land bordering a stream, built of sediment carried by the stream and dropped in the slack water beyond the influence of the swiftest current. It is called a living flood plain if it is overflowed in times of highwater; but a fossil flood plain if it is beyond the reach of the highest flood. (Bryan, 1922, p. 88.) The lowland that borders a river, usually dry but subject to flooding. (Hoyt and Langbein, 1955, p. 12.) That land outside of a stream channel described by the perimeter of the maximum probable flood. (After White, 1945, p. 44.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Nearly level land, susceptible to floods, that forms the bottom of a valley. An area, adjoining a body of water or natural stream, that has been or may be covered by floodwater. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood plane

The position occupied by the water surface of a stream during a particular flood. Also, loosely, the elevation of the water surface at various points along the stream during a particular flood. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood pool index

Computed as the ratio of the flood control pool depth to the depth below the pool, multiplied by the percent of time the reservoir water surface will be within the flood control pool. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood profile

A graph of elevation of the water surface of a river in flood, plotted as ordinate, against distance, measured in the downstream direction, plotted as abscissa. A flood profile may be drawn to show elevation at a given time, crests during a particular flood, or to show stages of concordant flows. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood routing

The process of determining progressively the timing and shape of a flood wave at successive points along a river. (See Carter and Godfrey, 1960.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A process of determining progressively over time the amplitude of a flood wave as it moves past a dam or downstream to successive points along a river or stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood severity

Qualitative description of how severe a possible flood could be (High, Medium, Low) depending on failure modes (including rate of failure), flood velocity, channel width, magnitude of damage potential, rate of rise for flood waters, etc. High severity would be associated with structures being swept clean from their foundations. Low severity would indicate that a slow, gradual rise of flood waters is anticipated. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood severity understanding

Understanding as to what degree flooding might affect the downstream population. The judgement on flood severity understanding is based on type of loading and is described as either vague or precise. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood stage

The gage height of the lowest bank of the reach in which the gage is situated. The term "lowest bank" is, however, not to be taken to mean an unusually low place or break in the natural bank through which the water inundates an unimportant and small area. (Linsley, 1942, p. 89.) The stage at which overflow of the natural banks of a stream begins to cause damage in the reach in which the elevation is measured. (U.S. Weather Bur.) See also Bankfull stage. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) An established gage height within a given river reach above which a rise in water surface level is defined as a flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flood wave

A distinct rise in stage culminating in a crest and followed by recession to lower stages. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood zone

The land bordering a stream which is subject to floods of about equal frequency; for example, a strip of the flood plain subject to flooding more often that once but not as frequently as twice in a century. (See White, 1945, p. 44.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood, maximum probable

The largest flood for which there is any reasonable expectancy in this climatic era. (Leopold and Maddock, 1954, p.112.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood-control storage

Storage of water in reservoirs to abate flood damage. (See Retarding reservoir.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

flood-frequency curve

1. A graph showing the number of times per year on the average, plotted as abscissa, that floods of magnitude, indicated by the ordinate, are equaled or exceeded. 2. A similar graph but with recurrence intervals of floods plotted as abscissa. (See Dalrymple, 1960.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

floodplain�

A flat expanse of land bordering an old river.� (see Reid and Wood 1976:72, 84). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

floodplain

Any land area susceptible to being inundated by flood waters from any source. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Mostly level land along rivers and streams that may be submerged by floodwater. A 100-year floodplain is an area which can be expected to flood once in every 100 years. (US EPA- Pesticides)

floodplain management

The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage, including but not limited to, emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, and floodplain management regulations. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

floodproofing

Any combination of structural and nonstructural additions, changes, or adjustments to structures, which reduce or eliminate risk of flood damage to real estate or improved real property, water and sanitation facilities, or structures with their contents. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

floods above a base

See Partial-duration flood series. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

floodway

A part of the flood plain otherwise leveed, reserved for emergency diversion of water during floods. A part of the flood plain which, to facilitate the passage of floodwater, is kept clear of encumbrances. The channel of a river or stream and those parts of the flood plains adjoining the channel, which are reasonably required to carry and discharge the floodwater or floodflow of any river or stream (Erbe and Flores, 1957, p. 443). (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

floor

A horizontal exterior partition, or a horizontal demising partition, under conditioned space that separates conditioned space from unconditioned space. (Energycodes.gov) The upward facing structure of a building. (US Dept of Energy)

floor joists

Framing pieces which rest on outer foundation walls and interior beams or girders. (Publications- USA.gov)

floor plan

The representation of a building which shows the basic outline of the structure, as well as detailed information about the positioning of rooms, hallways, doors, stairs and other features. Often includes detailed information about other fixtures and amenities. (HardwickAssociates)

floor space

The interior area of a building, calculated in square feet or meters. (US Dept of Energy)

flora

All plant life associated with a given habitat, country, or period. Bacteria are considered flora. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow

Volume of water that passes a given point within a given period of time. See base flow, discharge, enhancement flow, instream flow requirements, interstitial flow, minimum flow, peak flow, and return flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow augmentation

