EA

Environmental assessment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

early warning system

(aka EWS) A designed system that will ensure timely recognition of a threatening event and provide a reliable and timely warning and evacuation of the population at risk from dangerous flooding associated with large operational releases or dam failure. The designed system must address the five components of detection, decision making, notification, warning, and evacuation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

early warning system feasibility

Study of the feasibility of installing some level of Early Warning System to meet the target times for alerts and warnings. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

earmarks

Congressional designations of funding for specific projects. When using this practice, Congress, in report language or law, directs that appropriated funds go to a specific performer or designates awards for certain types of performers or geographic locations. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

earnest money (deposit)

A deposit in the form of cash or a note given to a seller by a buyer as good faith assurance that the buyer intends to go through with the purchase of a property. (Ginnie Mae) The deposit to show that you're committed to buying the home. The deposit will not be refunded to you after the seller accepts your offer, unless one of the sales contract contingencies is not fulfilled. (Freddie Mac) The deposit to show that you�re committed to buying the home. The deposit usually will not be refunded to you after the seller accepts your offer, unless one of the sales contract contingencies is not fulfilled. (Federal Trade Commission) Money you will put down to show that you are serious about purchasing the home. It often becomes part of the down payment if the offer is accepted, is returned if the offer is rejected, or may be forfeited if you do not follow through with the deal. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) Money put down by a potential buyer to show that they are serious about purchasing the home; it becomes part of the down payment if the offer is accepted, is returned if the offer is rejected, or is forfeited if the buyer pulls out of the deal. During the contingency period the money may be returned to the buyer if the contingencies are not met to the buyer's satisfaction. (US Dept of HUD) A deposit made by a potential home buyer to show that they are serious about purchasing the property. An Earnest Monet Deposit (or EMD) is generally anywhere from $500.00 to $1,000.00 this money is held in escrow, and is protected. Often with USDA loans you will receive your EMD back at loan closing. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) Advance payment of part of the purchase price to bind a contract for property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A cash deposit made to a home seller to secure an offer to buy the property. This amount is often forfeited if the buyer decides to withdraw his offer. (HardwickAssociates)

earnings per share (EPS)

(aka EPS) A corporation's profit that is divided among each share of common stock. It is determined by taking the net earnings divided by the number of outstanding common stocks held. This is a way that a company reports profitability. (US Dept of HUD)

earth berm

A mound of dirt next to exterior walls to provide wind protection and insulation. (US Dept of Energy)

earth cooling tube

A long, underground metal or plastic pipe through which air is drawn. As air travels through the pipe it gives up some of its heat to the soil, and enters the house as cooler air. (US Dept of Energy)

earth dam (earthfill dam)

An embankment dam in which more than 50 percent of the total volume is formed of compacted earth material generally smaller than 3-inch size. Seepage through the dam is controlled by the designed use of upstream blankets and/or internal cores constructed using compacted soil of very low permeability. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

earth lining

Compacted layer of earth on surface of canal or other excavation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

earth pressure

The pressure or force exerted by soil on any boundary. See active earth pressure, at-rest earth pressure, and passive earth pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

earth sheltered houses

Houses that have earth berms around exterior walls. (US Dept of Energy)

earth-coupled ground source heat pump

(aka geothermal heat pump) A type of heat pump that uses sealed horizontal or vertical pipes, buried in the ground, as heat exchangers through which a fluid is circulated to transfer heat. (US Dept of Energy)

earthquake

A sudden motion or trembling in the earth caused by the abrupt release of accumulated stress along a fault. See design basis earthquake (DBE), maximum credible earthquake (MCE), maximum design earthquake (MDE), operating basis earthquake (OBE), random earthquake, and safety evaluation earthquake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

earth-ship

A registered trademark name for houses built with tires, aluminum cans, and earth. (US Dept of Energy)

earthwork

Any one or combination of the operations involved in altering or movement of earth. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

easement

The right one party has in regard to the property of another, such as the right of a public utility company to lay lines. (Ginnie Mae) A right to the use of, or access to, land owned by another. (Federal Trade Commission) Voluntary sale or donation of specific use rights to land. Examples of rights that could be sold include the rights to use land for cropping purposes (in Wetlands Reserve Program and Grassland Reserve Program) or the rights to develop land for urban uses (Farmland Preservation Program). Landowners who sell or donate an easement retain all other ownership rights to the land, including the right to sell the land. Future owners of land subject to an easement are legally required to abide by easement terms. Easements are perpetual or are long-term, 25 years or more. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service) An interest in land owned by another that entitles its holder to a specific limited use, such as laying a sewer, putting up electric power lines, or crossing the property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The right of a non-owner of property to exert control over a portion or all of the property. For example, power companies often own an easement over residential properties for access to their power lines. (HardwickAssociates) An incorporated right, liberty, privilege, or use of another entity's property, distinct from ownership, without profit or compensation; a right-of-way. (US Dept of Energy) The right to use land owned by another for some specific purpose. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

easements

The legal rights that give someone other than the owner access to use property for a specific purpose. Easements may affect property values and are sometimes a part of the deed. (US Dept of HUD)

eave

The part of the roof that extends beyond the exterior wall. (HardwickAssociates)

eaves

The extension of roof beyond house walls. (Publications- USA.gov)

eccentric

A device for converting continuous circular motion into reciprocating rectilinear motion. (US Dept of Energy)

ecology

The study of the relationships between all living organisms and the environment, especially the totality or pattern of interactions; a view that includes all plant and animal species and their unique contributions to a particular habitat. (US EPA- Pesticides) Branch of biological science which deals with relationships between living organisms and their environments. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

economic analysis

A procedure that includes both tangible and intangible factors to evaluate various alternatives. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

economic depreciation

The decline in property value caused by external forces, such as neighborhood blight or adverse development. (HardwickAssociates)

economic development area

An area defined by local authorities for govemment-assisted economic programs. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

economic growth

An increase in the nation's capacity to produce goods and services. (Federal Reserve Education) An increase in the nation�s capacity to produce goods and services. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

economic life

The amount of time which any income-producing property is able to provide benefits to its owner. (HardwickAssociates)

economic shocks

Events that impact the economy, come from outside it, and are unexpected and unpredictable (e.g., Hurricane Andrew in 1991, the rise in oil prices by OPEC). (Federal Reserve Education) Events that impact the economy, come from outside it, and are unexpected and unpredictable (e.g., Hurricane Andrew in 1991, the rise in oil prices by OPEC). (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

economic user sectors (or markets)

Estimates of quantities used and user expenditures for pesticides are broken out separately for the three general economic user sectors (or markets) as follows: agriculture, industrial/commercial/governmental, and home/garden. (US EPA- Pesticides)

economizer

A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allow a cooling supply fan system to supply outdoor air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather. (Energycodes.gov) A heat exchanger for recovering heat from flue gases for heating water or air. (US Dept of Energy)

economy

The careful or thrifty use or management of resources, such as income, materials or labor. (Federal Reserve Education)

ecosystem

The interacting synergism of all living organisms in a particular environment; every plant, insect, aquatic animal, bird, or land species that forms a complex web of interdependency. An action taken at any level in the food chain, use of a pesticide for example, has a potential domino effect on every other occupant of that system. (US EPA- Pesticides) Complex system composed of a community of people, animals, and plants as well as the chemical and physical environments. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ecosystem service

Those components of nature that are directly valued by people, or combined with other factors to produce valued goods and services. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

ectomycorrhizal fungi

A type of mycorrhizal fungi that grows between root cells and forms a sheath around roots, but does not actually invade cells. They are important to many woody plants. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

eddy

Circular current of water moving against the main current. See recirculation zone. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Edge Act corporation

Corporation chartered by the Federal Reserve to engage in international banking. The Board of Governors acts on applications to establish Edge Act corporations and also examines the corporations and their subsidiaries. Named after Senator Walter Edge of New Jersey, who sponsored the original legislation to permit formation of such organizations. See also agreement corporation. (Federal Reserve Education) Corporation chartered by the Federal Reserve to engage in international banking. The Board of Governors acts on applications to establish Edge Act corporations and also examines the corporations and their subsidiaries. Named after Senator Walter Edge of New Jersey, who sponsored the original legislation to permit formation of such organizations. See also agreement corporation. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

edge-matching

In wetland mapping, there are two types of edge-matching:� internal ties along the borders of source images, and external ties to preexisting wetland data immediately adjacent to the project area.� Edge-matching of wetland interpretation is required for a seamless wetlands database. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

Edison Electric Institute

(akak EEI) The Edison Electric Institute is an association of electric companies formed in 1933 "to exchange information on industry developments and to act as an advocate for utilities on subjects of national interest." (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

EEM

See Energy Efficient Mortgage (US Dept of HUD)

EEO

See equal employment opportunity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

EER

See Energy Efficient Ratio. (Energycodes.gov)

effective age

The subjective, estimated age of a property based on its condition, rather than the actual time since it was built. Excessive wear and tear can cause a property's effective age to be greater than its actual age. (HardwickAssociates)

effective capacity

The maximum load that a device is capable of carrying. (US Dept of Energy)

effective date of the appraisal

USPAP requires that each appraisal report specifies the effective date of the appraisal and the date of the report. The date of the report indicates the perspective from which the appraiser is examining the market. The effective date of the appraisal establishes the context for the value opinion. Three categories of effective dates�retrospective, current, or prospective�may be used, according to the intended use of the appraisal assignment. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

effective date of the evaluation

For the purposes of the Agencies� appraisal regulations and these Guidelines, the effective date of an evaluation is the date that the analysis is completed. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

effective diameter

Particle diameter corresponding to 10 percent finer on the accumulative gradation curve. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

effective force

The force transmitted through a soil or rock mass by intergranular pressures. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

effective peak ground acceleration

That acceleration which is most closely related to structural response and to damage potential of an earthquake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

effective porosity

The ratio of the volume of a soil or rock mass that can be drained by gravity to the total volume of the mass. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

effective precipitation (rainfall)

1. That part of the precipitation that produces runoff. 2. A weighted average of current and antecedent precipitation that is "effective" in correlating with runoff. 3. As described by U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (1952, p. 4), that part of the precipitation falling on an irrigated area that is effective in meeting the consumptive userequirements. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

efficacy

The total luminous flux emitted by a lamp divided by the total lamp power input, expressed in lumens per watt. (Energy Star.gov) A description of the efficiency of a light source, as measured in light produced (lumens) per unit of power consumed (watts). ENERGY STAR efficacy requirements vary with the style of CFL (bare spiral, covered reflector, etc.) and wattage, but are generally 3-4 times higher than comparable incandescent light bulbs. (Energy Star.gov) A metric used to compare light output to energy consumption. Efficacy is measured in lumens per watt. Efficacy is similar to efficiency but is expressed in dissimilar units. For example, if a 100-watt source produces 9000 lumens, then the efficacy is 90 lumens per watt. (Energycodes.gov) The amount of energy service or useful energy delivered per unit of energy input. Often used in reference to lighting systems, where the visible light output of a luminary is relative to power input; expressed in lumens per Watt; the higher the efficacy value, the higher the energy efficiency. (US Dept of Energy)

efficiency

Performance at specified rating conditions. (Energycodes.gov) Under the First Law of Thermodynamics, efficiency is the ratio of work or energy output to work or energy input, and cannot exceed 100 percent. Efficiency under the Second Law of Thermodynamics is determined by the ratio of the theoretical minimum energy that is required to accomplish a task relative to the energy actually consumed to accomplish the task. Generally, the measured efficiency of a device, as defined by the First Law, will be higher than that defined by the Second Law. (US Dept of Energy) Ratio of useful energy output to total energy input, usually expressed as a percent. Effective operation as measured by a comparison of production with cost. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

efficiency (appliance) ratings

A measure of the efficiency of an appliance's energy efficiency. (US Dept of Energy)

efflorescence

White powder that forms on the surface of brick. (Publications- USA.gov)

effluent

Treated sewage from a septic tank or sewage treatment plant. (Publications- USA.gov) Wastewater discharged from a point source, such as a pipe. (US EPA- Pesticides) Partially or completely treated wastewater flowing out of a treatment facility, reservoir, or basin. See influent. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

effluent guidelines

Technical documents developed by EPA which set discharge limits for particular types of industries and specific pollutants. (US EPA- Pesticides)

effluent limitation(s)

