C&R's

See "Conditions and Restrictions ." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

CABO

The Council of American Building Officials. (Energycodes.gov)

caboose

A car in a freight train intended to provide transportation for crew members. (49CFR223) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

cage

The component of an electric motor composed of solid bars (of usually copper or aluminum) arranged in a circle and connected to continuous rings at each end. This cage fits inside the stator in an induction motor in channels between laminations, thin flat discs of steel in a ring configuration. (US Dept of Energy)

cairn

A pile of stones used as a marker. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

caisson

A box or chamber used in construction work under water. A structure or chamber which is usually sunk or lowered by digging from the inside. Used to gain access to the bottom of a stream or other body of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

calcareous�

Formed of calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate by biological deposition or inorganic precipitation in sufficient quantities to effervesce carbon dioxide visibly when treated with cold 0.1 normal hydrochloric acid. Calcareous sands are usually formed of a mixture of fragments of mollusk shell, echinoderm spines and skeletal material, coral, foraminifera, and algal platelets (e.g., Halimeda). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

calcite

Light-colored mineral composed of calcium carbonate that often fills veins in igneous rocks and forms the sedimentary rock limestone. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

caldera (crater)

Large circular depression formed by explosion or collapse of a volcano. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

calendar year

The period of time between January 1 and December 31 of any given year. (DOE6) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

California Economic Development Lending Initiative

(aka CEDLI) This is a statewide community development corporation that provides financing to serve a range of community economics development needs, including small businesses, non-profit lenders, and community real estate projects. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

call option

A clause in a mortgage which allows the lender to demand payment of the outstanding balance at a specific time. (HardwickAssociates)

callable debt

A debt security whose issuer has the right to redeem the security at a specified price on or after a specified date, but prior to its stated final maturity. (US Dept of HUD)

calorie

The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit of water, at or near the temperature of maximum density, one degree Celsius (or Centigrade [C]); expressed as a "small calorie" (the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water one degree C), or as a "large calorie" or "kilogram calorie" (the amount of heat required to raise one kilogram [1,000 grams] of water one degree C); capitalization of the word calorie indicates a kilogram-calorie. (US Dept of Energy)

calorific value

The heat liberated by the combustion of a unit quantity of a fuel under specific conditions; measured in calories. (US Dept of Energy)

camber

The extra height added to the crest of embankment dams to ensure that the freeboard will not be diminished by foundation settlement or embankment consolidation. The amount of camber is different for each dam and is dependent on the amount of foundation settlement and embankment expected to occur. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

canal

A channel, usually open, that conveys water by gravity to farms, municipalities, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

canal headworks

The beginning of a canal. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

canal prism

The shape of the canal as seen in cross section. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

canceled check

A check that a bank has paid, charged to the account holder's account, and then endorsed. Once canceled, a check is no longer negotiable. (Help With My Bank)

cancellation

The termination of the insurance coverage provided by a policy before the expiration date. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

candela

The luminous intensity, in a given direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 � 1012 hertz and that has a radiant intensity in that direction of 1/683 watt per steradian. (US Dept of Energy)

candelabra base

A small screw base typically used in small or decorative fixtures such as nightlights and chandeliers. (Energy Star.gov)

candidate species

Plant or animal species that are candidates for designation as endangered (in danger of becoming extinct) or threatened (likely to become endangered), but is undergoing status review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

candle power

The illuminating power of a standard candle employed as a unit for determining the illuminating quality of an illuminant. (US Dept of Energy)

cantilever

A projecting beam or joist, not supported at one end, used to support an extension of a structure. (Publications- USA.gov)

cap

A limit in how much an Adjustable Rate Mortgage's monthly payment or interest rate can increase. A Cap is meant to protect the borrower from large increases and may be a payment Cap, an interest Cap, a life-of-loan Cap or an annual Cap. A payment Cap is a limit on the monthly payment. An interest Cap is a limit on the amount of the interest rate. A life-of-loan Cap restricts the amount the interest rate can increase over the entire term of the loan. An annual Cap limits the amount the interest rate can increase over a twelve-month period. (Ginnie Mae) For an adjustable-rate mortgage (ARM), a limitation on the amount the interest rate or mortgage payments may increase or decrease. See also �Lifetime Payment Cap,� �Lifetime Rate Cap,� �Periodic Payment Cap,� and �Periodic Rate Cap.� (Federal Trade Commission) A limit placed on adjustments in adjustable rate mortgages to protect the borrower from large increases in the interest rate or the payment level. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A limit, such as one placed on an adjustable rate mortgage, on how much a monthly payment or interest rate can increase or decrease, either at each adjustment period or during the life of the mortgage. Payment caps do not limit the amount of interest the lender is earning, so they may cause negative amortization. (US Dept of HUD) Associated with Adjustable Rate Mortgages. A limit on how high monthly payments or how much interest rates may change within a certain time period or the life of the mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

cap, interest rate

A limit on the amount that your interest rate can increase. The two types of interest rate caps are periodic adjustment caps and lifetime caps. Periodic adjustment caps limit the interest-rate increase from one adjustment period to the next. Lifetime caps limit the interest-rate increase over the life of the loan. All adjustable-rate mortgages have an overall cap. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages)

cap, payment

A limit on the amount that your monthly mortgage payment on a loan may change, usually a percentage of the loan. The limit can be applied each time the payment changes or during the life of the mortgage. Payment caps may lead to negative amortization because they do not limit the amount of interest the lender is earning. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages)

capability

The maximum load that a generating unit, power plant, or other electrical apparatus can carry under specified conditions for a given period of time, without exceeding its approved limits of temperature and stress. (US Dept of Energy)

capability class

The broadest category in the system. Class codes I to VIII indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower choices for agriculture. The numbers are used to represent both irrigated and nonirrigated land capability. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

capability margin

The difference between net electrical system capability and system maximum load requirements (peak load); the margin of capability available to provide for scheduled maintenance, emergency outages, system operating requirements and unforeseen loads. (US Dept of Energy)

capability subclass

The second category in the system. Class codes e (erosion problems), w (wetness problems), s (root zone limitations), and c (climatic limitations) are used for land capability subclasses. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

capable fault

An active fault that is judged capable of producing macro-earthquakes and exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: (1) Movement at or near the ground surface at least once within the past 35,000 years. (2) Macroseismicity (3.5 magnitude Richter or greater) instrumentally determined with records of sufficient precision to demonstrate a direct relationship with the fault. (3) A structural relationship to a capable fault such that movement on one fault could be reasonably expected to cause movement on the other. (4) Established patterns of microseismicity that define a fault, with historic macroseismicity that can reasonably be associated with that fault. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capacitance

A measure of the electrical charge of a capacitor consisting of two plates separated by an insulating material. (US Dept of Energy)

capacitor

An electrical device that adjusts the leading current of an applied alternating current to balance the lag of the circuit to provide a high power factor. (US Dept of Energy)

capacity

Your ability to make your mortgage payments on time. This depends on your income and income stability (job history and security), your assets and savings, and the amount of your income each month that is left over after you've paid for your housing costs, debts and other obligations. (Freddie Mac) Your ability to make your mortgage payments on time. This depends on your income and income stability (job history and security), your assets and savings, and the amount of your income each month that is left over after you�ve paid for your housing costs, debts and other obligations. (Federal Trade Commission) A person's ability (present and future) to meet financial obligations. (Federal Reserve Education) The ability to make mortgage payments on time, dependant on assets and the amount of income each month after paying housing costs, debts and other obligations. (US Dept of HUD) A transportation facility's ability to accommodate a moving stream of people or vehicles in a given time period. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) The load that a power generation unit or other electrical apparatus or heating unit is rated by the manufacture to be able to meet or supply. (US Dept of Energy) In power terminology, the load for which a generator, transmission line, or system is rated, expressed in kilowatts. The amount of electric power delivered or required for which a generator, turbine, transformer, transmission circuit, station, or system is rated by the manufacturer. The maximum load that a machine, station, or system can carry under existing service conditions. Equivalent terms: peak capability, peak generation, firm peak load, carrying capability. In transmission, the maximum load a transmission line is capable of carrying. See excess capacity and peaking capacity. Also refers to powerplant generation capability under specific operating conditions and the amount of marketable resource under such conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capacity (condensing unit)

The refrigerating effect in Btu/h produced by the difference in total enthalpy between a refrigerant liquid leaving the unit and the total enthalpy of the refrigerant vapor entering it. Generally measured in tons or Btu/h. (US Dept of Energy)

capacity (effective, of a motor)

The maximum load that a motor is capable of supplying. (US Dept of Energy)

capacity (heating, of a material)

The amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of a given mass of a substance by one degree Celsius. The heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius is 4186 Joules. (US Dept of Energy)

capacity and infrastructure programs

Programs that improve overall effectiveness and ability. Some important Capacity and Infrastructure Programs include Hatch funds for State Agricultural Experiment Stations, McIntire-Stennis funds for forestry research, and Smith-Lever funds for cooperative extension. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

capacity factor

The ratio of the average load on (or power output of) a generating unit or system to the capacity rating of the unit or system over a specified period of time. (US Dept of Energy)

capacity utilization rate

The percentage of the economy's total plant and equipment that is currently in production. Usually, a decrease in this percentage signals an economic slowdown, while an increase signals economic expansion. (Federal Reserve Education)

cape cod colonial

A single-story house style made popular in New England. Often characterized by a steep roof with gables. (HardwickAssociates)

capillary action (capillarity)