The release of water stored in a reservoir or other impoundment to increase the natural flow of a stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow channel

The portion of a flow net bounded by two adjacent flow lines. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow condition

In reference to solar thermal collectors, the condition where the heat transfer fluid is flowing through the collector loop under normal operating conditions. (US Dept of Energy)

flow curve

The locus of points obtained from a standard liquid limit test and plotted on a graph representing moisture content as ordinate on an arithmetic scale and the number of blows as abscissa on a logarithmic scale. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow failure

Failure in which a soil mass moves over relatively long distances in a fluidlike manner. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow hood

Device that easily measures airflow quantity, typically up to 2,500 cfm. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

flow line

The path that a particle of water follows in its course of seepage under laminar flow conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow net

A graphical representation of flow lines and equipotential (piezometric) lines used in the study of seepage phenomena. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow restrictor

A water and energy conserving device that limits the amount of water that a faucet or shower head can deliver. (US Dept of Energy)

flow slide

The failure of a sloped bank of soil in which the movement of the soil mass does not take place along a well-defined surface of sliding. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flowage

Water that floods onto adjacent land. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flowage easement

The right or easement to overflow, submerge, or flood certain lands; a right to prohibit building on certain floodways. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flow-duration curve

A cumulative frequency curve that shows the percentage of time that specified discharges are equaled or exceeded. (See Searcy, 1959.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

fluctuating flows

Water released from a dam that varies in volume with time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fluctuating zone

Area of a sandbar or vegetation zone that is within the range of fluctuating flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flue

A passageway in a chimney for conveying smoke, gases or fumes to the outside air. (Publications- USA.gov) The furnace exhaust pipe, usually going through the roof. (HardwickAssociates) The structure (in a residential heating appliance, industrial furnace, or power plant) into which combustion gases flow and are contained until they are emitted to the atmosphere. (US Dept of Energy)

flue damper

A device in the flue outlet or in the inlet of or upstream of the draft control device of an individual, automatically operated, and fossil-fuel-fired appliance that is designed to automatically open the flue outlet during appliance operation and to automatically close the flue outlet when the appliance is in a standby condition. (Energycodes.gov)

flue gas

The gas resulting from the combustion of a fuel that is emitted to the flue. (US Dept of Energy)

fluffing

The practice of installing blow-in, loose-fill insulation at a lower density than is recommended to meet a specified R-Value. (US Dept of Energy)

fluidized bed combustion

(aka FBC) A type of furnace or reactor in which fuel particles are combusted while suspended in a stream of hot gas. (US Dept of Energy)

flume

Shaped, open-channel flow sections that force flow to accelerate. Acceleration is produced by converging the sidewalls, raising the bottom, or a combination of both. An artificial channel, often elevated above ground, used to carry fast flowing water. See long- throated flume, Parshall flume, and short-throated flume. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fluorescent lamp

A low-pressure mercury electric-discharge lamp in which a fluorescent coating (phosphor) transforms some of the ultraviolet energy generated by the discharge into light. (Energy Star.gov)

fluorescent lamps

A light source consisting of a tube filled with argon, along with krypton or other inert gas. When electrical current is applied, the resulting arc emits ultraviolet radiation that excites the phosphors inside the lamp wall, causing them to radiate visible light. (Energycodes.gov)

fluorescent light

The conversion of electric power to visible light by using an electric charge to excite gaseous atoms in a glass tube. These atoms emit ultraviolet radiation that is absorbed by a phosphor coating on the walls of the lamp tube. The phosphor coating produces visible light. (US Dept of Energy)

flush valve

The valve between the toilet bowl and the tank. (HardwickAssociates)

flushing

A method used to clean water distribution lines by passing a large amount of water through the system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fluvial

Pertains to streams and stream processes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation) Of or pertaining to rivers; growing or living in a stream or river; produced by the action of a stream or river. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fly ash

The fine particulate matter entrained in the flue gases of a combustion power plant. (US Dept of Energy) A by-product of coal-fired powerplants which reacts with water and the free lime in cement while generating only half the heat of an equal amount of cement. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

flywheel effect

The damping of interior temperature fluctuations by massive construction. (US Dept of Energy)

FMR

See fair market rent (US Dept of HUD)

FNMA

See also: Federal National Mortgage Association (Ginnie Mae)

foam (insulation)

A high R-value insulation product usually made from urethane that can be injected into wall cavities, or sprayed onto roofs or floors, where it expands and sets quickly. (US Dept of Energy)

foam board

A plastic foam insulation product, pressed or extruded into board-like forms, used as sheathing and insulation for interior basement or crawl space walls or beneath a basement slab; can also be used for exterior applications inside or outside foundations, crawl spaces, and slab-on-grade foundation walls. (US Dept of Energy)

foam core panels

A type of structural, insulated product with foam insulation contained between two facings of drywall, or structural wood composition boards such as plywood, waferboard, and oriented strand board. (US Dept of Energy)