Limits on the amounts of pollutants which may be discharged by a facility; these limits are calculated so that water quality standards will not be violated even at low stream flows. (US EPA- Pesticides) The maximum amount of a specific substance or characteristic that can be present in effluent discharge without violating water quality standards in receiving waters. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

eggcrate

A type of louver having square cells oriented to allow light to pass through. Cell walls may be opaque or translucent, and cell walls are typically parallel or perpendicular to each other and not curved. (Energy Star.gov)

EGL

Energy grade line. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

egress

The right to leave a tract of land. Often used interchangeably with "access." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

EIS

Environmental Impact Statement. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

elastic currency

The ability of currency to expand and contract to meet the needs of the economy. (Federal Reserve Education)

elasticity of demand

The ratio of the percentage change in the quantity of a good or service demanded to the percentage change in the price. (US Dept of Energy)

elbow

A pipe fitting having two openings which causes a run of pipe to change direction 90 degrees. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

elderly person household

A household composed of one or more persons at least one of whom is 62 years of age or more at the time of initial occupancy. (US Dept of HUD)

electric circuit

The path followed by electrons from a generation source, through an electrical system, and returning to the source. (US Dept of Energy)

electric energy

The amount of work accomplished by electrical power, usually measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). One kWh is 1,000 Watts and is equal to 3,413 Btu. (US Dept of Energy)

electric furnace

An air heater in which air is blown over electric resistance heating coils. (US Dept of Energy)

electric meter

A mechanical/electrical device that can measure electric power. (Energycodes.gov)

electric plant (physical)

A facility containing prime movers, electric generators, and auxiliary equipment for converting mechanical, chemical, and/or fission energy into electric energy. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electric power industry

The public, private, and cooperative electric utility systems of the United States taken as a whole. This includes all electric systems serving the public; regulated investor-owned electric utility companies; Federal power projects and state, municipal, and other government-owned systems, including electric public utility districts; electric cooperatives, including generation and transmission entities; jointly owned electric utility facilities; and electric utility facilities owned by a lessor and leased to an electric utility firm. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electric power plant

A facility or piece of equipment that produces electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

electric power sector

��An energy-consuming sector that consists of electricity only and combined heat and power(CHP) plants whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public--i.e., North American Industry Classification System 22 plants. See also Combined heat and power (CHP) plant and Electricity only plant. (US Energy Information Administration) Those privately or publicly owned establishments that generate, transmit, distribute, or sell electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

electric power system

Physically connected electric generating, transmission, and distribution facilities operated as a unit under one control. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electric power transmission

The transmission of electricity through power lines. (US Dept of Energy)

electric rate

The unit price and quantity to which it applies as specified in a rate schedule or contract. (US Dept of Energy)

electric rate schedule

A statement of the electric rate(s), terms, and conditions for electricity sale or supply. (US Dept of Energy)

electric resistance

The property of an electric circuit or of any object used as part of an electric circuit that determines for a given circuit the rate at which electric energy is converted into heat or radiant energy and that has a value such that the product of the resistance and the square of the current gives the rate of conversion of energy. (Energycodes.gov)

electric resistance heating

A type of heating system where heat, resulting when electric current flows through an "element" or conductor, such as Nichrome, which has a high resistance, is radiated to a room. (US Dept of Energy)

electric supplier

An agency that sells and/or distributes electric power. (Energycodes.gov)

electric system

The physically connected generation, transmission, and distribution facilities and components operated as a unit. (US Dept of Energy)

electric system loss(es)

The total amount of electric energy loss in an electric system between the generation source and points of delivery. (US Dept of Energy)

electric utility

��A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality aligned with distribution facilities for delivery of electric energy for use primarily by the public. Included are investor-owned electric utilities, municipal and State utilities, Federal electric utilities, and rural electric cooperatives. A few entities that are tariff based and corporately aligned with companies that own distribution facilities are also included. (US Energy Information Administration) A corporation, person, agency, authority or other legal entity that owns and/or operates facilities for the generation, transmission, distribution or sale of electricity primarily for use by the public. Also known as a power provider. (US Dept of Energy) A corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that owns and/or operates facilities within the United States, its territories, or Puerto Rico for the generation, transmission, distribution, or sale of electric energy primarily for use by the public and files forms listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 141. Facilities that qualify as cogenerators or small power producers under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) are not considered electric utilities. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electric vehicles

A battery-powered electrically driven vehicle. (US Dept of Energy)

electrical charge

A condition that results from an imbalance between the number of protons and the number of electrons in a substance. (US Dept of Energy)

electrical conductivity

(aka EC) How well the soil conducts an electrical charge. EC is a measure of salinity, generally expressed as decisiemens per meter at 25�C (dS/m). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) A measure of the salt content of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electrical demand

Energy requirement placed upon a utility's generation at a given instant or averaged over any designated period of time; expressed in kilowatts. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electrical energy

The energy of moving electrons. (US Dept of Energy)

electrical system

All the conductors and electricity using devices that are connected to a source of electromotive force (or generator). (US Dept of Energy)

electrical system energy losses

A measure of the amount of energy lost during the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

electricity generation

The process of producing electricity by transforming other forms or sources of energy into electrical energy; measured in kilowatt-hours. (US Dept of Energy)

electricity grid

A common term referring to an electricity transmission and distribution system. (US Dept of Energy)

electricity industry restructuring

The process of changing the structure of the electric power industry from one of guaranteed monopoly over service territories, as established by the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, to one of open competition between power suppliers for customers in any area. (US Dept of Energy)

electrochemical cell

A device containing two conducting electrodes, one positive and the other negative, made of dissimilar materials (usually metals) that are immersed in a chemical solution (electrolyte) that transmits positive ions from the negative to the positive electrode and thus forms an electrical charge. One or more cells constitute a battery. (US Dept of Energy)

electrode

A conductor that is brought in conducting contact with a ground. (US Dept of Energy)

electrodeless lamp

Also called induction lamps, these use a varying magnetic field rather than a voltage across two electrodes to produce the electric field that ionizes the gases in an HID lamp. (Energy Star.gov)

electrodeposition

Electrolytic process in which a metal is deposited at the cathode from a solution of its ions. (US Dept of Energy)

electrodes

Electrically conductive elements inside a lamp that are used to provide the electric field that starts and operates the lamp. (Energy Star.gov)

electrolysis

A chemical change in a substance that results from the passage of an electric current through an electrolyte. The production of commercial hydrogen by separating the elements of water, hydrogen, and oxygen, by charging the water with an electrical current. (US Dept of Energy)

electrolyte

A nonmetallic (liquid or solid) conductor that carries current by the movement of ions (instead of electrons) with the liberation of matter at the electrodes of an electrochemical cell. (US Dept of Energy)

electromagnetic energy

Energy generated from an electromagnetic field produced by an electric current flowing through a superconducting wire kept at a specific low temperature. (US Dept of Energy)

electromagnetic field

(aka EMF) The electrical and magnetic fields created by the presence or flow of electricity in an electrical conductor or electricity consuming appliance or motor. (US Dept of Energy)

electromotive force

The amount of energy derived from an electrical source per unit quantity of electricity passing through the source. (US Dept of Energy) (aka EMF) The electrical pressure available to cause a flow of current when an electrical circuit is closed. See voltage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

electron

An elementary particle of an atom with a negative electrical charge and a mass of 1/1837 of a proton; electrons surround the positively charged nucleus of an atom and determine the chemical properties of an atom. (US Dept of Energy)

electron volt

The amount of kinetic energy gained by an electron when accelerated through an electric potential difference of 1 Volt; equivalent to 1.603 x 10^-12; a unit of energy or work; abbreviated as eV. (US Dept of Energy)

electronic ballast

Device using solid-state components to provide power to a discharge lamp at high frequency (typically 25,000 to 100,000 cycles per second, but sometimes as high as 2,500,000 cycles per second). Operation of fluorescent lamps at frequencies higher than 10,000 cycles per second produces more light using fewer watts than operation at power-line frequencies. (Energy Star.gov) A device that uses electronic components to regulate the voltage of fluorescent lamps. (US Dept of Energy)

electronic banking

Conducted by Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), telephones or debit cards. (Federal Reserve Education) A service that allows an account holder to obtain account information and manage certain banking transactions through a personal computer via the financial institution's Web site on the Internet. (This is also known as Internet or online banking.) (Help With My Bank)

electronic benefit transfer

(aka EBT) Debit card technology used for issuing food stamp benefits. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

electronic check conversion

Electronic check conversion is a process in which your check is used as a source of information-for the check number, your account number, and the number that identifies your financial institution. The information is then used to make a one-time electronic payment from your account-an electronic fund transfer. The check itself is not the method of payment. (Help With My Bank)

electronic funds transfer

(aka EFT) Transfer of funds electronically rather than by check or cash. The Federal Reserve's Fedwire and automated clearinghouse services are EFT systems. (Federal Reserve Education) The transfer of money between accounts by consumer electronic systems-such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and electronic payment of bills-rather than by check or cash. (Wire transfers, checks, drafts, and paper instruments do not fall into this category.) (Help With My Bank)

electronic funds transfer systems

(aka EFTS) A variety of systems and technologies for transferring funds (money) electronically rather than by check. Includes Fedwire, automated clearinghouses (ACHs) and other automated systems. (Federal Reserve Education)

electronic high frequency ballasts

Electronic ballasts improve fluorescent system efficacy by converting the standard 60 Hz input frequency to a higher frequency, usually 25,000 to 40,000 Hz. Lights operating on these frequencies produce about the same amount of light while consuming up to 30% less power than a standard magnetic ballast. (Energycodes.gov)

electrostatic precipitator

A device used to remove particulate matter from the waste gasses of a combustion power plant. (US Dept of Energy)

elevated building

A building that has no basement and has its lowest elevated floor raised above the ground level by foundation walls, shear walls, posts, piers, pilings, or columns. Solid perimeter foundations walls are not an acceptable means of elevating buildings in V and VE zones. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

elevation

The height of a point above a plane of reference. Generally refers to the height above sea level. See datum. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

eligible borrower

A borrower who has met the requirements of Subpart D of Part 3565. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

eligible lender

A lender who has met the requirements of Subpart C of Part 3565. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

eligible loan

A loan that meets the requirements of Subpart E of Part 3565. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

eList

Electronic mailing list (eList) available from HUD USER to assist in disseminating research information, and to encourage subscribers to share information and exchange ideas with one another. (US Dept of HUD)

ellipsoidal reflector lamp

A lamp where the light beam is focused 2 inches ahead of the lamp reducing the amount of light trapped in the fixture. (US Dept of Energy)

elongate

An increase of the vertical diameter of a flexible pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

eluviation

The movement of material in true solution of colloidal suspension from one place to another within the soil. Soil horizons that have lost material through eluviation are eluvial; those that have received material are illuvial. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

embankment

An earth structure the top of which is higher than the adjoining surface. A shaped earth or rockfill dam. Fill material, usually earth or rock, placed with sloping sides and with a length greater than its height. An embankment is generally higher than a dike. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

embankment dam or fill dam

Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials. See diaphragm-type earthfill, earth dam or earthfill dam, homogeneous earthfill dam, hydraulic fill dam, rockfill dam, rolled fill dam, or zoned earthfill. See also berm and fill. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

embezzlement

In most States, embezzlement is defined as theft/larceny of assets (money or property) by a person in a position of trust or responsibility over those assets. Embezzlement typically occurs in the employment and corporate settings. (Help With My Bank)

emergency

A condition of a serious nature which develops unexpectedly and endangers the structural integrity of a dam or endangers downstream property and human life and requires immediate action. An event that demands a crisis response beyond the scope of any single line agency or service (e.g., beyond the scope of just the police department, fire department, etc.) and that presents a threat to a community or larger area. An emergency is an event that can be controlled within the scope of local capabilities. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency action plan