The rise or movement of water in the interstices of a soil or rock due to capillary forces. The process by which water rises through rock, sediment or soil caused by the cohesion between water molecules and an adhesion between water and other materials that pulls the water upward. A property of surface tension that draws water upwards. See capillary movement. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary attraction (capillary force)

The tendency of water to move into fine spaces, as between soil particles, regardless of gravity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary forces

The molecular forces which cause the movement of water through very small spaces. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary fringe zone

The zone above the free water elevation in which water is held by capillary action. The porous material just above the water table which may hold water by capillarity in the smaller void spaces. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary head

The potential, expressed in head of water, that causes the water to flow by capillary action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary migration (capillary flow)

The movement of water by capillary action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary movement

Movement of underground water in response to capillary attraction. See capillary action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary rise

The height above a free water elevation to which water will rise by capillary action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capillary water

Underground water held above the water table by capillary attraction. Water subject to the influence of capillary action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capital

A person's savings and other assets, which can be used as collateral for loans. (Federal Reserve Education) Accumulated goods and money which is most often used to generate additional income. (HardwickAssociates)

capital assets management earnings liquidity sensitivity (camels)

Rating system used by Federal Reserve examiners to help measure the safety and soundness of a bank. (Federal Reserve Education)

capital costs

The amount of money needed to purchase equipment, buildings, tools, and other manufactured goods that can be used in production. (US Dept of Energy) Costs (usually long-term debt) of financing construction and equipment. Capital costs are usually fixed, one-time expenses which are independent of the amount of water produced. All the implements, equipment, machinery and inventory used in the production of goods and services. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capital expenditure

An outlay of funds designed to improve the income-producing capabilities of an asset or to extend its economic life. (HardwickAssociates)

capital forbearance

The temporary permission for a bank or thrift to operate with capital levels below regulatory standards if the bank or thrift has adequate plans to restore capital. For example, banks suffering because of the energy and agricultural crises in the mid-1980s were permitted to operate with capital levels below regulatory standards if they had adequate plans to restore capital. A joint policy statement issued in March 1986 by the FDIC, the OCC, and the Federal Reserve Board encouraged a capital forbearance program for agricultural banks. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

capital gain

The profit received based on the difference of the original purchase price and the total sale price. (US Dept of HUD)

capital gains or losses, other

Gains or losses on no operating assets, investments in other than marketable equity securities, and troubled debt restructuring. (BTS4) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

capital improvements

Property improvements that either will enhance the property value or will increase the useful life of the property. (US Dept of HUD)

capital investment

A general term used to identify any money amount which is to be considered as an investment as opposed to an annual expense. Can be either interest bearing or non interest bearing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

capital loss coverage

A form of aid in assistance transactions that provided for a payment equal to the difference between an asset�s original value (book value) and the proceeds received when the asset was sold. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

capital market

The market in which corporate equity and longer-term debt securities (those maturing in more than one year) are issued and traded. (Federal Reserve Education)

capital market rates

See long-term interest rates. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

capital or cash reserves

An individual's savings, investments, or assets. (US Dept of HUD)

capital program funds

Financial assistance from the Capital Program of 49 U.S.C. This program enables the Secretary of Transportation to make discretionary capital grants and loans to finance public transportation projects divided among fixed guideway (rail) modernization; construction of new fixed guideway systems and extensions to fixed guideway systems; and replacement, rehabilitation, and purchase of buses and rented equipment, and construction of bus-related facilities. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

capital stress test

Stress tests used to gauge the impact of a change in economic environment on the capital position of financial institutions. In Spring 2009, for example, federal banking regulators conducted stress tests on the capital positions of large complex banking institutions to insure they held sufficient capital to weather credit losses expected during the ongoing recession. (National Credit Union Administration)

capped entitlement

Under an entitlement program, eligible individuals must be allowed to participate, regardless of the cost. Agricultural examples include loan deficiency payments and marketing loan gains. Capped entitlements are entitlement programs with spending ceilings ("capped spending"). However, because they are still entitlements, and anyone who is eligible can participate, stringent eligibility requirements are used to limit participation to the number of individuals or farms for which funds are available. For example, the Conservation Security Program is open to all farms that are located in a watershed there the program is offered in a given year and meet all other eligibility criteria. Once available funds are expended, however, enrollment is suspended. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

carbon dioxide

A colorless, odorless, and tasteless product of combustion. All combustion processes and human metabolic processes are sources of CO2. Concentrations of CO2 from people are always present in all occupied buildings, and at concentrations normally found in buildings, CO2 is not a health hazard. (US Environmental Protection Agency) A colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas which results from combustion of fuels. It is often associated with combustion heating devices (e.g. boilers, furnaces) and auto, truck, or bus exhaust from attached garages, nearby roads, or parking areas. At moderate concentrations, angina, impaired vision, and reduced brain function may result. At higher concentrations, CO exposure can be fatal. (US Environmental Protection Agency) 1) A fluid consisting of more than 90 percent carbon dioxide molecules compressed to a supercritical state. (49CFR195) 2) A colorless, odorless gas. It is not a liquid under standard temperature and pressure. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A colorless, odorless, highly toxic gas that is a normal by-product of incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Carbon monoxide, one of the major air pollutants, can be harmful in small amounts if breathed over a certain period of time. (DOE6) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A colorless, odorless noncombustible gas with the formula CO2 that is present in the atmosphere. It is formed by the combustion of carbon and carbon compounds (such as fossil fuels and biomass), by respiration, which is a slow combustion in animals and plants, and by the gradual oxidation of organic matter in the soil. (US Dept of Energy) A colorless, odorless but poisonous combustible gas with the formula CO. Carbon monoxide is produced in the incomplete combustion of carbon and carbon compounds such as fossil fuels (i.e. coal, petroleum) and their products (e.g. liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline), and biomass. (US Dept of Energy)

carbon zinc cell battery

A cell produces electric energy by the galvanic oxidation of carbon; commonly used in household appliances. (US Dept of Energy)

carcinogen or carcinogenic

Capable of causing cancer. A suspected carcinogen is a substance that may cause cancer in humans or animals but for which the evidence is not conclusive. (US EPA- Pesticides)

card issuer

A person that issues a credit card or that person's agent with respect to the card. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

cardholder

A natural person to whom a credit card is issued for consumer credit purposes, or a natural person who has agreed with the card issuer to pay consumer credit obligations arising from the issuance of credit card to another natural person. For purposes of ��226.12(a) and (b), the term includes any person to whom a credit card is issued for any purpose, including business, commercial or agricultural use, or a person who has agreed with the card issuer to pay obligations arising from the issuance of such a credit card to another person. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

carnivore

Any flesh-eating or predatory organism. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

carnot cycle

An ideal heat engine (conceived by Sadi Carnot) in which the sequence of operations forming the working cycle consists of isothermal expansion, adiabatic expansion, isothermal compression, and adiabatic compression back to its initial state. (US Dept of Energy)

carpool

An arrangement where two or more people share the use and cost of privately owned automobiles in traveling to and from pre-arranged destinations together. (ATPA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

carriage

The member which supports the steps or treads of a stair. (Publications- USA.gov)

carry over

The quantity of water which continues past an inlet. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cartography

Art and science of graphically representing the features of the Earth's surface; synonymous with map making. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

casement

A window sash that opens on hinges at the vertical edge. (Publications- USA.gov)

cash

Payment for goods or services in the form of coin or currency. (Federal Reserve Education) Money or its equivalent (checks, banknotes, etc.). (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

cash flow

Money coming to an individual or business less money being paid out during a given period. (Federal Reserve Education)

cash management bills

(aka CMB) Very short maturity bills that the Treasury sells on an irregular basis to bridge low points in the Treasury�s cash balance. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

cash method of accounting

A system, used especially in computing income tax, in which income is not credited until it is actually or constructively received and expenses are not charged until they have been paid; to be distinguished from the accrual method, in which income is credited when the legal right to the income occurs and expenses are charged when the legal liability becomes enforceable. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

cash price

The price at which a creditor, in the ordinary course of business, offers to sell for cash property or service that is the subject of the transaction. At the creditor's option, the term may include the price of accessories, services related to the sale, service contracts and taxes and fees for license, title, and registration. The term does not include any finance charge. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

cash reserves

A cash amount sometimes required of the buyer to be held in reserve in addition to the down payment and closing costs; the amount is determined by the lender. (US Dept of HUD)

cashier's check

A check drawn on the funds of the bank, not against the funds in a depositor's account. However, the depositor paid for the cashier's check with funds from their account. The primary benefit of a cashier's check is that the recipient of the check is assured that the funds are available. (Help With My Bank)

cash-out refinance

A refinance transaction in which the borrower receives additional funds over and above the amount needed to repay the existing mortgage, closing costs, points, and any subordinate liens. (Federal Trade Commission) When a borrower refinances a mortgage at a higher principal amount to get additional money. Usually this occurs when the property has appreciated in value. For example, if a home has a current value of $100,000 and an outstanding mortgage of $60,000, the owner could refinance $80,000 and have additional $20,000 in cash. (US Dept of HUD) Refinancing a mortgage at a higher amount than the current balance in order to transform a portion of the equity into cash. (HardwickAssociates)

casing

Door and window framing. (Publications- USA.gov) A pipe lining for a drilled hole. The material that is installed in wells to prevent the collapse of the walls of the bore hole, to prevent pollutants from entering the well, and to house the pump and pipes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

casualty protection

Property insurance that covers any damage to the home and personal property either inside or outside the home. (US Dept of HUD)

catalytic converter

An air pollution control device that removes organic contaminants by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water through a chemical reaction using a catalysis, which is a substance that increases (or decreases) the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed itself; required in all automobiles sold in the United State, and used in some types of heating appliances. (US Dept of Energy)

catastrophe

A sudden and great disaster causing misfortune, destruction, or irreplaceable loss extensive enough to cripple activities in an area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

catastrophic coverage (CAT)