FONSI

See finding of no significant impact. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

food chain

A succession of organisms in a community in which food energy is transferred from one organism to another as each consumes a lower member and, in turn, is consumed by a higher member. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR)

A program created in 1977 as an alternative to the FSP because many Native Americans live in remote areas where food costs are high and access to food stamp offices and grocery stores is limited. FDPIR provides monthly food packages to low-income individuals and families living on reservations, and to American Indian households living in approved areas near reservations and in approved service areas in Oklahoma. In fiscal year 2003, 5 States and 98 tribal authorities administered the program on 243 reservations. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Food Security Act of 1985 (1985 Farm Act) (P.L. 99-198)

Omnibus food and agriculture legislation (Farm Act) signed into law on December 23, 1985, provided a 5-year framework (1986-90) for the Secretary of Agriculture to administer various agricultural and food programs. The law provided for lower price and income supports and a dairy herd buy-out program, and established marketing loans, loan deficiency payments, and the Conservation Reserve Program. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Food Security Commodity Reserve

See the Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

food web, soil

The interconnected community of organisms living all or part of their lives in the soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990 (1990 Farm Act) (P.L. 101-624)

Omnibus food and agriculture legislation (Farm Act) signed into law on November 28, 1990, provided a 5-year framework (1991-95) for the Secretary of Agriculture to administer various agricultural and food programs. Commodity programs were continued, with modifications, such as creation of optional flex acreage, making the programs more market oriented. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

foot

Twelve inches. One of a number of projections on a cylindrical drum of a tamping roller. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foot pound

The amount of work done in raising one pound one foot. (US Dept of Energy)

foot-candle

(aka fc) A unit of illuminance, equal to 1 lumen per square foot or 10.76 lux. (Energy Star.gov) A unit of illuminance; equal to one lumen per square foot. (US Dept of Energy)

footing

Concrete base on which a foundation sits. (Publications- USA.gov) The partially buried support for a vertical structural member such as a post. (HardwickAssociates) The supporting base for the foundation walls. (US Environmental Protection Agency) A sill under a foundation. Ground, in relation to its load bearing and friction qualities. Portion of the foundation of a structure that transmits loads directly to the soil. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foot-pound

Unit of work equal to the force in pounds multiplied by the distance in feet through which it acts. When a 1 pound force is exerted through a 1 foot distance, 1 foot pound of work is done. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

for hire carrier

Carrier that provides transportation service to the public on a fee basis. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

for sale by owner

A home that is offered for sale by the owner without the benefit of a real estate professional. (US Dept of HUD)

forage

Vegetation used for animal consumption. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forage fish

Generally, small fish that produce prolifically and are consumed by predators. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forb

A weed or a broad-leafed plant. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forbearance

Your lender may offer a temporary reduction or suspension of your mortgage payments while you get back on your feet. Forbearance is often combined with a reinstatement or a repayment plan to pay off the missed or reduced mortgage payments. (Freddie Mac) A temporary period of time during which a regular monthly mortgage payment is reduced or suspended (Making Home Affordable) A bank resolution method used by the FDIC in the mid-1980s. Forbearance exempted certain distressed institutions that were operating in a safe and sound manner, from minimum capital requirements. The forbearance program was designed for well-managed, economically sound institutions with concentrations of 25 percent or more of their loan portfolios in agricultural or energy loans. Forbearance is also a means of handling a delinquent loan. A �forbearance agreement� is a written agreement providing that a lender will delay exercising its rights (in the case of a mortgage, foreclosure) as long as the borrower performs in accordance with certain agreed-upon terms. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) A lender may decide not to take legal action when a borrower is late in making a payment. Usually this occurs when a borrower sets up a plan that both sides agree will bring overdue mortgage payments up to date. (US Dept of HUD)

force

The push or pull that alters the motion of a moving body or moves a stationary body; the unit of force is the dyne or poundal; force is equal to mass time velocity divided by time. (US Dept of Energy)

forced air system or furnace

A type of heating system in which heated air is blown by a fan through air channels or ducts to rooms. (US Dept of Energy)

forced outage

Unscheduled shut down of a generating unit or other facility for emergency or other unforeseen reasons. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forced ventilation

A type of building ventilation system that uses fans or blowers to provide fresh air to rooms when the forces of air pressure and gravity are not enough to circulate air through a building. (US Dept of Energy)

ford

A place where a road crosses a stream under water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fore apron

(aka apron) A section of concrete or riprap constructed upstream or downstream from a control structure to prevent undercutting of the structure. A short ramp with a slight pitch. A floor or lining of concrete, timber, or other suitable material at the toe of a dam, discharge side of a spillway, a chute, or other discharge structure, to protect the waterway from erosion from falling water or turbulent flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forebay (headrace)

Impoundment immediately upstream from a dam or hydroelectric plant intake structure. The term is applicable to all types of hydroelectric developments (storage, run-of-river, and pumped-storage). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foreclosure