(aka EAP) Reclamation procedures for dam operating personnel to follow during emergency situations or unusual occurrences at a given dam to reduce potential for property damage and loss of life and to provide proper notification to downstream authorities. A formal plan of procedures designed to minimize an emergency situation or unusual occurrence at a given dam or reservoir. A set of Reclamation instructions and maps within the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) that contain procedures to follow for an emergency situation or unusual occurrence at a given dam or reservoir. A formal plan of procedures to alleviate risk during construction of or after completion of a dam, or to reduce the consequences if conditions develop in which dam failure is likely or unpreventable. Also, a plan of action to be taken to reduce the potential for property damage and loss of life in an area affected by a dam failure or large flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency borrowing authority

A limited authority provided to NCUA in the 2009 Helping Families Save Their Homes Act. It increased NCUA's base borrowing authority to $30 billion dollars subject to an approval process. This authority sunsets on December 31, 2010. (National Credit Union Administration)

emergency broadcast system

A federally established network of commercial radio stations that voluntarily provide official emergency instructions or directions to the public during an emergency. Priorities for Emergency Broadcast System activation and use are first, Federal Government; second, local government; and third, State government. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency classification levels

A phased system in which dam operating organizations classify dam safety emergency incidents into response levels according to how severe they are at the time of observation and as to time of occurrence. Declaring a response level is followed by providing appropriate notifications to downstream local authorities. This type of system is intended to provide early and prompt notification of minor events that could lead to more serious consequences given the potential for operator error or equipment failure or that might indicate more seroius conditions not yet realized. Response Level I - The first, and least serious, of three response levels that the dam operating organization will declare after analyzing a potentially threatening event. An event in this alert category may be perceived as an emergency or may be of general interest to the public, but does NOT pose a hazard, either at the dam or to downstream populations at risk when observed. Declaring Response Level I allows internal notifications to agency (Reclamation and/or operating agency) technical staff and decision makers that conditions at the dam and reservoir, or in the basin, represent a potentially threatening event; provides trigger points for technical staff to begin predicting future basin runoff, reservoir levels, and the likelihood of life-threatening releases and/or structural failure; and provides a "communications check" to downstream local authorities concerning conditions at the dam. Response Level II - The second of three response levels the dam operating organization will declare after analyzing a threatening event. Declaring Response Level II means that emergency conditions are such that populations at risk should prepare to leave predetermined inundation areas for higher ground and safe shelter. Declaration of Response Level II means that an event has occurred or is likely to occur that will actually threaten the structure and/or areas downstream from the dam if the event continues and/or intensifies. Response Level III - The third, and most serious, response level the dam operating organization will declare after analyzing threatening events. Declaring Response Level III indicates that life-threatening flood waters, as a result of high operational releases or dam failure, present imminent danger to the public located downstream from a dam. Declaration of Response Level III should prompt local officials to immediately evacuate populations at risk. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency evacuation zones

Geographical areas delineated in inundation areas downstream from a dam (hazard generator) that define the potential area of impact and allow prioritizing evacuation activities based on proximity of the populations at risk to the hazard in terms of distance and floodwave travel times. Emergency Evacuation Zone I - The emergency evacuation zone immediately below a dam and located on both sides of the river or stream. Generally, it is recommended that this zone extend to a distance equivalent to a combination of floodwave travel time of 0-15 minutes and/or a warning time of 0-4 hours, whichever is most conservative. May be labeled as immediate response zone, evacuation zone I, evacuation zone A, or other appropriate name. Emergency Evacuation Zone II - The second emergency evacuation zone, beyond emergency evacuation zone I and also located on both sides of the river or stream. Generally, it is recommended that this zone extend to a distance using a combination of floodwave travel times of between 15-90 minutes and/or warning times of between 4-6 hours, whichever is most conservative. May be labeled as protective action zone, evacuation zone II, evacuation zone B, or other appropriate name. Emergency Evacuation Zone III - The outermost emergency evacuation zone, extending beyond emergency evacuation zone II and also located on both sides of the river or stream. Its furthest point is that beyond which emergency planning and evacuation for a dam failure inundation would not be required under most conditions; where the floodwave would be attenuated; and beyond which the potential negative impacts on humans would be virtually eliminated. May be labeled as precautionary zone, evacuation zone III, evacuation zone C, or other appropriate name. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency exercise

An activity designed to promote emergency preparedness; evaluate emergency operations, policies, plans, procedures, and facilities; train personnel in emergency management and response duties; and demonstrate operational capability. Exercises consist of performing duties, tasks, or operations very similar to the way they would be performed in a real emergency. However, the exercise performance is in response to a simulated event. Therefore, exercises require input to emergency personnel that motivates a realistic action. Reclamation "mock emergencies" have been replaced with the five components of an emergency exercise program as defined by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. These five components are: orientation seminar, tabletop exercise, drill, functional exercise, and full-scale exercise. Orientation Exercise (Seminar) - An activity designed to introduce, discuss, and update emergency planning documents, organization structure, or early warning system (EWS) component to familarize key personnel with the emergency procedures and their responsibilities. This may be through a lecture, panel discussion, or general discussion and can include visual presentations. This should involve all personnel with a role in the plan, problem, or procedure. It should also include a review of past cases, if any, for lessons learned. Drill - An activity designed to evaluate a single emergency response function. This involves an actual field response such as making contacts to check the information included in the communication directory. A drill's effectiveness lies in the focus on a single or relatively limited portion of the overall response system in order to evaluate and improve that function. Tabletop Exercise - An informal activity involving discussions of actions to be taken on described emergency situations. A tabletop exercise is done without time constraints, which allows the participants to practice emergency situation problem solving, evaluate plans and procedures, and to resolve questions of coordination and assignment of responsibilities. A series of messages are issued to participants in the exercise, and they respond verbally to the simulated incident in a nonstressful atmosphere. This exercise should involve management, key agency staff, and personnel from outside organizations as appropriate. Functional Exercise - An activity in which participants respond in a coordinated manner to a timed, simulated incident that parallels a real operational event as close as possible. This exercise is generally conducted in an emergency operations center or Incident Command Post, and messages are passed to the participants in written form by telephone, radio, FAX, computer, or other method of communication. The functional exercise uses information such as emergency plans, maps, charts, and other information available in a real event and creates stress by increasing the frequency of messages, intensity of activity, and complexity of decisions and/or requirements for coordination. It does not involve actual mobilization of emergency response forces in the field. Participants should include management, key agency staff, and personnel from outside organizations as appropriate. Full-Scale Exercise - An activity in which emergency preparedness officials respond in a coordinated manner to a timed, simulated incident but includes the mobilization of field personnel and resources and the actual movement of emergency workers, equipment, and resources required to demonstrate coordination and response capability. This exercise is intended to evaluate the entire emergency organization or its major parts in an interactive manner over a substantial period of time. It mobilizes emergency officials in an emergency operations center plus the activation of one or more emergency functions outside of the center. Reclamation will not generally conduct this level of exercise, but will participate in exercises conducted by others when our facilities are involved. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency farm loan

The USDA's Farm Service Agency provides emergency loans to help farmers and ranchers recover from production and physical losses due to drought, flooding, other natural disasters, or quarantine. The farmers or ranchers must own or operate land in a county declared a disaster area by the President or designated by the Secretary of Agriculture as a disaster or quarantine area. The FSA administrator may authorize emergency loan assistance for physical losses only. The farmer or rancher must have suffered at least a 30-percent loss in crop production or a physical loss to livestock, livestock products, real estate, or chattel property. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

emergency gate

A standby or auxiliary gate used when the normal means of water control is not available. The first gate in a series of flow controls, remaining open while downstream gates or valves are operating. See guard gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency management

The system by which mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery activities are undertaken to save lives and protect property from all hazards. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency management agency

Any State or local agency responsible for emergency operations, planning, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery for all hazards. Names of emergency management agencies may vary, but could include: Division of Emergency Management, Comprehensive Emergency Management, Disaster Emergency Services, Civil Defense Agency, Emergency and Disaster Services, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency on-scene coordinator (reclamation osc)

At all times, there must be at least one employee either on the premises or on call (i.e., available to respond to an emergency by reaching the facility within a short period of time) with the responsibility for coordinating all emergency response measures. This emergency coordinator must be thoroughly familiar with all aspects of the facility's contingency plan, all operations and activities at the facility, the location and characteristics of hazardous substances handled, the location of all records within the facility, and the facility layout. In addition, this person must have the authority to commit the resources needed to carry out the contingency plan. See on-scene coordinator. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency operations center

The location of facility where responsible officials gather during an emergency to direct and coordinate emergency operations, to communicate with other jurisdictions and with field emergency forces, and to formulate protective action decisions and recommendations during an emergency. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency operations plan (state and local)

A plan, usually developed in accord with guidance contained in the Guide for the Development of State and Local Emergency Operations Plans, Civil Preparedness Guide 1-8, September 1990, and other similar guides. The emergency operations plan clearly and concisely describes a jurisdiction's emergency organization, its means of coordination with other jurisdictions, and its approach to protecting people and property from disasters and emergencies caused by any of the hazards to which the community is particularly vulnerable. It assigns functional responsibilities to the elements of the emergency organization, and details tasks to be carried out at times and places projected as accurately as permitted by the nature of each situation addressed. Emergency operations plans are multi-hazard, functional plans that treat emergency management activities generically. They have a basic section that provides generally applicable information without reference to any particular hazard. They also address the unique aspects of individual disasters in hazard-specific appendixes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency power system

(aka EPS) A system that is required by codes or other laws to automatically supply illumination or power or both in the event of failure of the normal supply or in the event of accidents to such systems. Such systems may also include standby loads incidental to system operations but shall not include systems for optional standby loads only. (Energycodes.gov)

emergency preparedness plan

(aka EPP) A comprehensive plan which identifies potential emergencies and their impact on the community, and identifies operating procedures and actions to put in place during actual emergencies. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) Predecessor to the term Emergency Action Plan (EAP). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency program

The initial phase of a community's participation in the National Flood Insurance Program. During this phase, only limited amounts of insurance are available under the Act. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

emergency program manager

The individual responsible on a day-to-day basis for a jurisdiction's effort to develop a capability for coordinated response to and recovery from the effects of emergencies and large-scale disasters. This official may be called the local emergency manager, civil defense director, disaster preparedness coordinator, or other similar title; the duties may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency reserve fund

Money reserved or required by contract to be reserved by an operating entity for use in emergency situations involving facilities under the entity's jurisdiction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

emergency shelter

Any facility, the primary purpose of which is to provide temporary or transitional shelter for the homeless in general or for specific populations of the homeless. (US Dept of HUD)

Emergency Shelter Grant program

A federal CPD program grant designed to help improve the quality of existing emergency shelters for the homeless, to make additional shelters available, to meet the costs of operating shelters, to provide essential social services to homeless individuals, and to help prevent homelessness. ESG also provides short-term homeless prevention assistance to persons at imminent risk of losing their own housing due to eviction, foreclosure, or utility shutoffs. (US Dept of HUD)

emergency spillway

A spillway which provides for additional safety should emergencies not contemplated by normal design assumptions be encountered, i.e., inoperable outlet works, spillway gates, or spillway structure problems. The crest is usually set at maximum water surface. A spillway that is designed to provide additional protection against overtopping of a dam and is intended for use under extreme conditions such as misoperation or malfunction of the service spillway or other emergency conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Emergency Wetlands Resources Act