Minimum coverage level available under the Federal crop insurance program. CAT coverage is 50 percent of expected yield, indemnified at 55 percent of the price election. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

catch

At a recreational fishery, refers to the number of fish captured, whether they are kept or released. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

catchment area

See Drainage basin. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

catchment basin

Unit watershed; an area from which all the drainage water passes into one stream or other body of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cathedral ceiling/roof

A type of ceiling and roof assembly that has no attic. (US Dept of Energy)

cathode

The negative pole or electrode of an electrolytic cell, vacuum tube, etc., where electrons enter (current leaves) the system; the opposite of an anode. (US Dept of Energy) The negative pole or electrode of an electrolytic cell or system. The cathode attracts positively charged particles or ions (cations). See anode. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cathode disconnect ballast

An electromagnetic ballast that disconnects a lamp's electrode heating circuit once is has started; often called "low frequency electronic" ballasts. (US Dept of Energy)

cathodic protection

A method of preventing oxidation of the exposed metal in structures by imposing between the structure and the ground a small electrical voltage. (US Dept of Energy) An electrical system for prevention of rust, corrosion, and pitting of metal surfaces which are in contact with water or soil. A low-voltage current is made to flow through a liquid (water) or a soil in contact with the metal in such a manner that the external electromotive force renders the metal structure cathodic. This concentrates corrosion on auxiliary anodic parts which are deliberately allowed to corrode instead of letting the structure corrode. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cation

A positively charged ion in an electrolyte solution, attracted to the cathode under the influence of a difference in electrical potential. See anion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cation exchange capacity

(aka CEC) The capacity of soil to hold nutrients for plant use. Specifically, CEC is the amount of negative charges available on clay and humus to hold positively charged ions. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) is reported for acid soils (pH<5). Expressed as centimoles of charge per kilogram of soil (cmolc/kg). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

caulk

The material used to seal joints. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

caulking

A pliable material used to seal cracks or openings such as around windows. (HardwickAssociates) A material used to seal areas of potential air leakage into or out of a building envelope. (US Dept of Energy)

caveat emptor

Literally translated: ''Let the buyer beware.'' A common business tenet whereby the buyer is responsible for verifying any and all claims by the seller of property. (HardwickAssociates)

cavitation

The formation of partial vacuums in fast-flowing water caused by subatmospheric pressures immediately downstream from an obstruction or offset. Usually accompanied by noise and vibration. The formation of voids or cavities caused in a liquid due to turbulence or temperature which causes the pressure in local zones of the liquid to fall below the vapor pressure. This happens on the backside of ship propellers, water turbines, blades in pumps, in high-velocity flow lines, and similar locations, depending on the design of equipment and degree of turbulence. The formation and collapse of a gas pocket or bubble on the blade of an impeller or the gate of a valve. The collapse of this gas pocket or bubble drives water into the impeller or gate with a terrific force that can cause pitting on the impeller or gate surface. Cavitation is accompanied by loud noises that sound like someone is pounding on the impeller or gate with a hammer. The attack on surfaces caused by subatmospheric pressures immediately downstream from an obstruction or offset. Usually accompanied by noise and vibration. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cavitation damage

Damage caused when partial vacuums formed in a liquid by a swiftly moving solid body (e.g. a propeller) pit and wear away solid surfaces (e.g. metal or concrete). The attack on surfaces caused by the implosion of bubbles of water vapor. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cavity insulation

Insulation installed between structural members such as wood studs, metal framing, and Z-clips. (Energycodes.gov)

cavity wall

A hollow wall formed by firmly linked masonry walls, providing an insulating air space between. (Publications- USA.gov)

CBSA

See Core-Based Statisical Area (US Dept of HUD)

CCT

Correlated color temperature (Energy Star.gov)

cd

Candela (Energy Star.gov)

CDBG

See Community Development Block Grant (US Dept of HUD)

CDC

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

CDD

Cooling degree day. See &quot;Cooling Degree Days.&quot; (Energycodes.gov)

CDD50

Cooling degree days base 50�F. See &quot;Degree Day Base 50F.&quot; (Energycodes.gov)

CE

Combustion efficiency. (Energycodes.gov)

cease and desist letter

A letter requesting that a company stops the activity mentioned in the letter. (Help With My Bank)

cease-and-desist order

An order issued after notice and opportunity for hearing, requiring a depository institution, a holding company or a depository institution official to terminate unlawful, unsafe or unsound banking practices. Cease-and-desist orders are issued by the appropriate federal regulatory agencies under the Financial Institutions Supervisory Act and can be enforced directly by the courts. (Federal Reserve Education)

ceiling

The ceiling requirements apply to portions of the roof and/or ceiling through which heat flows. Ceiling components include the interior surface of flat ceilings below attics, the interior surface of cathedral or vaulted ceilings, skylights, and sloped building assemblies less than 60 degrees from horizontal, but excluding skylight shafts. (Energycodes.gov) The downward facing structural element that is directly opposite the floor. (US Dept of Energy)

ceiling fan

A mechanical device used for air circulation and to provide cooling. (US Dept of Energy)

ceiling plenum

Space between a suspended ceiling and the floor above that may have mechanical and electrical equipment in it and that is used as part of the air distribution system. The space is usually designed to be under negative pressure. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Space below the flooring and above the suspended ceiling that accommodates the mechanical and electrical equipment and that is used as part of the air distribution system. The space is kept under negative pressure. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

cell

A component of a electrochemical battery. A 'primary' cell consists of two dissimilar elements, known as 'electrodes,' immersed in a liquid or paste known as the 'electrolyte.' A direct current of 1-1.5 volts will be produced by this cell. A 'secondary' cell or accumulator is a similar design but is made useful by passing a direct current of correct strength through it in a certain direction. Each of these cells will produce 2 volts; a 12 volt car battery contains six cells. (US Dept of Energy)

cellular gravity dam

See hollow gravity dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cellulase

An enzyme complex, produced by fungi and bacteria, capable of decomposing cellulose into small fragments, primarily glucose. (US Dept of Energy)

cellulose

The fundamental constituent of all vegetative tissue; the most abundant material in the world. (US Dept of Energy)

cellulose insulation

A type of insulation composed of waste newspaper, cardboard, or other forms of waste paper. (US Dept of Energy)

celsius (C), (�C)

Unit of temperature. Degrees Celsius equals (5/9)x(degrees Fahrenheit-32). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Census

The complete enumeration of a population or groups at a point in time with respect to well-defined characteristics for example, population,production, traffic on particular roads. In some connection the term is associated with the data collected rather than the extent of the collection so that the term sample Census has a distinct meaning. The partial enumeration resulting from a failure to cover the whole population, as distinct from a designed sample enquiry, may be referred to as an &quot;incomplete Census.&quot; (DOE5) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Census division

A geographic area consisting of several States defined by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. The States are grouped into nine divisions and four regions. (DOE4) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Census tract

A small, relatively permanent statistical subdivision of a county or statistically equivalent entity, delineated for data presentation purposes by a local group of Census data users or the geographic staff of a regional Census center in accordance with Census Bureau guidelines. (US Dept of HUD)

Census tract number

A four-digit basic number, followed by an optional two-digit decimal suffix, used to uniquely identify a Census tract within a county or statistically equivalent entity. (US Dept of HUD)

central air handling unit, or central AHU

This is the same as an Air Handling Unit, but serves more than one area. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

central bank

The principal monetary authority of a nation, which performs several key functions, including issuing currency and regulating the supply of credit in the economy. The Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States. (Federal Reserve Education)

central bank intervention

The buying or selling of currency, foreign or domestic, by central banks in order to influence market conditions or exchange rate movements. (Federal Reserve Education)

central flyway

An important international migration route for many birds. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

central heating system

A system where heat is supplied to areas of a building from a single appliance through a network of ducts or pipes. (US Dept of Energy)

central liquidity facility

The Central Liquidity Facility (CLF) was created by Congress in 1979 to improve the general financial stability of the credit union industry by meeting the liquidity needs of individual credit unions. This proved stability encourages savings, supports consumer and mortgage lending, and helps provide basic financial resources to all segments of the economy. Credit unions needed their own source of funds to meet their liquidity needs in the same way that the Federal Reserve System �discount window� provided access to loans for banks. In practice, the CLF was created to serve as a back?up source of liquidity for both Federal and state?chartered credit unions. (National Credit Union Administration)

central power plant

A large power plant that generates power for distribution to multiple customers. (US Dept of Energy)

central receiver solar power plants

Also known as &quot;power towers,&quot; these use fields of two-axis tracking mirrors known as heliostats. Each heliostat is individually positioned by a computer control system to reflect the sun's rays to a tower-mounted thermal receiver. The effect of many heliostats reflecting to a common point creates the combined energy of thousands of suns, which produces high-temperature thermal energy. In the receiver, molten nitrate salts absorb the heat energy. The hot salt is then used to boil water to steam, which is sent to a conventional steam turbine-generator to produce electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

centralized

To bring under a single, central authority. (Federal Reserve Education)

centrifugal pump

A pump that moves water by centrifugal force developed by rapid rotation of an impeller. A pump consisting of an impeller fixed on a rotating shaft that is enclosed in a casing, and having an inlet and discharge connection. As the rotating impeller whirls the water around, centrifugal force builds up enough pressure to force the water through the discharge outlet. The rotating impeller imparts energy to the water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

certificate of deposit (CD)