A legal action that ends all ownership rights in a home when the homebuyer fails to make the mortgage payments or is otherwise in default under the terms of the mortgage. (Freddie Mac) A legal proceeding following a default by a borrower in which real estate secured by a mortgage or deed of trust is sold to satisfy the underlying debt. Foreclosure statutes are enacted by state government. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A legal action that ends all ownership rights in a home when the homebuyer fails to make the mortgage payments or is otherwise in default under the terms of the mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission) The legal process used to force the payment of debt secured by collateral whereby the property is sold to satisfy the debt. (Federal Reserve Education) A legal process in which property that is collateral or security for a loan may be sold to help repay the loan when the loan is in default. (Help With My Bank) The legal process by which a property may be sold and the proceeds of the sale applied to the mortgage debt. A foreclosure occurs when the loan becomes delinquent because payments have not been made or when the homeowner is in default for a reason other than the failure to make timely mortgage payments. (Making Home Affordable) A legal proceeding to extinguish all rights, title, and interest of the owner(s) of a property in order to sell the property to satisfy a lien against it. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The legal proceedings initiated by a lender to repossess the collateral for the mortgage loan that is in default. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A legal process in which mortgaged property is sold to pay the loan of the defaulting borrowers. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) A legal process in which mortgaged property is sold to pay the loan of the defaulting borrower. Foreclosure laws are based on the statutes of each state. (US Dept of HUD) The process by which the ownership interest of a borrower in a mortgaged property is extinguished. This process may involve a sale of the property at public auction, with the proceeds of the sale being applied to the mortgage debt. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) The process whereby a lender can claim the property used by a borrower to secure a mortgage and sell the property to meet the obligations of the loan. (HardwickAssociates)

foreclosure prevention

Steps by which the servicer works with the homeowner to find a permanent solution to resolve an existing or impending loan delinquency. (Making Home Affordable)

foreign currency operations

Purchase or sale of the currencies of other nations by a central bank for the purpose of influencing foreign exchange rates or maintaining orderly foreign exchange markets. Also called foreign-exchange market intervention. (Federal Reserve Education)

foreign exchange desk

The foreign exchange trading desk at the New York Federal Reserve Bank. The desk undertakes operations in the exchange markets for the account of the Federal Open Market Committee, and as agent for the U.S. Treasury and for foreign central banks. (Federal Reserve Education)

foreign exchange rate

Price of the currency of one nation in terms of the currency of another nation. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

foreign transaction fees

A fee assessed by your bank for making a transaction at another bank's ATM. (Help With My Bank)

forepole

A plank driven ahead of a tunnel face to support the roof or wall during excavation. See horsehead. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foreshore

That part of the shore between the ordinary high-and low-watermarks and generally crossed by the tide each day. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forest influences

Effects resultingfrom the presence of forest or brush upon climate, soil water, runoff, streamflow, floods, erosion, and soil productivity. (Kittredge, 1948, p. l.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

forest land

A Land cover/use category that is at least 10 percent stocked by single-stemmed woody species of any size that will be at least 4 meters (13 feet) tall at maturity. Also included is land bearing evidence of natural regeneration of tree cover (cut over forest or abandoned farmland) and not currently developed for nonforest use. Ten percent stocked, when viewed from a vertical direction, equates to an areal canopy cover of leaves and branches of 25 percent or greater. The minimum area for classification as forest land is 1 acre, and the area must be at least 100 feet wide. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

Forest Service

(aka FS) The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations. The Forest Service is an agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Forex

Over-the-counter market for foreign exchange transactions. Also called the foreign exchange market. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

forfeiture

The loss of money, property, rights, or privileges due to a breach of a legal obligation. (Federal Trade Commission) The loss of property or money due to the failure to meet the obligations of a mortgage or loan secured by that property. (HardwickAssociates)

forfeiture of title

Provision in a deed creating a condition which will cause title to be passed to another should certain circumstances occur. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

forged check

A check on which the drawer's signature has been forged. (Help With My Bank)

forgery

The fraudulent signing or alteration of another's name to an instrument such as a deed, mortgage, or check. The intent of the forgery is to deceive or defraud. (Help With My Bank)

Form 1003

The standardized loan application form used in residential mortgage loan transactions. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

Form 4506T

An IRS form that taxpayers execute to authorize the IRS to release past tax returns to a third party. Many lenders require mortgage loan applicants to execute this form in order to verify income. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a colorless water-soluble gas. Due to its wide use, it is frequently considered separately from other VOCs. Materials containing formaldehyde include building materials, furnishing, and some consumer products. Formaldehyde has a pungent odor and is detected by many people at levels of about 100 parts per billion (ppb). Besides the annoyance, it also causes acute eye burning and irritates mucous membranes and the respiratory tract. EPA has determined formaldehyde to be a probable human carcinogen. See also www.epa.gov/iaq/formaldehyde.html (US Environmental Protection Agency) A chemical used as a preservative and in bonding agents. It is found in household products such as plywood, furniture, carpets, and some types of foam insulation. It is also a by-product of combustion and is a strong-smelling, colorless gas that is an eye irritant and can cause sneezing, coughing, and other health problems. (US Dept of Energy)