(aka EWRA) Approved November 10, 1986, required the Secretary to report to Congress on wetlands loss, including an analysis of the role of Federal programs and policies in inducing such losses. In addition, as amended in the Wild Bird Act of 1992, it directed the Secretary, through the Service, to complete by September 30, 1998, mapping of the contiguous United States; produce, by September 30, 2000, National Wetlands Inventory maps for Alaska and other noncontiguous portions of the U.S.; produce, by September 30, 2004, a digital wetlands database for the U.S. based on the final wetland maps produced under this section; archive and make available for dissemination wetlands data and maps digitized under this section as such data and maps become available; and to produce, by September 30, 1990, and at ten-year intervals thereafter, reports to update and improve in the September 1982 "Status and Trends of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitat in the Coterminous United States, 1950's to 1970's."� (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

emergent hydrophytes�

Erect, rooted, herbaceous angiosperms that may be temporarily to permanently flooded at the base but do not tolerate prolonged inundation of the entire plant; e.g., bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), saltmarsh cordgrass. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

emergent mosses�

Mosses occurring in wetlands, but generally not covered by water. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

emergent properties

Properties of a whole system that are not apparent from examining properties of the components of the system. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

emerson humanitarian trust

A special wheat, corn, grain sorghum, and rice reserve to be used for humanitarian food aid purposes. The Trust was formerly the Food Security Commodity Reserve and the Food Security Wheat Reserve. Created by the Agriculture Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-494), the reserve is generally used to provide famine and other emergency relief when commodities are not available under P.L. 480 (Food for Peace Program). The 1996 Farm Act expanded the reserve to include corn, grain sorghum, and rice in addition to wheat, and made other administrative changes. Commodity Credit Corporation also is authorized to hold money, as well as commodities in the reserve. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

eminent domain

An exercise of the power of government or quasi-government agencies (such as airport authorities, highway commissions, community development agencies, and utility companies) to take private property for public use. (US Dept of HUD) When a government takes private property for public use. The owner receives payment for its fair market value. The property can then proceed to condemnation proceedings. (US Dept of HUD) The power of the state to take private property for public use upon payment of just compensation. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The legal process whereby a government can take ownership of a piece of property in order to convert it to public use. Often, the property owner is paid fair-market value for the property. (HardwickAssociates)

emission

The release or discharge of a substance into the environment. Generally refers to the release of gases or particulates into the air. (US EPA- Pesticides)

emission factor

A measure of the average amount of a specified pollutant or material emitted for a specific type of fuel or process. (US Dept of Energy)

emission(s)

A substance(s) or pollutant emitted as a result of a process. (US Dept of Energy)

emissions budget

The part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) that identifies the allowable emissions levels, mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), for certain pollutants emitted from mobile, stationary, and area sources. The emissions levels are used for meeting emission reduction milestones, attainment, or maintenance demonstrations. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

emissions inventory

A complete list of sources and amounts of pollutant emissions within a specific area and time interval. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

emissivity

The ratio of the radiant energy (heat) leaving (being emitted by) a surface to that of a black body at the same temperature and with the same area; expressed as a number between 0 and 1. (US Dept of Energy)

emittance

The ratio of the radiant heat flux emitted by a specimen to that emitted by a blackbody at the same temperature and under the same conditions. (Energycodes.gov)

employer-assisted housing

A program in which companies assist their employees in purchasing homes by providing assistance with the down payment, closing costs, or monthly payments. (Federal Trade Commission)

employment cost index

A measure of total employee compensation costs, including wages, salaries and benefits. This is the broadest measure of labor costs. (Federal Reserve Education)

employment rate

The percentage of the labor force that is employed. The employment rate is one of the economic indicators that economists examine to help understand the state of the economy. See also unemployment rate. (Federal Reserve Education) The percentage of the labor force that is employed. The employment rate is one of the economic indicators that economists examine to help understand the state of the economy. See also unemployment rate. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

empowerment zones

(aka EZ) Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities are part of The Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC) program. The Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Communities (EZ/EC) program was designed by the federal government to encourage comprehensive planning and investment aimed at the economic, physical, and social development of the neediest urban and rural areas in the United States. Under the initial round of funding announced in December 1994, 71 urban sites received EZ/EC designation. The major share of the federal funding went to the six sites designated as Empowerment Zones (EZs) and the remaining funds went to Enterprise Communities (ECs). Although considerable latitude has been afforded to these sites regarding the selection of specific strategies and activities to pursue, each funded community's efforts at zone transformation were expected to reflect four key principles: (1) economic opportunity; (2) community-based partnerships; (3) sustainable community development; and (4) a strategic vision for change. (US Dept of HUD)

EMS

See energy management system (Energy Star.gov)

enact (enactment)

To enact a bill is to make it into law. Generally, a bill is enacted into law when it passes both houses of a legislature in identical form and is signed by the president or governor; when it becomes law without the president's or governor's signature; or when it is passed over the president's or governor's veto. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

enclosed space

A volume substantially surrounded by solid surfaces such as walls, floors, roofs, and openable devices such as doors and operable windows. Spaces not meeting these criteria for enclosure are considered to be exterior to the building for purposes of determining envelope requirements. For example, most parking garages do not qualify as enclosed space. (Energycodes.gov)

enclosure

That portion of an elevated building below the lowest elevated floor that is either partially or fully shut in by rigid walls. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) The case or housing of an apparatus, or the fence or walls surrounding an installation, designed to prevent personnel from accidentally contacting energized parts and to protect equipment from physical damage. (Energycodes.gov) The housing around a motor that supports the active parts and protects them. They come in different varieties (open, protected) depending on the degree of protection required. (US Dept of Energy)

encoding

The process used to imprint or inscribe MICR characters on checks, deposits, and other financial instruments. [Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) is a character-recognition technology adopted mainly by the banking industry to facilitate the processing of checks. Each check in encoded at the bottom with the dollar amount of the check. If that information is entered incorrectly, there is an encoding error.] (Help With My Bank)

encroachment

The intrusion onto another�s property without right or permission. (Federal Trade Commission) A trespass or intrusion onto another's property, usually by a structure, wall or fence. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A building or other improvement on one property which invades another property or restricts its usage. (HardwickAssociates)

encroachments

A structure that extends over the legal property line on to another individual's property. The property surveyor will note any encroachment on the lot survey done before property transfer. The person who owns the structure will be asked to remove it to prevent future problems. (US Dept of HUD)

encumber

To burden a parcel of land with a lien or charge, e.g., a mortgage. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

encumbrance

Any claim on a property, such as a lien, mortgage or easement. (Federal Trade Commission) Anything that affects title to a property, such as loans, leases, easements, or restrictions. (US Dept of HUD) A lien, liability or charge upon a parcel of land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A claim against a property. Examples are mortgages, liens and easements. (HardwickAssociates)

end loan

Same or similar to "construction loan." See also "construction loan." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

end moraine (terminal moraine)

Ridge of sediment piled at the front edge of a glacier. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

end use

The purpose for which useful energy or work is consumed. (US Dept of Energy)

endangered species

Animals, plants, birds, fish, or other living organisms threatened with extinction by man-made or natural changes in the environment. (US EPA- Pesticides) A species or subspecies whose survival is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Endangered Species Act

(aka ESA) This act provides a framework for the protection of endangered and threatened species. See Endangered Species Act of 1973. Also, see Endangered Species Act. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

end-of-life protection

Circuitry used in the ballast of a CFL that stops the flow of electricity when a CFL fails, eliminating any potential safety hazard. (Energy Star.gov)

endomycorrhizal fungi

A type of mycorrhizal fungi that invades the cells of plant roots. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

endothermic

A heat absorbing reaction or a reaction that requires heat. (US Dept of Energy)

energize(d)

To send electricity through a electricity transmission and distribution network; a conductor or power line that is carrying current. (US Dept of Energy)

energy

The capacity for doing work. It takes a number of forms that may be transformed from one into another such as thermal (heat), mechanical (work), electrical, and chemical. Customary measurement units are British thermal units (Btu). (Energycodes.gov) The capability of doing work; different forms of energy can be converted to other forms, but the total amount of energy remains the same. (US Dept of Energy) Force or action of doing work. Measured in terms of the work it is capable of doing; electric energy, the electric capacity generated and/or delivered over time, is usually measured in kilowatt hours (kWh). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

energy audit

Any process that identifies and specifies the energy and cost savings likely to be realized through the purchase and installation of particular energy efficiency measures or renewable energy measures. (US Dept of HUD) A survey that shows how much energy you use in your house or apartment. It will help you find ways to use less energy. (US Dept of Energy)

energy bank

Commercial banks, often located in the southwest, that provided credit to the energy industry during the period of the study, 1980 through 1994. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

energy charge

That part of an electricity bill that is based on the amount of electrical energy consumed or supplied. (US Dept of Energy)

energy contribution potential

Recombination occurring in the emitter region of a photovoltaic cell. (US Dept of Energy)

energy cost budget

The annual energy cost budgeted for the building. (Energycodes.gov)

energy crops

Crops grown specifically for their fuel value. These include food crops such as corn and sugarcane, and nonfood crops such as poplar trees and switchgrass. Currently, two energy crops are under development: short-rotation woody crops, which are fast-growing hardwood trees harvested in 5 to 8 years; and herbaceous energy crops, such as perennial grasses, which are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity. (US Dept of Energy)

energy density

The ratio of available energy per pound; usually used to compare storage batteries. (US Dept of Energy)

energy dissipator

A device constructed in a waterway to reduce the kinetic energy of fast flowing water. See stilling basin. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

energy efficiency

The ratio of energy inputs to outputs from a process, for example, miles traveled per gallon of fuel (mpg). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

energy efficiency ratio

An efficiency rating system for air conditioning units that corresponds to the number of BTU's output per watt of electricity used. (HardwickAssociates) (aka EER) The ratio of net equipment cooling capacity in Btu/h to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions. When consistent units are used, this ratio becomes equal to the coefficient of performance. (Energycodes.gov) The measure of the instantaneous energy efficiency of room air conditioners; the cooling capacity in Btu/hr divided by the watts of power consumed at a specific outdoor temperature (usually 95 degrees Fahrenheit). (US Dept of Energy)

energy efficient mortgage

An FHA program that helps homebuyers save money on utility bills by enabling them to finance the cost of adding energy efficiency features to a new or existing home as part of the home purchase (US Dept of HUD) A type of home mortgage that takes into account the energy savings of a home that has cost-effective energy saving improvements that will reduce energy costs thereby allowing the homeowner to more income to the mortgage payment. A borrower can qualify for a larger loan amount than otherwise would be possible. (US Dept of Energy)

energy end-use sectors

Major energy consuming sectors of the economy. The Commercial Sector includes commercial buildings and private companies. The Industrial Sector includes manufacturers and processors. The Residential Sector includes private homes. The Transportation Sector includes automobiles, trucks, rail, ships, and aircraft. (US Dept of Energy)

energy factor

(aka EF) A measure of water heater overall efficiency. (Energycodes.gov) The measure of overall efficiency for a variety of appliances. For water heaters, the energy factor is based on three factors: 1) the recovery efficiency, or how efficiently the heat from the energy source is transferred to the water; 2) stand-by losses, or the percentage of heat lost per hour from the stored water compared to the content of the water: and 3) cycling losses. For dishwashers, the energy factor is defined as the number of cycles per kWh of input power. For clothes washers, the energy factor is defined as the cubic foot capacity per kWh of input power per cycle. For clothes dryers, the energy factor is defined as the number of pounds of clothes dried per kWh of power consumed. (US Dept of Energy)

energy grade line (energy line,energy gradient)