(aka CD) A document issued by a bank or other financial institution that is evidence of a deposit, with the issuer�s promise to return the deposit plus earnings at a specified interest rate within a specified time period. (Federal Trade Commission) A form of time deposit at a bank or savings institution; a time deposit cannot be withdrawn before a specified maturity date without being subject to an interest penalty for early withdrawal. Small-denomination CDs are often purchased by individuals. Large CDs of $100,000 or more are often in negotiable form, meaning they can be sold or transferred among holders before maturity. (Federal Reserve Education) A negotiable instrument issued by a bank in exchange for funds, usually bearing interest, deposited with the bank. (Help With My Bank) A document showing that the bearer has a certain amount of money, at a particular amount interest, on deposit with a financial institution. (HardwickAssociates)

Certificate of Deposit index

An index based on the interest rate of six month CD's. Used to set interest rates on some Adjustable Rate Mortgages. (HardwickAssociates)

Certificate of Eligibility

A document issued by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) certifying a veteran�s eligibility for a VA-guaranteed mortgage loan. (Federal Trade Commission) A document issued by the Veterans Administration that certifies eligibility for a VA loan. (HardwickAssociates)

Certificate of Occupancy

Issued by an appropriate jurisdictional entity, this document certifies that a building complies with all building codes and is safe for use or habitation. (HardwickAssociates)

Certificate of Reasonable Value

(aka CRV) A Veterans Administration appraisal that establishes the maximum VA mortgage loan amount for a specified property. (Ginnie Mae) Usually based on an independent appraisal, a CRV for a particular property establishes the maximum amount which can be secured by a VA mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

Certificate of Release

A certificate signed by a lender indicating that a mortgage has been fully paid and all debts satisfied. (Help With My Bank)

Certificate of Title

A document rendering an opinion on the status of a property's title based on public records. (Ginnie Mae) A document provided by a qualified source, such as a title company, that shows the property legally belongs to the current owner; before the title is transferred at closing, it should be clear and free of all liens or other claims. (US Dept of HUD) A document designating the legal owner of a parcel of real estate. Usually provided by a title or abstract company. (HardwickAssociates)

Certification Acceptance

(aka CA) A procedure authorized by 23 U.S.C. 117(a) wherein the FHWA can delegate any of the 23 U.S.C. responsibilities for planning, design, and construction of projects, not on the Interstate System, to other qualified governmental entities. {This section of law was deleted in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. CA is being replaced by Stewardship Agreements. BIA area offices and ITGs may apply for Stewardship Agreements.} (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Certification of Public Road Mileage

An annual document (certification) that must be furnished by each state to Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) certifying the total public road mileage (kilometers) in the state as of December 31 of the preceding year. (FHWA2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

certification signature

Certification signatures are those of the persons who co-facilitated the risk analysis. These signatures signify that Reclamation methodology, processes, and requirements were followed. In addition, these signatures verify that qualifications of the persons making various probability estimates were appropriate. The purpose of endorsing qualifications is to reduce the potential for inappropriate estimates, or conflicts, arising from limited qualifications that might result in total rejection of risk analysis findings. Certification signatures also signify that the spirit of the risk analysis and team dynamics are represented by the document. In other words, any divergent views, critical issues or significant influencing factors have been captured. This is a check of the author's responsibility to fully capture and represent the team's thinking. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

certified applicator

A person who is authorized to apply �restricted-use� pesticides as result of meeting requirements for certification under FIFRA-mandated programs. Applicator certification programs are conducted by states, territories and tribes in accordance with national standards set by EPA. �Restricted use pesticides� may be used only by or under the direct supervision of specially trained and certified applicators. Combine with below (US EPA- Pesticides)

certified capacity

The capability of a pipeline project to move gas volumes on a given day, based on a specific set of flowing parameters (operating pressures, temperature, efficiency, and fluid properties) for the pipeline system as stated in the dockets filed (and subsequently certified) in the application for the Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Generally, the certificated capacity represents a level of service that can be maintained over an extended period of time and may not represent the maximum throughput capability of the system on any given day. (DOE1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

certified check

A check for which a bank guarantees payment. When the check is certified, it legally becomes an obligation of the banks, and the funds to cover it are immediately from the depositor's account. (Federal Reserve Education) A personal check drawn by an individual that is certified (guaranteed) to be good. The face of the check bears the words &quot;certified&quot; or &quot;accepted,&quot; and is signed by an official of the bank or thrift institution issuing the check. The signature signifies that�the signature of the drawer is genuine, and�sufficient funds are on deposit and earmarked for payment of the check. (Help With My Bank)

Certified General Appraiser

Generally, any professional who has met the local or state requirements, and passed the appropriate certification exam, and is capable of appraising any type of property. (HardwickAssociates)

certified historic structure

Same or similar to &quot;historic structure.&quot; See &quot;historic structure.&quot; (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

certified pesticide applicator

Any individual who is certified under Section 4 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) as authorized to use or supervise the use of any pesticide which is classified for restricted use. Any applicator who applies registered pesticides, only to provide a service of controlling pests without delivering any additional pesticide supplies,� is not deemed to be a seller or distributor of pesticides under FIFRA. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Certified Residential Appraiser

A sub-classification of appraiser who is only licensed to appraise residential property, usually up to four units. (HardwickAssociates)

certified water right

A State-issued document that serves as legal evidence that an approved application has been physically developed and the water put to beneficial use. The certificate establishes: priority date, type of beneficial use, and the maximum amount of water that can be used. Verification must be provided to the State through a survey conducted by an approved water-rights examiner. Even certified rights are subject to occasional review to ensure continued beneficial use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cetane number

A measure of a fuel's (liquid) ease of self-ignition. (US Dept of Energy)

C-factor

Time rate of steady-state heat flow through the unit area of a material or construction surfaces. Units of C-Factor are Btu/h x ft2 x degrees Fahrenheit. Note that the C-factor does not include soil or air films. (Energycodes.gov)

CFL

Compact fluorescent lamp (Energy Star.gov)

CFM

Cubic feet per minute. A standard measurement of air flow. (Energycodes.gov)

cfs

Abbreviation of cubic feet per second . (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

cfs-day

The volume of water represented by a flow of 1 cubic foot per second for 24 hours. It equals 86,400 cubic feet, 1.983471 acre-feet, or 646,317 gallons. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

chain

A term of land measurement that is 66 feet in length. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

chain of title

The history of all of the documents that have transferred title to a parcel of real property, starting with the earliest existing document and ending with the most recent. (Federal Trade Commission) A term applied to the past series of transactions and documents affecting the title to a particular parcel of land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The complete history of ownership of a piece of property. (HardwickAssociates)

chair rail

Wooden molding on a wall around a room at the level of a chair back. (Publications- USA.gov)

chamfer

To bevel or slope an edge or corner. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

chamfered edge

Molding with pared-off corners. (Publications- USA.gov)

change orders

A change in the original construction plans ordered by the property owner or general contractor. (Federal Trade Commission)

changed circumstances

(1)(i) Acts of God, war, disaster, or other emergency; (ii) Information particular to the borrower or transaction that was relied on in providing the GFE and that changes or is found to be inaccurate after the GFE has been provided. This may include information about the credit quality of the borrower, the amount of the loan, the estimated value of the property, or any other information that was used in providing the GFE; (iii) New information particular to the borrower or transaction that was not relied on in providing the GFE; or (iv) Other circumstances that are particular to the borrower or transaction, including boundary disputes, the need for flood insurance, or environmental problems. (2) Changed circumstances do not include: (i) The borrower�s name, the borrower�s monthly income, the property address, an estimate of the value of the property, the mortgage loan amount sought, and any information contained in any credit report obtained by the loan originator prior to providing the GFE, unless the information changes or is found to be inaccurate after the GFE has been provided; or (ii) Market price fluctuations by themselves. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

channel�

An open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically or continuously contains moving water, or which forms a connecting link between two bodies of standing water (Langbein and Iseri 1960:5). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

channel

Natural or artificial watercourse of perceptible extent, with a definite bed and banks to confine and conduct continuously or periodically flowing water. Rivers and streams. A general term for any natural or artificial facility for conveying water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

channel (watercourse)

An open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically or continuously contains moving water, or which forms a connecting link between two bodies of water. River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels. Natural channels may be single or braided (see Braiding of river channels) . Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

channel bank�

The sloping land bordering a channel. The bank has steeper slope than the bottom of the channel and is usually steeper than the land surrounding the channel. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

channel margin deposits

Narrow sand deposits which line channel banks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

channel storage

The volume of water at a given time in the channel or over the flood plain of the streams in a drainage basin or river reach. Channel storage is great during the progress of a flood event. (See Horton, 1935, p. 3.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