formation

Any sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic material represented as a unit in geology; generally called rock, but not necessarily meeting the definition of rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

formula capital grants

Federal transit funds for transit operators; allocation of funds overseen by FTA. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

formula funds

The amount of funds provided for agricultural research and extension to land-grant institutions (1862, 1890 and 1994 institutions), schools of forestry, and schools of veterinary medicine through several formula program authorities. The funds to each institution are determined by formula, often statutorily defined, that may include variables such as the rural population or farm population. Local or regional university leaders decide which specific projects will be supported by an institution's formula fund allotment. These decisions are informed, in part, by stakeholders who both conduct and use agricultural research and extension. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

formulation process

First phase performed by the Early Warning System design team, which includes an Early Warning System reliability, local capabilities assessment, and conceptual level designs for an Early Warning System. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

forward exchange

A type of foreign exchange transaction whereby a contract is made to exchange one currency for another at a fixed date in the future at a specified exchange rate. By buying or selling forward exchange, businesses protect themselves against a decrease in the value of a currency they plan to sell at a future date. (Federal Reserve Education)

fossil fuel

Fuel derived from a hydrocarbon deposit such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas derived from living matter of a previous geologic time. (Energycodes.gov)

fossil fuels

Fuels formed in the ground from the remains of dead plants and animals. It takes millions of years to form fossil fuels. Oil, natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels. (US Dept of Energy)

fossorial insects

Insects that live in the soil. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foundation

Lower parts of walls on which the structure is built. Foundation walls of masonry or concrete are mainly below ground level. (Publications- USA.gov) The solid structural element upon which a structure is built. (HardwickAssociates) The supportive structure of a building. (US Dept of Energy) Lower part of a structure that transmits loads directly to the soil. The excavated surface upon which a dam is placed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foundation drains

Tile or pipe for collecting seepage within a foundation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foundation material (foundation soil)

The upper part of the earth mass carrying the load of the structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foundation surface

The surface of the upper part of the earth mass carrying the load of the structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

foundation trench

A trench built at and into the foundation of a dam and filled with clay or other impermeable substances to prevent water from seeping beneath the dam. See cutoff trench. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

FQPA

The Food Quality Protection Act was enacted on Aug. 3, 1996 to ensure the safety of food in the United States. The FQPA home page will provide more detailed information. (US EPA- Pesticides)

fractional horse power motor

An electric motor rated at less than one horse power (hp). (US Dept of Energy)

fracture (joint)

Crack or break in rocks along which no movement has occurred. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

frail elderly

An elderly person who is unable to perform at least three "activities of daily living" comprising of eating, bathing, grooming, dressing, or home management activities. (US Dept of HUD)

frame (window)

The outer casing of a window that sits in a designated opening of a structure and holds the window panes in place. (US Dept of Energy)

framing

The rough lumber of a house-joists, studs, rafters, and beams. (Publications- USA.gov) The structural materials and elements used to construct a wall. (US Dept of Energy)

Francis turbine

A type of hydropower turbine that contains a runner that has water passages through it formed by curved vanes or blades. As the water passes through the runner and over the curved surfaces, it causes rotation of the runner. The rotational motion is transmitted by a shaft to a generator. (US Dept of Energy)

fraternal organization

A society such as Moose, Shriners, Elks, Knights of Columbus, etc. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

fraud

A knowing misrepresentation of the truth or concealment of a material fact to induce another to act to their detriment. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) Intentional misrepresentation, concealment, or omission of the truth for the purpose of deception or manipulation to the detriment of a person or an organization. Fraud is a legal concept and the application of the term in a specific instance should be determined by a legal expert. (Federal Reserve Education)

fraud alert

A key provision of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 is the consumer's ability to place a fraud alert on their credit record. A consumer would use this option if they believe they were a victim of identity theft. The alert requires any creditor that is asked to extend credit to contact the consumer by phone and verify that the credit application was not made by an identity thief. (Help With My Bank)

frazil (frazil ice)

A French-Canadian term for fine spicular ice, derived from the French for cinders which this variety of ice most resembles. When formed in salt water, it is known as lolly ice. It is composed of fine particles which, when first formed, are colloidal and not seen in the water in which they are floating. (Barnes, 1928, p. 108; see also Schaefer, 1950, p. 888.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