(aka EGL) The line showing the total energy at any point in a pipe. The total energy in the flow of the section with reference to a datum line is the sum of the elevation of the pipe centerline, the piezometric height (or pressure head), and the velocity head. The energy grade line will slope (drop) in the direction of flow except where energy is added by mechanical devices. The line representing the elevation of the total head of flow is the energy line. The slope of the line is known as the energy gradient. See hydraulic grade line. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

energy guide labels

The labels placed on appliances to enable consumers to compare appliance energy efficiency and energy consumption under specified test conditions as required by the 08: Federal Trade Commission. (US Dept of Energy)

Energy Information Administration

(aka EIA) An independent agency within the U.S. Department of Energy that develops surveys, collects energy data, and analyzes and models energy issues. The Agency must meet the requests of Congress, other elements within the 44: Department of Energy, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, the Executive Branch, its own independent needs, and assist the general public, or other interest groups, without taking a policy position. (DOE5) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

energy intensity

The relative extent that energy is required for a process. (US Dept of Energy)

energy performance rating

The energy use of the proposed building under actual operating conditions. Projected energy use targets can be used for buildings in the design or construction process. Examples include kBtu/sf/yr, $/sf/yr, $/gross sales, Energy Performance Rating Score (US EPA), or like expressions of energy performance. (Energycodes.gov)

Energy Policy Act of 1992

(aka EPACT) A comprehensive legislative package that mandates and encourages energy efficiency standards, alternative fuel use, and the development of renewable energy technologies. Public Law 102-486, October 24th, 1992. Also authorized the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) to order the owners of electric power transmission lines to transmit or "wheel" power for power generators including electric power providers, federal power marketing authorities, and exempt wholesale generators. (US Dept of Energy) Comprehensive federal legislation enacted in 1992 that is resulting in fundamental changes in the electric utility industry by promoting competion in wholesale electricity markets. Title VII, the electricity title of the Act, made it easier for non-utility producers to participate in the electric generation market by exempting them from regulatory restrictions imposed by the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA). EPAct also authorized FERC to order utilities to provide access to their transmission lines to other utilities, non-utility producers, and other participants in the wholesale electricity market. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Energy Security Act of 1980

Legislation authorizing a U.S. biomass and alcohol fuel program, and that authorized loan guarantees and price guarantees and purchase agreements for alcohol fuel production. (US Dept of Energy)

Energy Service Company

(aka ESCO) A company that specializes in undertaking energy efficiency measures under a contractual arrangement whereby the ESCO shares the value of energy savings with their customer. (US Dept of Energy)

energy source

The primary source that provides the power that is converted to electricity through chemical, mechanical, or other means. Energy sources include coal, petroleum and petroleum products, gas, water, uranium, wind, sunlight, geothermal, and other sources. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ENERGY STAR

ENERGY STAR is a government-backed program helping businesses and individuals protect the environment through superior energy efficiency. (Energy Star.gov)

ENERGY STAR Home Sealing

A process recommended by the ENERGY STAR Program for improving the envelope of a home to make it more comfortable and energy-efficient. The process includes sealing air leaks and adding insulation where cost-effective. (Energy Star.gov)

energy storage

The process of storing, or converting energy from one form to another, for later use; storage devices and systems include batteries, conventional and pumped storage hydroelectric, flywheels, compressed gas, and thermal mass. (US Dept of Energy)

enforcement action

A regulatory tool that the OCC may use to correct problems or effect change in a national bank. (Help With My Bank)

engagement letter

An engagement letter between an institution and an appraiser documents the expectations of each party to the appraisal assignment. For example, an engagement letter may specify, among other items: (i) the property�s location and legal description; (ii) intended use and users of the appraisal; (iii) the requirement to provide an opinion of the property�s market value; (iv) the expectation that the appraiser will comply with applicable laws and regulations, and be consistent with supervisory guidance; (v) appraisal report format; (vi) expected delivery date; and (vii) appraisal fee. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) An engagement letter between an institution and an appraiser documents the expectations of each party to the appraisal assignment. For example, an engagement letter may specify, among other items: (i) the property�s location and legal description; (ii) intended use and users of the appraisal; (iii) the requirement to provide an opinion of the property�s market value; (iv) the expectation that the appraiser will comply with applicable laws and regulations, and be consistent with supervisory guidance; (v) appraisal report format; (vi) expected delivery date; and (vii) appraisal fee. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

engrossed bill (engrossment)

The official copy of a bill or joint resolution passed by one house of Congress, certified by the secretary of that house, and sent to the other house for consideration. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

enhancement

Improvement of a facility beyond its originally designed purpose or condition. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

enhancement activities

Refers to activities related to a particular transportation project that 'enhance' or contribute to the existing or proposed project. Examples of such activities include provision of facilities for pedestrians or cyclists, landscaping or other scenic beautification projects, historic preservation, control and removal of outdoor advertising, archaeological planning and research, and mitigation of water pollution due to highway runoff. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

enhancement flow

Improved flows that result in better stream conditions for aquatic, terrestrial, and other resources. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

eNotary

An electronic notary that may include the use of a digital seal to notarize digital documents. (See also Notary.) (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

enrolled bill (enrollment)

The final copy of a bill or joint resolution that has passed both houses of Congress in identical form. It is signed by appropriate House and Senate officials and submitted to the president for signature. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

ensign valve

Earliest type of Reclamation needle valve (named after Reclamation's chief electrical engineer), operated by water pressure from the forebay, and mounted on the upstream side of the dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

enterprise communities

(aka EC) See Empowerment Zones (EZ). (US Dept of HUD)

enthalpy

A thermodynamic property of a substance, defined as the sum of its internal energy plus the pressure of the substance times its volume, divided by the mechanical equivalent of heat. The total heat content of air; the sum of the enthalpies of dry air and water vapor, per unit weight of dry air; measured in Btu per pound (or calories per kilogram). (US Dept of Energy)

entrain

To trap bubbles in water either mechanically through turbulence or chemically through a reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

entrained bed gasifier

A gasifier in which the feedstock (fuel) is suspended by the movement of gas to move it through the gasifier. (US Dept of Energy)

entrainment

Process by which aquatic organisms, suspended in water, are pulled through a pump or other device. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

entrance fee

A fee required by statute to be paid to the Bank Insurance Fund when an insured depository institution participates in a conversion transaction wherein insured deposits are transferred from a Savings Association Insurance Fund member to a Bank Insurance Fund member. The entrance fee assessed in connection with a conversion from SAIF to BIF is the amount derived by multiplying the dollar amount of the deposits transferred from SAIF to BIF by the BIF reserve ratio. The entrance fee assessed in connection with a SAIF conversion is the amount derived by multiplying the amount of deposits transferred from BIF to SAIF by the SAIF reserve ratio or by .01 percent, whichever is greater. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

entropy

A measure of the unavailable or unusable energy in a system; energy that cannot be converted to another form. (US Dept of Energy)

envelope components

The building assemblies that provide a barrier between conditioned space and unconditioned space. This includes the floors, walls, and ceiling/roof assemblies of the building. (Energycodes.gov)

envelope floor

That lower portion of the building envelope, including opaque area and fenestration, that has conditioned or semiheated space above and is horizontal or tilted at an angle of less than 60 degrees from horizontal but excluding slab-on-grade floors. It is needed to determine building envelope requirements. (Energycodes.gov)

environment

All the natural and living things around us. The earth, air, weather, plants, and animals all make up our environment. (US Dept of Energy) All biological, chemical, social, and physical factors to which organisms are exposed. The surroundings that affect the growth and development of an organism. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

environmental agents

Conditions other than indoor air contaminants that cause stress, comfort, and/or health problems (e.g., humidity extremes, drafts, lack of air circulation, noise, and over-crowding). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

environmental analysis

Systematic process for consideration of environment factors in land management actions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

environmental assessment

(aka EA) A NEPA compliance document used to determine if an action would have a significant effect on the human environment. If not, a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) is written. If so, an environmental impact statement (EIS) is written. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

environmental audit

An independent assessment (not conducted by EPA) of a facility's compliance policies, practices, and controls. Many pollution prevention initiatives require an audit to determine where wastes may be reduced or eliminated or energy conserved. Many supplemental environmental projects that offset a penalty use audits to identify ways to reduce the harmful effects of a violation. (US EPA- Pesticides)

environmental benefits index

The Environmental Benefits Index (EBI) is used to rank contract proposals for acceptance in the Conservation Reserve Program general sign-up. Environmental scores are based on potential to create wildlife habitat, reduce soil erosion, improve water quality, improve air quality, or sequester carbon. Contract cost is also an important factor. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

environmental equity

Equal protection from environmental hazards for individuals, groups, or communities regardless of race, ethnicity, or economic status. (US EPA- Pesticides)

environmental impact statement

(aka EIS) Report developed as part of the National Environmental Policy Act requirements, which details any adverse economic, social, and environmental effects of a proposed transportation project for which Federal funding is being sought. Adverse effects could include air, water, or noise pollution; destruction or disruption of natural resources; adverse employment effects; injurious displacement of people or businesses; or disruption of desirable community or regional growth. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A NEPA compliance document used to evaluate a range of alternatives when solving the problem would have a significant effect on the human environment. The EIS is more than a document, it is a formal analysis process which mandates public comment periods. An EIS covers purpose and need, alternatives, existing conditions, environmental consequences, and consultation and coordination. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

environmental justice

(aka EJ) The fair treatment of people of all races, cultures, incomes, and educational levels with respect to the development and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. Fair treatment implies that no population should be forced to shoulder a disproportionate share of exposure to the negative effects of pollution due to lack of political or economic strength. (US EPA- Pesticides) Environmental justice assures that services and benefits allow for meaningful participation and are fairly distributed to avoid discrimination. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Environmental Protection Agency

The federal regulatory agency responsible for administering and enforcing federal environmental laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Endangered Species Act, and others. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) The Environmental Protection Agency's mission is to protect human health and to safeguard the natural environment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Environmental Quality Incentives Program

EQIP was established by the 1996 Farm Act to consolidate and better target the functions of the Agricultural Conservation Program, Water Quality Incentives Program, Great Plains Conservation Program, and Colorado River Basin Salinity Program. The objective of EQIP is to encourage farmers and ranchers to adopt practices that reduce environmental and resource problems through 1- to 10-year contracts. The program provides education and technical assistance, as well as financial assistance through cost-share payments for structural and vegetative practices and incentive payments for management practices. EQIP is run by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and is funded through Commodity Credit Corporation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Environmental Response Team

(aka ERT) PA's group of highly trained scientists and engineers based in Edison, NJ and Cincinnati, OH who back up the federal On-Scene Coordinator. The ERT's capabilities include multimedia sampling and analysis, hazard assessment, hazardous substance and oil spill cleanup techniques, and technical support. (US EPA- Pesticides)

environmental restoration

Re-establishment (including all site preparation activities) of natural habitats or other environmental resources on a site where they formerly existed or currently exist in a substantially degraded state. This can include the restitution for the loss, damage, or destruction of natural resources arising out of the accidental discharge, dispersal, release or escape into or upon the land, atmosphere, watercourse, or body of water of any commodity transported by a motor carrier. This also may include the on-site or offsite replacement of wetlands and other natural habitats lost through development activities. (49CFR387 and 23CFR 777) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

environmental tobacco smoke

(aka ETS) Mixture of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, pipe, or cigar and smoke exhaled by the smoker (also secondhand smoke (SHS) or passive smoking). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

environmentally sensitive area

An area of environmental importance having natural resources which if degraded may lead to significant adverse, social, economic or ecological consequences. These could be areas in or adjacent to aquatic ecosystems, drinking water sources, unique or declining species habitat, and other similar sites. (49CFR194) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

eolian

Windblown. See aeolian. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

EPA

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

EPA map of radon zones

A U.S. EPA publication depicting areas of differing radon potential in both map form and in state specific booklets. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