Chapter 11 (Bankruptcy)

The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing (generally) for reorganization, usually involving a corporation or partnership. (A chapter 11 debtor usually proposes a plan of reorganization to keep its business alive and pay creditors over time. People in business or individuals can also seek relief in chapter 11.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Chapter 12 (Bankruptcy)

The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for adjustment of debts of a &quot;family farmer,&quot; or a &quot;family fisherman&quot; as those terms are defined in the Bankruptcy Code. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Chapter 13 (Bankruptcy)

Adjustments of debts of an individual with regular income under the Federal Bankruptcy Code. Chapter 13 enables a debtor who is an individual to develop and perform a plan for the repayment of creditors over an extended period. The plan might provide for full or partial repayment. Chapter 13 allows the debtor to retain his or her property, unless he or she agrees otherwise in the plan. See Bankruptcy. (Federal Reserve Education) This type of bankruptcy sets a payment plan between the homeowner and the creditor monitored by the bankruptcy court. The homeowner can keep the property, but must make payments according to the court's terms within a three to five year period. (Making Home Affordable) This type of bankruptcy sets a payment plan between the borrower and the creditor monitored by the court. The homeowner can keep the property, but must make payments according to the court's terms within a 3 to 5 year period. (US Dept of HUD) The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for adjustment of debts of an individual with regular income. (Chapter 13 allows a debtor to keep property and pay debts over time, usually three to five years.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Chapter 15 (Bankruptcy)

The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code dealing with cases of cross-border insolvency. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Chapter 7 (Bankruptcy)

A provision of bankruptcy laws wherein a company is required to liquidate its assets to pay of its creditors. See Bankruptcy. (Federal Reserve Education) A bankruptcy that requires assets be liquidated in exchange for the cancellation of debt. (Making Home Affordable) A bankruptcy that requires assets be liquidated in exchange for the cancellation of debt. (US Dept of HUD) The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for &quot;liquidation,&quot;(i.e., the sale of a debtor's nonexempt property and the distribution of the proceeds to creditors.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Chapter 9 (Bankruptcy)

The chapter of the Bankruptcy Code providing for reorganization of municipalities (which includes cities and towns, as well as villages, counties, taxing districts, municipal utilities, and school districts). (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

char

A byproduct of low-temperature carbonization of a solid fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

character

A borrower's trustworthiness. (Federal Reserve Education)

charcoal

A material formed from the incomplete combustion or destructive distillation (carbonization) of organic material in a kiln or retort, and having a high energy density, being nearly pure carbon. (If produced from coal, it is coke.) Used for cooking, the manufacture of gunpowder and steel (notably in Brazil), as an absorbent and decolorizing agent, and in sugar refining and solvent recovery. (US Dept of Energy)

charge carrier

A free and mobile conduction electron or hole in a semiconductor. (US Dept of Energy)

charge controller

An electronic device that regulates the electrical charge stored in batteries so that unsafe, overcharge conditions for the batteries are avoided. (US Dept of Energy)

charge-off

The balance on a credit obligation that a lender no longer expects to be repaid and writes off as a bad debt. (Help With My Bank) A book value amount that was expensed as a loss before receivership and that continues to be a legal obligation of the borrower to the institution. A charge-off is technically an off-book memorandum accounting item that represents the book value of an asset that the bank or thrift previously wrote off. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) The portion of principal and interest due on a loan that is written off when deemed to be uncollectible. (US Dept of HUD)

charges by third parties

The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than the creditor, unless otherwise excluded under this section, if the creditor: (i) Requires the use of a third party as a condition of or an incident to the extension of credit, even if the consumer can choose the third party; or (ii) Retains a portion of the third-party charge, to the extent of the portion retained. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

charter bus

A bus transporting a group of persons who pursuant to a common purpose, and under a single contract at a fixed price, have acquired the exclusive use of a bus to travel together under an itinerary. (APTA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

chartering authority

A state or federal agency that grants charters to new depository institutions. For state chartered institutions, the chartering authority is usually the state banking department; for national banks, it is the OCC; and for federal savings institutions, it is the OTS. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

chase

A groove in a masonry wall or through a floor to accommodate pipes or ducts. (Publications- USA.gov)

chattel

Any personal property which is not attached to or an integral part of a property. Chattel is not commonly taken into consideration when appraising the value of real property. (HardwickAssociates)

chattel mortgage

A pledge of personal property as security for a debt. Also called a security interest or financing statement. For this survey, not a mortgage. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

check

A written order to a bank to pay the amount specified from funds on deposit. (Federal Reserve Education) A written order instructing a financial institution to pay immediately on demand a specified amount of money from the check writer's account to the person named on the check or, if a specific person is not named, to whoever bears the check to the institution for payment. (Help With My Bank)

Check 21 Act

Check 21 is a Federal law that is designed to enable banks to handle more checks electronically, which is intended to make check processing faster and more efficient. Check 21 is the short name for the Check Clearing for the 21st Century Act, which went into effect on October 28, 2004. (Help With My Bank)

check clearing

The movement of a check from the depository institution at which it was deposited back to the institution on which it was written; the movement of funds in the opposite direction and the corresponding credit and debit to the involved accounts. The Federal Reserve operates a nationwide check-clearing system. (Federal Reserve Education)

check dam

A small dam designed to retard the flow of water and sediment in a channel, used especially to control soil erosion. Small barrier constructed in a gully or other small watercourse to decrease flow velocity, minimize channel scour, and promote deposition of sediment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

check metering

Measurement instrumentation for the supplementary monitoring of equipment and tenant energy use (electric, gas, oil, etc.) in addition to the revenue metering furnished by the utility. (Energycodes.gov)

check structure

A structure used to regulate the upstream water surface and control the downstream flow in a canal. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

check truncation

The conversion of data on a check into an electronic image after a check enters the processing system. Check truncation eliminates the need to return canceled checks to customers. (Help With My Bank)

check valve

Any device which will allow fluid or air to pass through it in only one direction. A special valve with a hinged disc or flap that opens in the direction of normal flow and is forced shut when flows attempt to go in the reverse or opposite direction of normal flow. A device preventing backflow in pipes. Water can flow readily in one direction but any reversal of the flow causes the check valve to close. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

checked signature

Checked signatures verify that all probability estimates, inputs and outputs and their distributions, were entered correctly into event trees, and that any other calculations, figures, or tables have been checked. This includes &quot;back-of-the-envelope&quot; calculations performed during the risk analysis but not documented in any place but the report. In addition, the accuracy of computer spreadsheets have been checked. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

checking account

A demand deposit account subject to withdrawal of funds by check. (Help With My Bank)

chemical energy

The energy liberated in a chemical reaction, as in the combustion of fuels. (US Dept of Energy)

chemical sensitization

Evidence suggests that some people may develop health problems characterized by effects such as dizziness, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness, and nasal congestion that appear whenever they are exposed to certain chemicals. People may react to even trace amounts of chemicals to which they have become &quot;sensitized.&quot; (US Environmental Protection Agency)

cherry-pick

The tendency of an asset manager to dispose of the assets in a portfolio that are relatively easy to sell before disposing of the hard-to-sell assets; a P&A variation in which no loans are transferred as of closing but the acquiring institution has an option to acquire loans from the FDIC for a designated time period. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

ChexSystems

The ChexSystems, Inc. network is comprised of member financial institutions that regularly contribute information on mishandled checking and savings accounts to a central location. ChexSystems shares this information among member institutions to help them assess the risk of opening new accounts. ChexSystems only shares information with the member institutions; it does not decide on new account openings. Generally, information remains on ChexSystems for five years. (Help With My Bank)

chiller

A device for removing heat from a gas or liquid stream for air conditioning/cooling. (US Dept of Energy)

chimney

A masonry or metal stack that creates a draft to bring air to a fire and to carry the gaseous byproducts of combustion safely away. (US Dept of Energy)

chimney breast

The horizontal projection-usually inside a building-of a chimney from the wall in which it is built. (Publications- USA.gov)

chimney cap

Concrete capping around the top of chimney bricks and around the floors to protect the masonry from the elements. (Publications- USA.gov)

chimney drain

A vertical or inclined layer of pervious material in an embankment to facilitate and control drainage of the embankment fill. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

chimney effect

The tendency of heated air or gas to rise in a duct or other vertical passage, such as in a chimney, small enclosure, or building, due to its lower density compared to the surrounding air or gas. (US Dept of Energy)

chipping

Loosening of shallow rock by light blasting or air hammers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

chironomid

Group of two-winged flying insects who live their larval stage underwater and emerge to fly about as adults. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

chisel plowing

Cropland preparation by a special implement (chisel) that avoids complete inversion of the soil (as occurs with conventional moldboard plowing). Chisel plowing can leave a protective cover of crop residues on the soil surface that helps prevent erosion and improve infiltration. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

chlorination

Adding chlorine to water or wastewater, generally for the purpose of disinfection, but frequently for accomplishing other biological or chemical results. Chlorine also is used almost universally in manufacturing processes, particularly for the plastics industry. (US EPA- Pesticides) The application of chlorine to water, generally for the purpose of disinfection, but frequently for accomplishing other biological or chemical results (aiding coagulation and controlling tastes and odors). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

chlorofluorocarbon

(aka CFC or CFCs) A family of chemicals composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, chlorine, and fluorine whose principal applications are as refrigerants and industrial cleansers and whose principal drawback is the tendency to destroy the Earth's protective ozone layer. (US Dept of Energy)

chronic effect

An adverse effect on any living organism in which symptoms develop slowly over a long period of time or recur frequently. (US EPA- Pesticides)

chute

Portion of spillway between the gate or crest structure and the terminal structure, where open- channel flow conditions will exist. A conduit for conveying free-flowing materials at high velocity to lower elevations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cipolletti weir