Freddie Mac

Nickname for Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC). (Ginnie Mae) See GOVERNMENT SPONSORED ENTERPRISE. (US Dept of HUD) Same as "Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation." See also "Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLM); a federally chartered corporation that purchases residential mortgages, securitizes them, and sells them to investors; this provides lenders with funds for new homebuyers. Also known as a Government Sponsored Enterprise (GSE). (US Dept of HUD) A government sponsored enterprise created by Congress to purchase, sell or otherwise facilitate the purchase or sale of mortgage in the secondary mortgage market. These activities support the availability and affordability of mortgage credit. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (also FHLMC) is a stockholder owned corporation chartered by Congress that purchases mortgage loans. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

free and clear

Owning property free and clear is having title to a property without encumbrances; that is, free of liens. Also known as having "clear title" or "marketable title." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

freeboard

An additional amount of height above the Base Flood Elevation used as a factor of safety (e.g., 2 feet above the Base Flood) in determining the level at which a structure's lowest floor must be elevated or floodproofed to be in accordance with State or community floodplain management regulations. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) The difference in elevation between the maximum water surface in the reservoir and the dam crest. The vertical distance between a stated water level and the top of a dam, without camber. Thus "net freeboard," "dry freeboard," or "flood freeboard" is the vertical distance between the maximum water surface and the top of the dam. "Gross freeboard" or "total freeboard" is the vertical distance between the normal water surface and the top of the dam. That part of the "gross freeboard" attributable to the depth of flood surcharge is sometimes referred to as the "wet freeboard," but this term is not recommended as it is preferable that freeboard be stated with reference to the top of dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Freedom of Information Act

(aka FOIA) A Federal law that mandates that all the records created and kept by Federal agencies in the executive branch of government must be open for public inspection and copying. The only exceptions are those records that fall into one of nine exempted categories listed in the statute. (Help With My Bank) Allows all U.S. citizens and residents to request any records in possession of the executive branch of the federal government. The term "records" includes documents, papers, reports, letters, films, photographs, sound recordings, computer tapes and disks (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

freeway

A divided arterial highway designed for the unimpeded flow of large traffic volumes. Access to a freeway is rigorously controlled and intersection grade separations are required. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

freezeout

Deeply frozen over for long periods of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

freeze-thaw damage

Damage to concrete caused by extreme temperature variations as noted by random pattern cracking. Damage is accelerated by the presence of water and commonly more severe on the south-facing side of structures. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

freight revenue (rail)

Revenue from the transportation of freight and from the exercise of transit, stopoff, diversion, and reconsignment privileges as provided for in tariffs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

french drain

A covered ditch containing a layer of fitted or loose stone or other pervious material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

freon

A registered trademark for a cholorfluorocarbon (CFC) gas that is highly stable and that has been historically used as a refrigerant. (US Dept of Energy)

frequency

The number of cycles through which an alternating current passes per second; in the U.S. the standard for electricity generation is 60 cycles per second (60 Hertz). (US Dept of Energy)

frequency demand scheduling

Method of irrigation scheduling similar to demand scheduling, but typically involves a fixed duration of the delivery, such as 24 hours. This method is considered flexible, although somewhat less so than demand scheduling from the water users' perspective. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fresh�

Term applied to water with salinity less than 0.5ppt dissolved salts. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

freshwater

Water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids; generally, more than 500 mg/L of dissolved solids is undesirable for drinking and many industrial uses. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Fresnel lens

An optical device for concentrating light that is made of concentric rings that are faced at different angles so that light falling on any ring is focused to the same point. (US Dept of Energy)

friction

Resistance to motion when one body is sliding or tending to slide over another. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

friction head

The energy lost from the movement of a fluid in a conduit (pipe) due to the disturbances created by the contact of the moving fluid with the surfaces of the conduit, or the additional pressure that a pump must provide to overcome the resistance to fluid flow created by or in a conduit. (US Dept of Energy)

frictional unemployment

Short-term joblessness associated with mobility. A person who leaves a job to find something better is considered frictionally unemployed. This type of unemployment characterizes workers subject to seasonal work (e.g., construction, agricultural, winter recreational workers, etc.). (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

front end loader

A tractor loader that both digs and dumps in front. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

front end ratio

A percentage comparing a borrower's total monthly cost to buy a house (mortgage principal and interest, insurance, and real estate taxes) to monthly income before deductions. (US Dept of HUD)

frontage

The segment of a property that runs along a point of access, such as a street or water front. (HardwickAssociates)

frost action

Freezing and thawing of moisture in materials and the resultant effects on these materials and on structures of which they are a part of with which they are in contact. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

frost heave

The raising of a surface due to the accumulation of ice in the underlying soil or rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

frost line

The greatest depth to which ground may be expected to freeze. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

froude number

The ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces in flow. It is also the ratio of the flow velocity to the velocity of a small gravity wave in the flow. When the Froude number is less than one, the flow is tranquil. When the Froude number is greater than one, the flow is rapid. When the Froude number is equal to one, the flow is critical. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

frozen account

An account on which funds may not be withdrawn until a lien is satisfied and a court order or other legal process makes the account available for withdrawal (e.g., the account of a deceased person is frozen pending a court order distributing the funds to the new lawful owners). An account may also be frozen when there is a dispute regarding the true ownership of an account. The bank will freeze the account to preserve the existing funds until legal action can determine the lawful owner. (Help With My Bank)

fruit and vegetable planting restrictions

Planting for harvest of fruits, vegetables (other than lentils, mung beans, and dry peas), and wild rice is prohibited on base acres of commodity program participants, except in certain situations specified in farm legislation (e.g., if the farm has a history of planting a specific crop in these categories). These restrictions were initiated in 1990 and extended in the 1996, 2002 and 2008 Farm Acts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

fry

Life stage of fish between the egg and fingerling stages. Depending on the species of fish, fry can measure from a few millimeters to a few centimeters. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