EPA Registration Number (EPA Reg. No)

A two-part number assigned by EPA to identify each pesticide product registration (e.g., 1253-79). The first number is company number, the second number (after the dash) is the product number. This registration number must appear on the product's label.� (US EPA- Pesticides)

ephemeral creek

A creek or stream that flows briefly only in direct response to precipitation and whose channel is above the water table. See intermittent stream. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

epicenter

Focal point on the earth's surface directly above the origin of a seismic disturbance. Point on the Earth's surface vertically above the earthquake focus or hypocenter. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

epidemiologist

A medical scientist who studies the various factors involved in the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population. (US EPA- Pesticides)

epifauna

Animals which live on the benthos. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

epilimnion

See thermal stratification. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The upper, or top, layer of a lake or reservoir with essentially uniform warmer temperatures. The upper layer of water in a thermally stratified lake or reservoir. This layer consists of the warmest water and has a fairly constant temperature. The layer is readily mixed by wind action. See stratification. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

epitaxial growth

In reference to solar photovoltaic devices, the growth of one crystal on the surface of another crystal. The growth of the deposited crystal is oriented by the lattice structure of the original crystal. (US Dept of Energy)

Equal Credit Opportunity Act

(aka ECOA) A federal law prohibiting lenders and other creditors from discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, marital status, receipt of public assistance or because an applicant has exercised his or her rights under the Consumer Credit Protection Act. (Ginnie Mae) A federal law that requires lenders to make credit equally available without regard to the applicant�s race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or marital status; the fact that all or part of the applicant�s income is derived from a public assistance program; or the fact that the applicant has in good faith exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act. It also requires various notices to consumers. (Federal Trade Commission) Enacted in 1974, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, or ECOA, seeks to ensure that non-credit-related factors, such as a person's race, national origin, or sex, do not enter into a decision to deny a person's request for credit. (Federal Reserve Education) Prohibits creditors from discriminating against credit applicants on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or because an applicant receives income from a public assistance program. (Help With My Bank) Federal law requiring creditors to make credit equally available without discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status, or because all or part of the applicant�s income is derived from any public assistance program, or because the applicant has, in good faith, exercised any right under the Consumer Credit Protection Act. ECOA can be found in U.S. Code Title 15, chapter 41, sub-chapter IV. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A federal law requiring lenders to make credit available equally without discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status, or receipt of income from public assistance programs. (US Dept of HUD) U.S. federal law requiring that lenders afford people equal chance of getting credit without discrimination based on race, religion, age, sex etc (HardwickAssociates)

equilibrium

A situation in which the quantities demanded and supplied in a market are equal. Equilibrium exists when forces that cause changes in the market are in balance so that there is no tendency for the market price to change. (Federal Reserve Education)

equilibrium real interest rate

The rate that would be consistent with the full employment of labor and industrial capacity, and with real GDP being at its long-run potential level. This rate is needed as a benchmark to judge whether a given real interest rate is expansionary or contractionary. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

equinox

The two times of the year when the sun crosses the equator and night and day are of equal length; usually occurs on March 21st (spring equinox) and September 23 (fall equinox). (US Dept of Energy)

equipment

Devices for comfort conditioning, electric power, lighting, transportation, or service water heating including, but not limited to, furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, water heaters, lamps, luminaires, ballasts, elevators, escalators, or other devices or installations. (Energycodes.gov)

equipment efficiency

The energy efficiency of equipment. The measure of equipment efficiency varies with the equipment type. (Energycodes.gov)

equitable land use planning

Zoning, land use regulation, master planning, and other land use planning that, at a minimum, furthers the purposes of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Fair Housing Act and are intended to achieve additional objectives for expanding housing choice. (US Dept of HUD)

equity

The value of a property beyond any liens against it. Also referred to as owner's interest. (Ginnie Mae) The value in your home above the total amount of the liens against your home. If you owe $100,000 on your house but it is worth $130,000, you have $30,000 of equity. (Freddie Mac) Ownership interest in an asset after liabilities are deducted. (Federal Reserve Education) An owner's financial interest in a property which is calculated by subtracting the amount still owed on the mortgage loan(s) from the current market value of the property. (Making Home Affordable) In housing markets, equity is the diff erence between the fair market value of the home and the outstanding balance on your mortgage plus any outstanding home equity loans. In vehicle leasing markets, equity is the positive diff erence between the trade-in or market value of your vehicle and the loan payoff amount. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages) The market value of real property, less the amount of existing liens. Equity build-up is the reduction of principal on a mortgage or deed of trust by periodic payments, which increases (builds-up) the difference (equity) between the property value and amount of the lien. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) An owner's financial interest in a property; calculated by subtracting the amount still owed on the mortgage loon(s)from the fair market value of the property. (US Dept of HUD) The difference between the current market value of a property and the principal balance of all outstanding loans. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) The difference between the fair market value of a property and that amount an owner owes on any mortgages or loans secured by the property. (HardwickAssociates) The value of a debtor's interest in property that remains after liens and other creditors' interests are considered. (Example: If a house valued at $100,000 is subject to a $80,000 mortgage, there is $20,000 of equity.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

equity buildup

The natural increase in the amount of equity an owner has in a property, accumulated through market appreciation and debt repayment. (HardwickAssociates)

equity loan

Same or similar to "home equity line of credit." See also "home equity line of credit" under "mortgage." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

equity partnerships

An RTC asset disposition program in which the RTC transferred a share of the ownership and certain rights and responsibilities regarding specific assets but retained the right to share in future profits. The program was used to dispose of nonperforming commercial mortgages, nonperforming business loans, land, and other distressed assets. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

equivalent diameter (equivalent size)

The diameter of a hypothetical sphere composed of material having the same specific gravity as that of the actual soil particle and of such size that it will settle in a given liquid at the same terminal veolcity as the actual soil particle. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

equivalent fluid

A hypothetical fluid having a unit weight such that it will produce a pressure against a lateral support presumed to be equivalent to that produced by the actual soil. This simplified approach is valid only when deformation conditions are such that the pressure increases linearly with depth and the wall friction is neglected. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

erg

A unit of work done by the force of one dyne acting through a distance of one centimeter. (US Dept of Energy)

ergonomics

Applied science that investigates the impact of people's physical environment on their health and comfort (e.g., determining the proper chair height for computer operators). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

erode

To wear away or remove the land surface by wind, water, or other agents. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

erodibility index

(aka EI) A measure of the potential for soil productivity to be damaged by soil erosion. The higher the index, the higher the likelihood of soil damage in the absence of soil conservation measures. EI scores above 8 are equated to highly erodible land. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service) A numerical expression of the potential of a soil to erode, considering the physical and chemical properties of the soil and climatic conditions where it is located. The higher the index, the greater the investment needed to maintain the sustainability of the soil resource base if intensively cropped. EI scores of 8 or above are equated to highly erodible land. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

erosion

The collapse, undermining, or subsidence of land along the shore of a lake or other body of water. Erosion is a covered peril if it is caused by waves or currents of water exceeding their cyclical levels which result in flooding. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) The wearing away of soil by wind or water, intensified by land-clearing practices related to farming, residential or industrial development, road building, or logging. (US EPA- Pesticides) The wearing away of the land surface by running water, waves, or moving ice and wind, or by such processes as mass wasting and corrosion (solution and other chemical processes). The term "geologic erosion" refers to natural erosion processes occurring over long (geologic) time spans. "Accelerated erosion" generically refers to erosion that exceeds what is presumed or estimated to be naturally occurring levels, and which is a direct result of human activities (e.g., cultivation and logging). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) A gradual wearing away of soil or rock by running water, waves, or wind. Concrete surface disturbance caused by cavitation, abrasion from moving particles in water, impact of pedestrian or vehicular traffic, or impact of ice floes. Surface displacement of soil caused by weathering, dissolution, abrasion, or other transporting. The gradual wearing away of material as a result of abrasive action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

erratic

Boulder transported by a glacier and left behind when the ice melted. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

error resolution

The required process for resolving errors involving electronic transfers to and from deposit accounts. (Help With My Bank)

errors and omissions insurance

An insurance policy taken out by appraisers to cover their liability for any mistakes made during the appraisal process. (HardwickAssociates)

ESA

Endangered Species Act (of 1973). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

escape clause

A provision allowing one party or more to cancel all or part of the contract if certain events fail to happen, such as the ability of the buyer to obtain financing within a specified period. (Ginnie Mae) A provision in a purchase contract that allows either party to cancel part or the entire contract if the other does not respond to changes to the sale within a set period. The most common use of the escape clause is if the buyer makes the purchase offer contingent on the sale of another house. (US Dept of HUD)

escapement

Unharvested spawning stocks that return to the streams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

escarpment

A cliff or steep slope that separates two level or gently sloping areas. Cliff or steep slope edging higher land. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

escheat

Reversion of real or personal property to the State when 1) a person dies without leaving a will and has no heirs, or 2) when the property (such as a bank account) has been inactive for a certain period of time. (Help With My Bank) A reversion of property to the state in those cases where an individual dies without heirs or devisees, and, in some states, without a will. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

escrow

Money placed with a third party for safekeeping either for final closing on a property or for payment of taxes and insurance throughout the year. (Ginnie Mae) The holding of money or documents by a neutral third party before closing. It can also be an account held by the lender (or servicer) into which a homeowner pays money for taxes and insurance. (Freddie Mac) The holding of money or documents by a neutral third party before closing on a property. It can also be an account held by the lender (or servicer) into which a homeowner pays money for taxes and insurance. (Federal Trade Commission- Shopping for a Mortgage) An item of value, money, or documents deposited with a third party to be delivered upon the fulfillment of a condition. For example, the deposit by a borrower with the lender of funds to pay taxes and insurance premiums when they become due, or the deposit of funds or documents with an attorney or escrow agent to be disbursed upon the closing of a sale of real estate. (Federal Trade Commission) A financial instrument held by a third party on behalf of the other two parties in a transaction. The funds are held by the escrow service until it receives the appropriate written or oral instructions-or until obligations have been fulfilled. Securities, funds, and other assets can be held in escrow. (Help With My Bank) Funds held in an account to be used by the lender to pay for home insurance and property taxes. The funds may also be held by a third party until contractual conditions are met and then paid out. (US Dept of HUD) A third party agent that receives, holds, and/or disburses certain funds or documents upon the performance of certain conditions. For example, an earnest money deposit is put into escrow until the transaction is closed. Only then can the seller receive the deposit. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) A pro c e d u re whereby a disinterested third party handles legal documents and funds on behalf of a seller and buyer, and delivers them upon performance by the parties. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) An amount retained by a third party in a trust to meet a future obligation. Often used in the payment of annual taxes or insurance for real property. (HardwickAssociates)

escrow account

An account that a mortgage servicer establishes on behalf of a borrower to pay taxes, insurance premiums, or other charges when they are due. Sometimes referred to as an �impound� or �reserve� account. (Federal Trade Commission) A separate account into which a portion of each monthly mortgage payment is placed; an escrow account provides the funds needed for such expenses as property taxes, homeowners insurance, mortgage insurance, etc. (Making Home Affordable) Account held by a lender for payment of taxes, insurance, or other periodic debts against real property. The property owner pays a portion of the yearly taxes, insurance, etc., with each monthly payment. The lender pays the tax bill from the accumulated funds. Also called "impound account" or "trust account." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) An impound account in which a portion of your monthly mortgage payment is deposited to cover annual charges for homeowner�s insurance, mortgage insurance (if applicable), and property taxes. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) A separate account into which the lender puts a portion of each monthly mortgage payment; an escrow account provides the funds needed for such expenses as property taxes, homeowners insurance, mortgage insurance, etc. (US Dept of HUD) An account setup by a mortgage servicing company to hold funds with which to pay expenses such as homeowners insurance and property taxes. An extra amount is paid with regular principal and interest payments that go into the escrow account each month. (HardwickAssociates)

escrow agent

A person or entity holding documents and funds in a transfer of real property, acting for both parties pursuant to instructions. Typically the agent is a person (often an attorney), escrow company or title company, depending on local practices. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet)

escrow analysis

The accounting that a mortgage servicer performs to determine the appropriate balances for the escrow account, compute the borrower�s monthly escrow payments, and determine whether any shortages, surpluses or deficiencies exist in the account. (Federal Trade Commission) The periodic examination of escrow accounts by a mortgage company to verify that monthly deposits are sufficient to pay taxes, insurance, and other escrow-related items on when due. (Help With My Bank) A periodic review of escrow accounts to make sure that there are sufficient funds to pay the taxes and insurance on a home when they are due. (Making Home Affordable) An analysis performed by the lender usually once each year to see that the amount of money going into the escrow account each month is correct for the forecasted expenses. (HardwickAssociates)

escrow disbursements

The payout of funds from an escrow account to pay property expenses such as taxes and insurance. (HardwickAssociates)

escrow funds

Funds held in reserve by a mortgage company to pay taxes, insurance, and other mortgage-related items when due. (Help With My Bank)

escrow instructions

Instructions prepared by a lender and/or underwriter to direct the progression of a mortgage closing transaction from start to finish. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