(aka trapezoidal weir) A contracted weir of trapezoidal shape in which the sides of the notch are given a slope of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

circle of influence

The circular outer edge of a depression produced in the water table by the pumping of water from a well. See cone of influence. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

circuit

A device, or system of devices, that allows electrical current to flow through it and allows voltage to occur across positive and negative terminals. (US Dept of Energy) The complete path of an electric current, including the generating apparatus or other source; or, a specific segment or section of the complete path. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

circuit breaker

A safety device which opens (breaks) an electric circuit automatically when it becomes overloaded. (Publications- USA.gov) A device designed to open and close a circuit by non-automatic means and to open the circuit automatically at a predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself when properly applied within its rating. (Energycodes.gov) A device used to interrupt or break an electrical circuit when an overload condition exists; usually installed in the positive circuit; used to protect electrical equipment. (US Dept of Energy) A safety device in an electrical circuit that automatically shuts off the circuit when it becomes overloaded. The device can be manually reset. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

circuit breakers

Electrical devices which automatically open electrical circuits if they are overloaded. (HardwickAssociates)

circuit lag

As time increases from zero at the terminals of an inductor, the voltage comes to a particular value on the sine function curve ahead of the current. The voltage reaches its negative peak exactly 90 degrees before the current reaches its negative peak thus the current lags behind by 90 degrees. (US Dept of Energy)

circuit mile

For single circuit electric power transmission lines, circuit miles are equal to geographic miles or pole miles. For double circuit transmission lines, the number of circuit miles is twice the structure, pole, or geographic miles. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

circulating fluidized bed

A type of furnace or reactor in which the emission of sulfur compounds is lowered by the addition of crushed limestone in the fluidized bed thus obviating the need for much of the expensive stack gas clean-up equipment. The particles are collected and recirculated, after passing through a conventional bed, and cooled by boiler internals. (US Dept of Energy)

circulating water heater

Hot water continuously circulates through the distribution system. (Energycodes.gov)

circulation pumps

Pumps that are used to keep hot water circulating through the distribution system. (Energycodes.gov)

circumneutral�

Term applied to water with a pH of 5.5 to 7.4. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

cirque

Bowl-like depression carved into a mountaintop by ice at the head of a glacier. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cistern

Covered cisterns and the water in them are defined as an integral part of an insurable building, meaning under the building or above ground and physically attached to a side of the building with one of the walls of the building and cistern being common to each other. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) A tank to catch and store rain water. (Publications- USA.gov) A small tank (usually covered) or a storage facility used to store water for a home or farm. Often used to store rain water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

citygate

�A point or measuring station at which a distributing gas utility receives gas from a natural gas pipeline company or transmission system. (US Energy Information Administration)

Civil Defense Agency

State and/or local agency responsible for emergency operations, planning, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery for all hazards. Usually, the more current term of emergency management agency is used. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cladophora

Filamentous green alga. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

claim

An assertion of the indebtedness of a failed institution to a depositor, general creditor, subordinated debt holder, or shareholder. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) The presentation to the Agency of a demand for payment for losses incurred on a loan guaranteed under the program. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) A creditor's assertion of a right to payment from the debtor or the debtor's property. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

Claims Coordinating Office

(aka CCO) A clearinghouse for the various insurers who are responding to a multi-peril catastrophe. Through voluntary participation, all losses are reported to the Claims Coordinating Office and are processed to locate address matches among the reported claims. The interest of each carrier is protected as the Claims Coordinator maintains sole control over the policy and loss information. If a match is found, special care is taken to direct the assigned adjuster(s) to a mutually agreeable adjustment or to have one adjuster surrender his/her loss with the assurance that every effort will be made to replace it. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

clam shell gate

High pressure regulating gate consisting of two curved leaves which open and close over the end of a conduit. Used for free discharge into air with minimal cavitation damage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

clapboard

A long thin board, thicker on one edge, overlapped and nailed on for exterior siding. (Publications- USA.gov)

class

1) With respect to the certification, ratings, privileges, and limitations of airmen, means a classification of aircraft within a category having similar operating characteristics. Examples include single engine; multiengine; land; water; gyroplane; helicopter; airship; and free balloon; and 2) With respect to the certification of aircraft, means a broad grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight, or landing. Examples include airplane; rotorcraft; glider; balloon; landplane; and seaplane. (14CFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

class (pipe and fittings)

The working pressure rating of a specific pipe for use in water distribution systems which includes allowances for surges. This term is used for cast iron, ductile iron, asbestos cement, and some plastic pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Class 1 Road

Hard surface highways including Interstate and U.S. numbered highways (including alternates), primary State routes, and all controlled access highways. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Class 2 Road

Hard surface highways including secondary State routes, primary county routes, and other highways that connect principal cities and towns, and link these places with the primary highway system. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Class 3 Road

Hard surface roads not included in a higher class and improved, loose surface roads passable in all kinds of weather. These roads are adjuncts to the primary and secondary highway systems. Also included are important private roads such as main logging or industrial roads which serve as connecting links to the regular road network. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Class 4 Road

Unimproved roads which are generally passable only in fair weather and used mostly for local traffic. Also included are driveways, regardless of construction. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Class 5 Road

Unimproved roads passable only with 4 wheel drive vehicles. (DOI3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Class I Railroad

Railroad with an annual operating revenue of at least $266.7 million. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

class of construction

For the building envelope, a subcategory of roof, above-grade wall, below-grade wall, floor, slab-on-grade floor, opaque door, vertical fenestration, or skylight. (Energycodes.gov)

classified asset

An asset that is designated as substandard, doubtful, or subject to loss. An asset becomes classified when it is so designated by the appropriate regulatory agency. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

clay

Fine-grained soil or the fine-grained portion of soil that can be made to exhibit plasticity (putty-like properties) within a range of moisture contents, and that exhibits considerable strength when air-dry. Plastic soil which passes a No. 200 (0.075 mm) United States Standard sieve. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

clay size

That portion of the soil finer than 0.002 mm (0.005 mm in some cases). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Clean Air Act Amendments

(aka CAAA) The original Clean Air Act was passed in 1963, but the national air pollution control program is actually based on the 1970 version of the law. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are the most far-reaching revisions of the 1970 law. The 1990 Clean Air Act is the most recent version of the 1970 version of the law. The 1990 amendments made major changes in the Clean Air Act. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

clean bank P&A

A purchase and assumption transaction in which the acquiring institution assumes the deposit liabilities and the cash and cash equivalent assets of the failed institution. In addition, the assuming bank purchases the �good� loans of the failed institution or receives an exclusive call option to purchase designated fixed assets and assume certain contracts of the failed institution. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

clean power generator

A company or other organizational unit that produces electricity from sources that are thought to be environmentally cleaner than traditional sources. Clean, or green, power is usually defined as power from renewable energy that comes from wind, solar, biomass energy, etc. There are various definitions of clean resources. Some definitions include power produced from waste-to-energy and wood-fired plants that may still produce significant air emissions. Some states have defined certain local resources as clean that other states would not consider clean. For example, the state of Texas has defined power from efficient natural gas-fired power plants as clean. Some northwest states include power from large hydropower projects as clean although these projects damage fish populations. Various states have disclosure and labeling requirement for generation source and air emissions that assist customers in comparing electricity characteristics other than price. This allows customers to decide for themselves what they consider to be &quot;clean.&quot; The federal government is also exploring this issue. (US Dept of Energy)

Clean Water Act

Under State best management practices program, (2) authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of the Interior $6,000,000 to complete the National Wetlands Inventory of the United States, by December 31, 1981, and to provide information from such Inventory to States as it becomes available to assist such States in the development and operation of programs under this chapter.�� (US Fish & Wildlife Service) See Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1948. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

clear title

Ownership that is free of liens, defects, or other legal encumbrances. (Federal Trade Commission) Also referred to as &quot;free and clear.&quot; See &quot;free and clear.&quot; (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A property title that has no defects. Properties with clear titles are marketable for sale. (US Dept of HUD) One which is not encumbered or burdened with defects. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) Ownership of property that is not encumbered by any counter-claim or lien. (HardwickAssociates)

clearance

A procedure used to establish, under tightly controlled discipline, a safe environment for maintenance, repair, or inspection. It includes systematically isolating pertinent equipment from all sources of hazardous energy (hydraulic, electrical, mechanical, pneumatic, chemical, etc.) and attaching safety tags or locks to the appropriate controls. Also, it includes a written statement that documents isolation of the equipment (also referred to as lockout or tagout). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cleared reviews

OPP Science Reviews may contain information that registrants may claim as confidential, many times they must be cleared of this information before they can be released.��Once they are cleared, we keep them on file in case they are requested again. We maintain a collection of 25,260 cleared science reviews collected from the different branches within OPP.� (US EPA- Pesticides)

clearing

The removal of all vegetation such as trees, shrubs, brush, stumps, exposed roots, down timber, branches, grass, and weeds. The removal of all rubbish and all other objectionable material. See grubbing. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

clearinghouse

An institution where mutual claims are settled between accounts of member depository institutions. Clearinghouses among banks have traditionally been organized for check-clearing purposes, but more recently have cleared other types of settlements, including electronic fund transfers. (Federal Reserve Education)