FS

See U.S. Forest Service, feasibility study, factor of safety. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

FSBO

See For Sale by Owner (US Dept of HUD)

FSLIC Resolution Fund

(aka FRF) A federal fund established under FIRREA in 1989 in response to the thrift crisis of the 1980s. Funded by congressional appropriations, the FRF is responsible for the satisfaction of all debts and liabilities and the sale of all assets of the former FSLIC and the former RTC. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

FSP administration

FSP benefits are federally funded, but the program is administered jointly with State and local welfare agencies. Interactions with clients are handled by State and local agencies that determine eligibility and calculate and issue benefits. USDA, FNS authorizes and monitors retail stores that redeem food stamp benefits. Federal and State authorities cooperate in developing and implementing nutrition education and outreach plans and in administering a nationwide quality control system that monitors accuracy of benefit determination. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

FSP benefit formula

An individual household's food stamp allotment equal to the maximum benefit for that household's size, less 30 percent of the household's net income. Households with no countable income receive the maximum allotment. Allotment levels are higher for Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, reflecting higher food prices in those areas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

FSP countable resources

Assets applied to the resource limit, including cash on hand, checking and savings accounts, saving certificates, stocks and bonds, individual retirement accounts (IRAs) and Keogh plans, as well as some less liquid assets, such as vehicles and property not producing income. Not included are residential equity, business assets, personal property, lump-sum earned income tax credit payments and other nonrecurring payments, burial plots, the cash value of life insurance policies, and pension plans (other than Keogh plans and IRAs). (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

FSP dependent care deduction

Deduction for dependent care that was needed to allow work, training, or education activities. Capped at $200 per month per child 2 and under and $175 for others. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

FSP maximum benefit

The maximum monthly benefit depends on the number of people in the household and the cost of the Thrifty Food Plan (which is annually indexed for inflation). For FY 2008 the maximum benefit is $162 for a 1 person household-- $298 for 2, $426 for 3, $542 for 4, $643 for 5, $772 for 6, $853 for 7, $975 for 8, and $122 for each additional person. Maximum benefits are higher for Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, and the Virgin Islands, reflecting higher food prices in those areas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

FSP minimum benefit

Minimum benefit ($10) for eligible households with 1 or 2 members. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

fuel

A material that may be used to produce heat or generate power by combustion. (Energycodes.gov) Any material that can be burned to make energy. (US Dept of Energy)

fuel cell

An electrochemical device that converts chemical energy directly into electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

fuel efficiency

The ratio of heat produced by a fuel for doing work to the available heat in the fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

fuel fired furnace

A self-contained, indirect-fired furnace that supplies heated air through ducts to spaces that require it. (Energycodes.gov)

fuel grade alcohol

Usually refers to ethanol to 160 to 200 proof. (US Dept of Energy)

fuel oil

Any liquid petroleum product burned for the generation of heat in a furnace or firebox, or for the generation of power in an engine. Domestic (residential) heating fuels are classed as Nos. 1, 2, 3; Industrial fuels as Nos. 4, 5, and 6. (US Dept of Energy)

fuel rate

The amount of fuel necessary to generate one kilowatt-hour of electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

fuel replacement energy

Electric energy generated at a hydroelectric plant as a substitute for energy which would have been generated by a thermal electric plant. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fugitive emissions

Air pollutants released to the air other than those from stacks or vents; typically small releases from leaks in plant equipment such as valves, pump seals, flanges, sampling connections, etc. (US EPA- Pesticides)

fulcrum

A pivot for a lever. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978

(Humphrey-Hawkins Act) Federal legislation that, among other things, specifies the primary objectives of U.S. economic policy-maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. (Federal Reserve Education) Federal legislation that, among other things, specifies the primary objectives of U.S. economic policy�maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

full gate

Maximum gate position of a turbine for a particular head. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

full hydraulic capacity

The designed capacity of a pipe or conduit. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

full irrigation service land

Irrigable land now receiving, or to receive, its sole and generally adequate water supply through facilities which have been or are to be constructed by, rehabilitated by, or replaced by the Bureau of Reclamation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

full pool

Volume of water in a reservoir at normal water surface. The reservoir level that would be attained when the reservoir is fully utilized for all project purposes, including flood control. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

full sun

The amount of power density in sunlight received at the earth's surface at noon on a clear day (about 1,000 Watts/square meter). (US Dept of Energy)

fully amortized mortgage loan

A mortgage in which the monthly payments are designed to retire the obligation at the end of the mortgage term. (Federal Trade Commission)

fumigants

Produce gas or vapor intended to destroy pests in the house or in the ground (US EPA- Pesticides)