ESG

See Emergency Shelter Grant Program (US Dept of HUD)

essential element

A structural or geologic feature or an equipment item whose failure under the particular loading condition or set of circumstances being considered would create a dam safety deficiency. An equipment item or procedure required for safe operation of the dam or reservoir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

essentiality

Under section 13(c) of the FDI Act as originally enacted, the FDIC was allowed to assist an open bank to prevent its failure if the FDIC Board of Directors determined that the insured bank was in danger of failing and continued operation of such bank was �essential.� Section 13(c) of the FDI Act was revised by the Garn�St Germain Depository Institutions Act; and this essentiality test was replaced by the cost test, except for cases in which the cost of providing open bank assistance was expected to exceed the cost of liquidating the failed institution. (Also see cost test.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

estate

The ownership interest of a person in real property. The sum total of all property, real and personal, owned by a person. (US Dept of HUD) A person's possessions. The extent of a person's interest in real property. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The total of all property and assets owned by an individual. (HardwickAssociates)

estate account

An account held in the name of a decedent that is administered by an executor or administrator of the estate. (Help With My Bank)

esthetics

An emotional judgment about what is beautiful or pleasing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

estimated cash recovery

(aka ECR) An estimate of the amount and timing of all future cash recoveries, direct expenses, and payment of any prior liens. An ECR is a projection of expected net cash flows and often is used in the process of valuing a nonperforming loan. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

estimated recovery value

(aka ERV) A mark-to-market valuation of an asset, determined by calculating the net present value of expected net cash flows. The RTC calculated an ERV for each asset that was assigned to the original SAMDA contracts. This method of valuation was similar in concept to the FDIC�s �net present value of the estimated cash recovery.� (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

estuarine��

The Estuarine System consists of deepwater tidal habitats and adjacent tidal wetlands that are usually semi-enclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed, or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. The salinity may be periodically increased above that of the open ocean by evaporation. Along some low-energy coastlines there is appreciable dilution of sea water. Offshore areas with typical estuarine plants and animals, such as red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), are also included in the Estuarine System. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

estuarine and lacustrine deepwater��

Subtidal waters below the extreme spring low tide mark in estuaries and tidal freshwater lakes and nontidal waters of lakes deeper than 2 m at annual low water; "deepwater" excludes the shallow water zone of lakes (lacustrine littoral wetlands). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

estuarine wetland

Wetlands occurring in the Estuarine System, one of five systems in the classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats (see Wetlands, Cowardin et al. 1979). Estuarine wetlands are tidal wetlands that are usually semienclosed by land but have open, partly obstructed or sporadic access to the open ocean, and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater runoff from the land. The most common example is where a river flows into the ocean. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

estuary

A complex ecosystem between a river and near-shore ocean waters where fresh and salt water mix. These brackish areas include bays, mouths of rivers, salt marshes, wetlands, and lagoons and are influenced by tides and currents. Estuaries provide valuable habitat for marine animals, birds, and other wildlife. (US EPA- Pesticides) The area of mixing of fresh water and salt water where a river flows into an ocean. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ethanol

A clear, colorless, flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78.5 �C in the anhydrous state. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (10 percent concentration). Ethanol can be used in high concentrations in vehicles optimized for its use. Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol, alcohol, or grain-spirit. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

ethanol-ethyl alcohol

(aka c2h5oh) A colorless liquid that is the product of fermentation used in alcoholic beverages, industrial processes, and as a fuel additive. Also known as grain alcohol. (US Dept of Energy)

ethyl tertiary butyl ether

(aka ETBE) A chemical compound produced in a reaction between ethanol and isobutylene (a petroleum-derived by-product of the refining process). ETBE has characteristics superior to other ethers: low volatility, low water solubility, high octane value, and a large reduction in carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. (US Dept of Energy)

eurodollars

Deposits denominated in U.S. dollars at banks and other financial institutions outside the United States. Although this name originated because of the large amounts of such deposits held at banks in Western Europe, similar deposits in other parts of the world are also called Eurodollars. (Federal Reserve Education) Deposits denominated in U.S. dollars at banks and other financial institutions outside the United States. Although this name originated because of the large amounts of such deposits held at banks in Western Europe, similar deposits in other parts of the world are also called Eurodollars. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

eutectic

A mixture of substances that has a melting point lower than that of any mixture of the same substances in other proportions. (US Dept of Energy)

eutectic salts

Salt mixtures with potential applications as solar thermal energy storage materials. (US Dept of Energy)

eutrophic

Nutrient enrichment of a body of water that contains more organic matter than existing biological oxidization processes can consume. A body of water which has become, either naturally or by pollution, rich in nutrients and often seasonally deficient in dissolved oxygen. Reservoirs and lakes which are rich in nutrients and very productive in terms of aquatic animal and plant life. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

eutrophic lake�

Lake that has a high concentration of plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

eutrophication

A process where more organic matter is produced than existing biological oxidization processes can consume. The increase in the nutrient levels of a lake or other body of water; this usually causes an increase in the growth of aquatic animal and plant life. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

evacuated-tube collector

A collector is the mechanism in which fluid (water or diluted antifreeze, for example) is heated by the sun in a solar hot water system. Evacuated-tube collectors are made up of rows of parallel, transparent glass tubes. Each tube consists of a glass outer tube and an inner tube, or absorber. The absorber is covered with a selective coating that absorbs solar energy well but inhibits radiative heat loss. The air is withdrawn ("evacuated") from the space between the tubes to form a vacuum, which eliminates conductive and convective heat loss. Evacuated-tube collectors are used for active solar hot water systems. (US Dept of Energy)

evacuation

The fifth of five Early Warning System components consisting of the plans, personnel, equipment, and facilities needed to move the population at risk to safety. It involves taking protective actions to leave an area of risk until the hazard has passed and the area is safe for return. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

evacuation warning

A public warning message that local officials would issue following declaration of Response Level III by personnel of the dam operating organization. The evacuation warning is intended to notify the population at risk to evacuate flood inundation areas. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

evaluation

A valuation permitted by the Agencies� appraisal regulations for transactions that qualify for the appraisal threshold exemption, business loan exemption, or subsequent transaction exemption. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A valuation required by the Agencies� appraisal regulations for certain transactions that are exempt from the regulations. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A valuation permitted by the Agencies� appraisal regulations for transactions that qualify for the appraisal threshold exemption, business loan exemption, or subsequent transaction exemption. (Interagency Appraisal and Evaluation Guidelines (December 2, 2010))

evaluation of alternatives

A synthesis of the information generated by an analysis in which judgments are made on the relative merits of alternative actions. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

evaporation

The process by which water is changed from the liquid or the solid state into the vapor state. In hydrology, evaporation is vaporization that takes place at a temperature below the boiling point. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Changing a liquid to a gas; for example, when water turns into steam or water vapor. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) The conversion of a liquid to a vapor (gas), usually by means of heat. (US Dept of Energy) Water vapor losses from water surfaces, sprinkler irrigation, and other related factors. Loss of water to the atmosphere. The process by which water is changed from a liquid into a vapor. Water from land areas, bodies of water, and all other moist surfaces is absorbed into the atmosphere as a vapor. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

evaporation opportunity (relative evaporation)

The ratio of the rate of evaporation from a land or water surface in contact with the atmosphere, to the evaporativity under existing atmospheric conditions. It is the ratio of actual to potential rate of evaporation, generally stated as a percentage. (Derived from Meinzer, 1923, p. 14.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

evaporation pan

An open tank used to contain water for measuring the amount of evaporation. The U.S. Weather Bureau class A pan is 4 feet in diameter, 10 inches deep, set up on a timber grillage so that the top rim is about 16 inches from the ground. The water level in the pan during the course of observation is maintained between 2 and 3 inches below the rim. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

evaporation, total

The sum of water lost from a given land area during any specific time by transpiration from vegetation and building of plant tissue; by evaporation from water surfaces, moist soil, and snow; and by interception. *** It has been variously termed "evaporation," "evaporation from land areas," "evapotranspiration," "total loss," "water losses," and "fly off." (Lee, 1949, p. 314.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

evaporative cooling

The physical process by which a liquid or solid is transformed into the gaseous state. For this process a mechanical device uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water that is held by pads inside the cooler. The heat is drawn out of the air through this process and the cooled air is blown into the home by the cooler's fan. (US Dept of Energy)

evaporativity (potential rate of evaporation)

The rate of evaporation under the existing atmospheric conditions from a surface of water that is chemically pure and has the temperature of the atmosphere. (Meinzer, 1923, p. 13.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

evaporator coil

The inner coil in a heat pump that, during the cooling mode, absorbs heat from the inside air and boils the liquid refrigerant to a vapor, which cools the house. (US Dept of Energy)

evapotranspiration

Water withdrawn from a land area by evaporation from water surfaces and moist soil and plant transpiration. It is a coined word; probably the first recorded use is on page 296 of the Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, part 2, 1934. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The quantity of water transpired by plants or evaporated from adjacent soil surfaces in a specific time period. Usually expressed in depth of water per unit area. The combined processes of evaporation and transpiration. It can be defined as the sum of water used by vegetation and water lost by evaporation. A collective term that includes water discharged to the atmosphere as a result of evaporation from the soil and surface water and as a result of plant transpiration. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

evapotranspiration, potential

See Potential evapotranspiration. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

evergreen stand�

A plant community where evergreen trees or shrubs represent more than 50% of the total areal coverage of trees and shrubs. The canopy is never without foliage; however, individual trees or shrubs may shed their leaves (Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg 1974). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

eviction

The legal act of removing someone from real property. (Federal Trade Commission)

examination of title

The investigation and interpretation of the record title to real property based on the title search or abstract. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The report on the title of a property from the public records or an abstract of the title. (HardwickAssociates)

examination report

A written report that documents the condition of the facility during the examination, operation and maintenance activities accomplished since the last examination, and recommendations necessary for the continued safe and efficient operation of the facility. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

examine

To test the state or condition of; inspect or analyze carefully. (Federal Reserve Education)

excavation

The action or process of excavating (to dig or remove earth). See common excavation, rock excavation, and unclassified excavation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

excepted service

A term used to refer to positions in the civil service that are specifically excluded from the requirements of the Civil Service Act. Usually identified as "Schedule A", "Schedule B", or "Schedule C" appointments. (Ginnie Mae)