Clearinghouse Interbank Payments System

(aka CHIPS) An automated clearing system used primarily for international payments. This system is owned and operated by the New York Clearinghouse banks and engages Fedwire for settlement. (Federal Reserve Education)

Cleavage of Lateral Epitaxial Films for Transfer

(aka CLEFT) A process for making inexpensive Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) photovoltaic cells in which a thin film of GaAs is grown atop a thick, single-crystal GaAs (or other suitable material) substrate and then is cleaved from the substrate and incorporated into a cell, allowing the substrate to be reused to grow more thin-film GaAs. (US Dept of Energy)

clerestory

That part of a building rising clear of the roofs or other parts and whose walls contain windows for lighting the interior. (Energy Star.gov) A window located high in a wall near the eaves that allows daylight into a building interior, and may be used for ventilation and solar heat gain. (US Dept of Energy)

CLF

The Central Liquidity Facility (CLF) was created by Congress in 1979 to improve the general financial stability of the credit union industry by meeting the liquidity needs of individual credit unions. This proved stability encourages savings, supports consumer and mortgage lending, and helps provide basic financial resources to all segments of the economy. Credit unions needed their own source of funds to meet their liquidity needs in the same way that the Federal Reserve System �discount window� provided access to loans for banks. In practice, the CLF was created to serve as a back?up source of liquidity for both Federal and state?chartered credit unions. (National Credit Union Administration)

client

The party or parties who engage, by employment or contract, an appraiser in a specific assignment. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) According to USPAP, the party or parties who engage(s) an appraiser by employment or contract for a specific appraisal assignment. For the purposes of these Guidelines, the appraiser should be aware that the client is the regulated institution. (Refer to the section on Third Party Arrangements in these Guidelines.) (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

climate

The sum total of the meteorological elements that characterize the average and extreme condition of the atmosphere over a long period of time at any one place or region of the earth's surface. The collective state of the atmosphere at a given place or over a given area within a specified period of time. (Landsberg, 1945, p. 928.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The prevailing or average weather conditions of a geographic region. (US Dept of Energy) Average conditions of the weather over a number of years. See macroclimate and microclimate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

climate change

A term used to describe short and long-term affects on the Earth's climate as a result of human activities such as fossil fuel combustion and vegetation clearing and burning. (US Dept of Energy)

climatic factor (C factor - WEQ)

Characterizes climatic erosivity, specifically wind speed and surface soil moisture. The factor for any given locality is expressed as a percentage of the C factor for Garden City, Kansas, which has a value of 100. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

climatic year

A continuous 12-month period during which a complete annual cycle occurs, arbitrarily selected for the presentation of data relative to hydrologic or meteorologic phenomena. The climatic year is usually designated by the calendar year during which most of the 12 months occur. (See Water year.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Continuous 12-month period during which a complete climactic cycle occurs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

close coupled

An energy system in which the fuel production equipment is in close proximity, or connected to, the fuel using equipment. (US Dept of Energy)

closed basin lake

A natural lake from which water leaves primarily through evaporation and whose surface area exceeds or has exceeded one square mile at any time in the recorded past. NFIP-insured buildings that are subject to continuous lake flooding from a closed basin lake are covered under the provisions of Standard Flood Insurance Policy. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

closed cycle

A system in which a working fluid is used over and over without introduction of new fluid, as in a hydronic heating system or mechanical refrigeration system. (US Dept of Energy)

closed-end credit

An agreement in which advanced credit plus any finance charges are expected to be repaid in full over a definite time. Most real estate and automobile loans are closed-end agreements. (Federal Reserve Education) Consumer credit other than &quot;open-end credit&quot; as defined in this section. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z)) Generally, any credit sale agreement in which the amount advanced, plus any finance charges, is expected to be repaid in full by a specified date. Most real estate and automobile loans are closed-end agreements. (Help With My Bank)

closed-end loan

Generally, any loan in which the amount advanced, plus any finance charges, is expected to be repaid in full by a specified date. Most real estate and automobile loans are closed-end agreements. (Help With My Bank)

closed-end mortgage

A mortgage principal amount that is fixed and cannot be increased during the life of the loan. See also: Open-end Mortgage. (Ginnie Mae)

closed-loop biomass

As defined by the Comprehensive National Energy Act of 1992 (or the Energy Policy Act; EPAct): any organic matter from a plant which is planted for the exclusive purpose of being used to produce energy.&quot; This does not include wood or agricultural wastes or standing timber. (US Dept of Energy)

closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems

Closed-loop (also known as &quot;indirect&quot;) systems circulate a solution of water and antifreeze through a series of sealed loops of piping. Once the heat has been transferred into or out of the solution, the solution is recirculated. The loops can be installed in the ground horizontally or vertically, or they can be placed in a body of water, such as a pond. See horizontal ground loop, vertical ground loop, slinky ground loop, and surface water loop for more information on the different types of closed-loop geothermal heat pump systems. (US Dept of Energy)

close-grown crops

Crops that are generally drill-seeded or broadcast, such as wheat, oats, rice, barley, and flax. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

closing

The culmination of any RE transaction in which the interested parties or their representatives meet to execute documents, exchange funds, and transfer title to a property. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) The process of completing a financial transaction. For mortgage loans, the process of signing mortgage documents, disbursing funds, and, if applicable, transferring ownership of the property. In some jurisdictions, closing is referred to as �escrow,� a process by which a buyer and seller deliver legal documents to a third party who completes the transaction in accordance with their instructions. See also �Settlement.� (Federal Trade Commission) When selling a house, the process of transferring ownership from the seller to the buyer, the disbursement of funds from the buyer and the lender to the seller, and the signing of all the documents associated with the sale and the loan. On a refinance, there is no transfer of ownership, but the closing includes repayment of the old lender. (Making Home Affordable) The final step in property purchase where the title is transferred from the seller to the buyer. Closing occurs at a meeting between the buyer, seller, settlement agent, and other agents. At the closing the seller receives payment for the property. Also known as settlement. (US Dept of HUD) Also known as &quot;escrow&quot; or &quot;settlement.&quot; The process of executing legally binding documents, such as deeds and mortgages most commonly associated with the purchase of real estate and the borrowing of money to assist in the purchase . (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A torturous process designed to induce cramping in a home buyer's hands by requiring signature on countless pieces of documentation that nobody has ever read. Or, the process whereby the sale of a property is consummated with the buyer completing all applicable documentation, including signing the mortgage obligation and paying all appropriate costs associated with the sale (CLOSING COSTS). (HardwickAssociates)

closing (closing date)

The completion of the real estate transaction between buyer and seller. The buyer signs the mortgage documents and the closing costs are paid. Also known as the settlement date. (Freddie Mac)

closing a mortgage loan

The consummation of a contractual real estate transaction in which all appropriate documents are signed and the proceeds of the mortgage loan are then disbursed by the lender. (Help With My Bank)

closing agent

A person who coordinates closing-related activities, such as recording the closing documents and disbursing funds. (Freddie Mac) The person or entity that coordinates the various closing activities, including the preparation and recordation of closing documents and the disbursement of funds. (May be referred to as an escrow agent or settlement agent in some jurisdictions.) Typically, the closing is conducted by title companies, escrow companies or attorneys. (Federal Trade Commission)

closing agent charges (special rule)

Fees charged by a third party that conducts the loan closing (such as a settlement agent, attorney, or escrow or title company) are finance charges only if the creditor-- (i) Requires the particular services for which the consumer is charged; (ii) Requires the imposition of the charge; or (iii) Retains a portion of the third-party charge, to the extent of the portion retained. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

closing costs

Costs payable by both seller and buyer at the time of settlement, when the purchase of a property is finalized. (Ginnie Mae) The costs to complete the real estate transaction. These costs are in addition to the price of the home and are paid at closing. They include points, taxes, title insurance, financing costs, items that must be prepaid or escrowed and other costs. Ask your lender for a complete list of closing cost items. (Freddie Mac) Moneys expended by a party in completing a RE transaction, over and above the purchase price, including: legal fees, taxes, origination fees, discount points, mortgage insurance premium, interest adjustments, registration fees, appraisal fees, title insurance premium, etc. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) The upfront fees charged in connection with a mortgage loan transaction. Money paid by a buyer (and/or seller or other third party, if applicable) to effect the closing of a mortgage loan, generally including, but not limited to a loan origination fee, title examination and insurance, survey, attorney�s fee, and prepaid items, such as escrow deposits for taxes and insurance. (Federal Trade Commission) The expenses incurred by sellers and buyers in transferring ownership in real property. The costs of closing may include the origination fee, discount points, attorneys' fees, loan fees, title search and insurance, survey charge, recordation fees, and the credit report charge. (Help With My Bank) Various fees and expenses payable by the seller and buyer at the time of a real estate closing (also termed transaction costs), such as brokerage commissions, lender discount points, title insurance premiums, deed recording fees, loan prepayment penalties, inspection and appraisal fees, attorney's fees, etc. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Fees for final property transfer not included in the price of the property. Typical closing costs include charges for the mortgage loan such as origination fees, discount points, appraisal fee, survey, title insurance, legal fees, real estate professional fees, prepayment of taxes and insurance, and real estate transfer taxes. A common estimate of a Buyer's closing costs is 2 to 4 percent of the purchase price of the home. A common estimate for Seller's closing costs is 3 to 9 percent. (US Dept of HUD) Closing costs are fees paid by the borrower when a property is purchased or refinanced. Costs incurred include a loan origination fee, discount points, appraisal fee, title search, title insurance, survey, taxes, deed recording fee, and credit report charges. All closing costs are separated into �non-recurring,� and �pre-paid.� Non-recurring charges are any items that are paid only once because a loan was obtained or a property bought, such as a loan origination fee. Pre-paid charges are those that recur over time, like insurance and property taxes. These are summarized in the Good Faith Estimate. (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) All appropriate costs generated by the sale of property which the parties must pay to complete the transaction. Costs may include appraisal fees, origination fees, title insurance, taxes and any points negotiated in the deal. (HardwickAssociates)