function

The action for which a person or thing is particularly fitted or employed. (Federal Reserve Education) A service, role, or task that meets objectives for sustaining life and fulfilling humanity�s needs and is performed by soil or an ecosystem. (Compare to soil function.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

functional capacity

The quantified or estimated measure of physical and biophysical mechanisms or processes selected to represent the soil�s ability to carry out the function. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

functional obsolescence

A decrease in the value of property due to a feature or lack thereof which renders the property undesirable. Functional obsolescence can also occur when the surrounding area changes, rendering the property unusable for its originally intended purpose. (HardwickAssociates)

functional redundancy

The presence of several species that serve similar functions (e.g. nitrification). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

functions of money

Medium of exchange: Acts as a go-between to make it easier to buy and sell goods or services or pay debts. Allows buyers and sellers to avoid the difficulties associated with barter exchanges of goods and services. Store of value: Allows people to transfer the purchasing power of their present money income or wealth into the future, ideally without a loss of value. Stores purchasing power between the time money is earned and the time it is spent. Unit of account: Serves as a way to measure and compare the value of goods and services in relation to one another. When comparing prices, individuals can determine if one good is a better buy than another. It also allows people to keep accurate financial records. (Federal Reserve Education)

fundamental or basic research

Research conducted primarily to increase scientific understanding, not necessarily for direct application or new commercial products or processes. Also known as "basic research." (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

funds

A sum of money or resources set aside for a specific purpose. (Federal Reserve Education)

funds rate

See federal funds rate. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

fungal-dominated food web

A soil food web in which the ratio of fungal biomass to bacterial biomass is greater than one. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

fungi

A separate kingdom comprising living things that are neither animals nor plants. The kingdom Fungi includes molds, yeasts, mushrooms, and puffballs. In the mold course, the terms fungi and mold are used interchangeably. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Any of a group of parasitic lower plants that lack chlorophyll, including molds and mildews. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Multi-celled, non-photosynthetic organisms that are neither plants nor animals. Fungal cells form long chains called hyphae and may form fruiting bodies such as mold or mushrooms to disperse spores. Some fungi such as yeast are single-celled. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Plant-like organisms with cells with distinct nuclei surrounded by nuclear membranes, incapable of photosynthesis. Fungi are decomposers of waste organisms and exist as yeast, mold, or mildew. (US Dept of Energy)

fungi (plural of fungus)

A group of non-green plants, such as molds, and mushrooms, that live on dead or dying organic matter. Fungi release nutrients to the soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

fungicide

A substance or chemical that kills fungi. (US Environmental Protection Agency) A pesticide used to control fungi. (US EPA- Pesticides)

fungicides

A pesticide used to control or destroy fungi on food or grain crops. (US EPA- Pesticides)

fungivores

Organisms that eat fungi. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

fungus

Funguses, or fungi, are types of plants that have no leaves, flowers or roots. Both words, funguses and fungi, are the plural of fungus. (US EPA- Pesticides)

furling

The process of forcing, either manually or automatically, a wind turbine's blades out of the direction of the wind in order to stop the blades from turning. (US Dept of Energy)

furnace (residential)

A combustion heating appliance in which heat is captured from the burning of a fuel for distribution, comprised mainly of a combustion chamber and heat exchanger. (US Dept of Energy)

furnisher

An entity that provides information about a consumer to a consumer reporting agency for inclusion in a consumer report. (Help With My Bank)

furring

Thin wood, or metal applied to a wall to level the surface for lathing, boarding, or plastering, to create an insulating air space, and to damp proof the wall. (Publications- USA.gov)

furrow

A natural or man-made narrow depression in the earth's surface. A narrow trenchlike plowed depression in the earth surface to keep surface water away from the slopes of cuts. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fuse

A short plug in an electric panel box which opens (breaks) an electrical circuit when it becomes overloaded. (Publications- USA.gov) A safety device consisting of a short length of relatively fine wire, mounted in a holder or contained in a cartridge and connected as part of an electrical circuit. If the circuit source current exceeds a predetermined value, the fuse wire melts (i.e. the fuse 'blows') breaking the circuit and preventing damage to the circuit protected by the fuse. (US Dept of Energy) A thin core of black powder surrounded by wrappings, which when lit at one end, will burn to the other at a fixed speed. A string-like core of PETN, a high explosive, contained within a waterproof reinforced sheath. "Primacord" is the best known brand. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

fuse plug spillway

A form of auxiliary spillway consisting of a low embankment designed to be overtopped and washed away during an exceptionally large flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

future needs

Represents the gap between the vision and the current or porjected performance of the system (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

future without

What would occur if no action were taken. The future without taking any action to solve the problem. See baseline condition. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

futures

Contracts that require delivery of a commodity of specified quality and quantity, at a specified price, on a specified future date. Commodity futures are traded on a commodity exchange and are used for both speculation and hedging. (Federal Reserve Education) Contracts that require delivery of a commodity of specified quality and quantity, at a specified price, on a specified future date. Commodity futures are traded on a commodity exchange and are used for both speculation and hedging. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)