excepted service appointment

A term used to refer to positions in the civil service that are specifically excluded from the requirements of the Civil Service Act. Usually identified as "Schedule A", "Schedule B", or "Schedule C" appointments. (Ginnie Mae)

exception

In legal descriptions, that portion of land to be deleted or excluded. The term often is used in a different sense to mean an objection to title or encumbrance on title. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

exception hold

A period of time that allows the banks to exceed the maximum hold periods defined in the Expedited Funds Availability Act. (Help With My Bank)

excess capacity

Power generation capacity available on a short-term basis that exceeds the firm energy on a long-term contract offered to an electricity customer. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

excess land

Irrigable land, other than exempt land, owned by any landowner in excess of the maximum ownership entitlement under applicable provision of Reclamation law. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

excess reserves

Amount of reserves held by an institution in excess of its reserve requirement and required clearing balance. Also see reserves. (Federal Reserve Education)

excessive rainfall

See Rainfall, excessive. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

exchange capacity

The capacity to exchange ions as measured by the quantity of exchangeable ions in a soil or rock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

exchange rate

The price of a country's currency in terms of another country's currency. (Federal Reserve Education)

excitation

The power required to energize the magnetic field of a generator. (US Dept of Energy)

exclusive agency listing

A listing agreement under which a real estate broker (known as the listing broker) acts as an exclusive agent to sell the property for the property owner, but may be paid a reduced or no commission when the property is sold if, for example, the property owner rather than the listing broker finds the buyer. This kind of listing agreement can be used to provide the owner a limited range of real estate brokerage services rather than the traditional full range. As with other kinds of listing agreements, if a second real estate broker (known as a selling broker) finds the buyer for the property, then some commission will be paid to the selling broker. (Federal Trade Commission)

exclusive flood control capacity

The reservoir capacity assigned to the sole purpose of regulating flood inflows to reduce flood damage downstream. In some instances, the top of exclusive flood control capacity is above the maximum controllable water surface elevation. See flood control capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

exclusive listing

A written contract giving a real estate agent the exclusive right to sell a property for a specific timeframe. (US Dept of HUD) An agreement between the owner of a property and a real estate agent giving the agent exclusive right to sell the property. (HardwickAssociates)

exclusive right-to-sell listing

The traditional kind of listing agreement under which the property owner appoints a real estate broker (known as the listing broker) as exclusive agent to sell the property on the owner�s stated terms, and agrees to pay the listing broker a commission when the property is sold, regardless of whether the buyer is found by the broker, the owner or another broker. This is the kind of listing agreement that is commonly used by a listing broker to provide the traditional full range of real estate brokerage services. If a second real estate broker (known as a selling broker) finds the buyer for the property, then some commission will be paid to the selling broker. (Federal Trade Commission)

executive committee

A decision-making body of the FRBSF comprised of a number of the Bank�s senior officers, the Committee and its six satellite committees were established in 1995 to replace the smaller, more centralized Management Committee. The revised committee structure was intended to decentralize decision-making and promote increased information-sharing and teambuilding Districtwide. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

executive order

A declaration issued by the president or by a governor that has the force of law. Executive Orders are usually based on existing statutory authority and require no action by Congress or the state legislature to become effective. At the federal level, Executive Orders are published in the Federal Register as they are issued, and then in Statutes at Large and title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations each year. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

executor

A person named in a will and approved by a probate court to administer the deposition of an estate in accordance with the instructions of the will. (Federal Trade Commission) A person appointed by the probate court to carry out the terms of a will. The term is "executrix" if that person is a woman. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The person named in a will to administer the estate. (HardwickAssociates)

executory contract or lease

Generally includes contracts or leases under which both parties to the agreement have duties remaining to be performed. (If a contract or lease is executory, a debtor may assume it or reject it.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

exempt commercial market

An electronic trading facility that trades exempt commodities on a principal-to-principal basis solely between persons that are eligible commercial entities. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

exempt land

Irrigation land in a district to which the acreage limitation and pricing provisions of Reclamation law do not apply. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

exempt wholesale generator

An unregulated subsidiary of a power provider that is allowed to generate and sell wholesale power as an independent energy producer, and is exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935. (US Dept of Energy)

exempted security

A security that is exempted from most provisions of the securities laws, including the margin rules. Such securities include U.S. government and agency securities, and municipal securities designated by the SEC. (Federal Reserve Education)

exemptions, exempt property

Certain property owned by an individual debtor that the Bankruptcy Code or applicable state law permits the debtor to keep from unsecured creditors. For example, in some states the debtor may be able to exempt all or a portion of the equity in the debtor's primary residence (homestead exemption), or some or all "tools of the trade" used by the debtor to make a living (i.e., auto tools for an auto mechanic or dental tools for a dentist). The availability and amount of property the debtor may exempt depends on the state the debtor lives in. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

exfiltration

Uncontrolled outward air leakage from inside a building, including leakage through cracks and interstices around windows and doors and through any other exterior partition or penetration. (Energycodes.gov)

exhaust ventilation

Mechanical removal of air from a portion of a building (e.g., piece of equipment, room, or general area). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

existence value

Value people place on simply knowing an area or feature continues to exist in a particular condition. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

existing building

A building or portion thereof that was previously occupied or approved for occupancy by the authority having jurisdiction. (Energycodes.gov)

existing equipment

Equipment previously installed in an existing building. (Energycodes.gov)

existing ground

The earth's surface as it is prior to any work. See original ground surface. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

existing system

A system or systems previously installed in an existing building. (Energycodes.gov)

exit channel

See outlet channel. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

exit conference

A discussion following a facility review examination involving examination team members and interested representatives of the water uses, project, and region. The topics of discussion include the overall condition of the facility, any recommendations made as a result of the examination, and any other pertinent topics. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

exit fee

A fee required by statute to be paid to the Savings Association Insurance Fund (or the Financing Corporation, as determined by the secretary of the Treasury) when an insured depository institution participates in a conversion transaction wherein insured deposits are transferred from a SAIF member to a BIF member. The exit fee assessed in connection with a conversion from SAIF to BIF is the amount derived by multiplying the dollar amount of deposits transferred from SAIF to BIF by .90 percent. The exit fee assessed in connection with a conversion from BIF to SAIF is the amount derived by multiplying the dollar amount of the retained deposit base transferred from BIF to SAIF by .01 percent. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

exothermic

A reaction or process that produces heat; a combustion reaction. (US Dept of Energy)

exotic species

A non-native species that is introduced into an area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

expanded polystyrene

A type of insulation that is molded or expanded to produce coarse, closed cells containing air. The rigid cellular structure provides thermal and acoustical insulation, strength with low weight, and coverage with few heat loss paths. Often used to insulate the interior of masonry basement walls. (US Dept of Energy)

expansion

The increase in volume of a soil mass. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

expansion joint

A separation between adjoining parts of a concrete structure which is provided to allow small relative movements, such as those caused by temperature changes, to occur independently. A flexible filler is provided in the joint, reinforcement does not pass through the joint. A joint that permits pipe to move as a result of expansion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

expansion tank

A tank used in a closed-loop solar heating system that provides space for the expansion of the heat transfer fluid in the pressurized collector loop. (US Dept of Energy)

expansion valve

The device that reduces the pressure of liquid refrigerant thereby cooling it before it enters the evaporator coil in a heat pump. (US Dept of Energy)

expansionary fiscal policy

A policy to increase governmental spending and/or a decrease in taxes. See also fiscal policy. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

expansionary monetary policy

A policy of the Federal Reserve System that is designed to expand the growth of money and credit in the economy. See also monetary policy. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

expected rate of inflation

The public's expectations for inflation. These expectations determine how large an effect a given policy action by the Fed will have on economic activity. (Federal Reserve Education)

expenditures

1) Actual cash (or electronic transfer) payments made to the States or other entities. Outlays are provided as reimbursement for the Federal share for approved highway program activities. 2) A term signifying disbursement of funds for repayment of obligations incurred. An electronic transfer of funds, or a check sent to a State highway or transportation agency for voucher payment, is an expenditure or outlay. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

expense constant

A flat fee formerly charged on each new and renewal policy, the Expense Constant was eliminated effective May 1, 2003, and no longer affects the premium calculation for new and renewal business. However, the Expense Constant may affect the calculation of refunds going back prior to May 1, 2003, for policy cancellations and endorsements. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

exploit

Excavate in such a manner as to utilize material in a particular vein or layer, and waste or avoid surrounding material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

explosive limits (chemical)

The amounts of vapor in air that form explosive mixtures. These limits are expressed as lower and upper values and give the range of vapor concentrations in air that will explode if an ignition source is present. (US EPA- Pesticides)

exports

��Shipments of goods from within the 50 States and the District of Columbia to U.S. possessions and territories or to foreign countries. (US Energy Information Administration)

exposure

The initial contact of the body with a substance. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Radiation or pollutants that come into contact with the body and present a potential health threat. The most common routes of exposure are through the skin, mouth, or by inhalation. (US EPA- Pesticides)

exposure time

Estimated length of time that the property interest being appraised would have been offered on the market prior to the hypothetical consummation of a sale at market value on the effective date of the appraisal. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) As defined in USPAP, the estimated length of time the property interest being appraised would have been offered on the market prior to the hypothetical consummation of a sale at market value on the effective date of the appraisal. Exposure time is always presumed to precede the effective date of the appraisal. Exposure time is a function of price, time, and use � not an isolated opinion of time alone. (See USPAP Standard 1-2(c) and Statement 6.) (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

expressway

A controlled access, divided arterial highway for through traffic, the intersections of which are usually separated from other roadways by differing grades. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

extended mortgage

One in which the due date of a mortgage is extended for a longer period, often at a higher interest rate than the original mortgage. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

extent of housing overcrowding

The number of housing units with 1.01 or more persons per room based on data compiled by the United States Bureau of the 19: Census and referable to the same point or period in time. (US Dept of HUD)

exterior lighting power allowance

The maximum lighting power in watts allowed for the exterior of a building. (Energycodes.gov)

exterior wall

An above-grade wall enclosing conditioned space. Includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof, and basement walls with an average below-grade wall area that is less than 50% of the total opaque and non-opaque area of that enclosing side. (Energycodes.gov)

external combustion engine

An engine in which fuel is burned (or heat is applied) to the outside of a cylinder; a Stirling engine. (US Dept of Energy)

externality

The environmental, social, and economic impacts of producing a good or service that are not directly reflected in the market price of the good or service. (US Dept of Energy)

extirpated species

A species which has become extinct in a given area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

extraction loss

��See Natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) production. (US Energy Information Administration)

extrados

The curved upstream surface of horizontal arch elements in an arch dam. See intrados. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

extraordinary assumption

An assumption, directly related to a specific assignment, as of the effective date of the assignment results, which, if found to be false, could alter the appraiser�s opinions or conclusions. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) As defined in USPAP, an assumption, directly related to a specific assignment, which, if found to be false, could alter the appraiser�s opinions or conclusions regarding the property�s market value. An example of an extraordinary assumption is when an appraiser assumes that an application for a zoning change will be approved and there is no evidence to suggest otherwise. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

extrapolation

Estimation of unknown values by extending or projecting from known values. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

extreme high water of spring tides�

The highest tide occurring during a lunar month, usually near the new or full moon. This is equivalent to extreme higher high water of mixed semidiurnal tides. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

extreme low water of spring tides�

The lowest tide occurring during a lunar month, usually near the new or full moon. This is equivalent to extreme lower low water of mixed semidiurnal tides. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

extruded polystyrene

A type of insulation material with fine, closed cells, containing a mixture of air and refrigerant gas. This insulation has a high R-value, good moisture resistance, and high structural strength compared to other rigid insulation materials. (US Dept of Energy)

exudates

Soluble sugars, amino acids and other compounds secreted by roots. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)