closing date

The date on which the sale of a property is to be finalized and a loan transaction completed. Often, a real estate sales professional coordinates the setting of this date with the buyer, the seller, the closing agent, and the lender. (Federal Trade Commission)

closing statement

See �HUD-1 Settlement Statement.� (Federal Trade Commission) The document detailing the final financial arrangement between a buyer and seller and the costs paid by each. (HardwickAssociates)

closing/settlement/escrow agent

An individual or company that oversees the consummation of a mortgage transaction at which the note and other legal documents are signed and the loan proceeds are disbursed. Title companies, attorneys, settlement agents, and escrow agents can perform this service. Local RE law may dictate the party conducting the closing. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

cloud

A claim to the title of a property that, if valid, would prevent a purchaser from obtaining a clear title. (Ginnie Mae)

cloud on the title

Any condition which affects the clear title to real property. (US Dept of HUD)

cloudburst

A torrential downpour of rain, which by its spottiness and relatively high intensity suggests the bursting and discharge of a whole cloud at once. (Woolley, 1946, p. ii.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

clouded title

An encumbered title. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

CMSA

See Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (US Dept of HUD)

coarse gravel protection

Gravel generally placed in a layer upon a finished surface to protect the finished surface from deterioration or erosion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

coastal barrier

A naturally occurring island, sandbar, or other strip of land, including coastal mainland, that protects the coast from severe wave wash. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Coastal Barrier Improvement Act of 1990

(aka CBIA) Legislation enacted in 1990 that placed limitations on property transfers and required special disposition procedures for certain environmentally significant properties located in coastal areas or located adjacent to publicly managed conservation areas. The act imposed a waiting period of up to six months on FDIC and RTC sales of environmentally sensitive property located in coastal areas or adjacent to publicly managed conservation areas. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Enacted on November 16, 1990, the Act greatly expanded the identified land in the Coastal Barrier Resources System established pursuant to the Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982

(aka CBRA) For the purposes of the NFIP, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982 designated certain portions of the Gulf and East Coasts as undeveloped coastal barriers. These areas are shown on appropriate flood insurance map panels and have certain coverage restrictions. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) CBRA restricts most Federal expenditures and financial assistance that tend to encourage development, including Federal flood insurance, in the John H. Chafee Coastal Barrier Resource System. Three important goals of CBRA are to:� minimize loss of human life by discouraging development in high risk areas; reduce wasteful expenditure of Federal resources; and protect the natural resources associated with coastal barriers.� (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

Coastal Barrier Resources System

(aka CBRS) Communities, coastal barriers, and other protected areas identified by the Department of the Interior legislation defined above. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Coastal High Hazard Areas

Special Flood Hazard Areas along the coasts that have additional hazards due to wind and wave action. These areas are identified on Flood Insurance Rate Maps as Zones V, V1-V30, and VE. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

coaster gate

A rectangular gate similar in construction and appearance to the tractor gate except sealing is accomplished in much the same way as a ring seal gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

coating

The protective material applied to the outer surface of a material, frequently metalwork. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cobble (cobblestone)

A rock fragment, usually rounded or semirounded, with an average dimension between 3 to 12 inches; will pass a 12-inch screen, but not a 3-inch screen. A particle of rock that will pass a 12-inch (300-mm) square opening and be retained on a 3-inch (75-mm) U.S.A. Standard sieve. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cobbles�

Rock fragments 7.6 cm (3 inches) to 25.4 cm (10 inches) in diameter. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

co-borrower

Any borrower other than the first borrower whose name appears on the application and mortgage note, even when that person owns the property jointly with the first borrower and shares liability for the note. (Federal Trade Commission) An additional person that is responsible for loan repayment and is listed on the title. (US Dept of HUD) A second person sharing obligation on the loan and title on the property. (HardwickAssociates)

Code of Federal Regulations

(aka CFR) The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. Each volume of the CFR is updated once each calendar year and is issued on a quarterly basis. (US Dept of HUD) A compilation of the general and permanent rules of the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government as published in the Federal Register. The code is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. (DOE5) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) The compilation of general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Like the U.S. Code, it is divided into 50 subject-matter titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. Each volume of the CFR is updated once each calendar year; updates are issued quarterly. Each title is divided into chapters, which usually bear the name of the issuing agency. Each chapter is further subdivided into parts that cover specific regulatory areas. Large parts may be subdivided into subparts. All parts are organized in sections, and most citations in the CFR are provided at the section level. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

codes

Legal documents that regulate construction to protect the health, safety, and welfare of people. Codes establish minimum standards but do not guarantee efficiency or quality. (US Dept of Energy)

codified

Laws or regulations that are codified are general and permanent laws or regulations that are arranged in subject-matter order by title or other major subdivision and section (as opposed to session laws, which are generally presented in chronological order). The text of the original law or regulation is collated with any subsequent amendments (additions to or deletions from the language of the original law or regulation), so as to provide the most up-to-date text of the law or regulation. Most bills or session laws indicate (either in either the text or the margin) the title (or other major subdivision) and section number of the U.S. Code or the state code in which the law will appear. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

codominant�

Two or more species providing about equal areal cover which in combination control the environment. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

coefficient of compressibility

The slope of a one-dimensional compression curve relating void ratio to effective stress. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

coefficient of consolidation

A coefficient that relates the change in excess pore pressure with time to the excess pore pressure diffusion in the soil mass in terms of soil mass and pore fluid characteristics. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

coefficient of heat transmission (U-value)

A value that describes the ability of a material to conduct heat. The number of Btu that flow through 1 square foot of material, in one hour. It is the reciprocal of the R-Value (U-Value = 1/R-Value). (US Dept of Energy)

coefficient of performance

(aka COP) The ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate of energy input, in consistent units, for a complete refrigeration system or some specific portion of that system under designated operating conditions. (Energycodes.gov) A ratio of the work or useful energy output of a system versus the amount of work or energy inputted into the system as determined by using the same energy equivalents for energy in and out. Is used as a measure of the steady state performance or energy efficiency of heating, cooling, and refrigeration appliances. The COP is equal to the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) divided by 3.412. The higher the COP, the more efficient the device. (US Dept of Energy)

coefficient of utilization

(aka CU) The ratio of the luminous flux (lumens) from a luminaire calculated as received on the work plane to the luminous flux emitted by the luminaire's lamps alone. CU is equal to the product of luminaire efficiency and room utilization factor. (Energy Star.gov) A term used for lighting appliances; the ratio of lumens received on a flat surface to the light output, in lumens, from a lamp; used to evaluate the effectiveness of luminaries in delivering light. (US Dept of Energy)

cofferdam

A temporary structure enclosing all or part of the construction area so that construction can proceed in the dry. A diversion cofferdam diverts a river into a pipe, channel or tunnel. A temporary barrier, usually an earthen dike, constructed around a worksite in a reservoir or on a stream, so the worksite can be dewatered or the water level controlled. See dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cofiring

The use of two or more different fuels (e.g. wood and coal) simultaneously in the same combustion chamber of a power plant. (US Dept of Energy)

cogeneration

The generation of electricity or shaft power by an energy conversion system and the concurrent use of rejected thermal energy from the conversion system as an auxiliary energy source. (US Dept of Energy)

cogenerator

A class of energy producer that produces both heat and electricity from a single fuel. (US Dept of Energy) A generating facility that produces electricity and another form of useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam), used for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes. To receive status as a qualifying facility (QF) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), the facility must produce electric energy and &quot;another form of useful thermal energy through the sequential use of energy,&quot; and meet certain ownership, operating, and efficiency criteria established by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). (See the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 18, Part 292.) (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cohesion

The mutual attraction of soil particles due to molecular and capillary forces in the presence of water. Cohesion is high in clay (especially dry) but of little significance in silt or sand. The ability of a substance to stick to itself and pull itself together. Molecular attraction which holds two particles together. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cohesionless materials (cohesionless soil)

Soil materials that when unconfined have little or no strength when air-dried and that have little or no cohesion when submerged. Soil that has little tendency to stick together whether wet or dry, such as sands and gravels. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cohesive soil

Predominantly clay and silt soil, fine-grained particles, that sticks together whether wet or dry. A soil that, when unconfined, has considerable strength when air-dried, and that has significant cohesion when submerged. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

co-homeowners

One or more persons who have signed a loan note, and are equally responsible for repaying the loan. (Making Home Affordable)

coil

As a component of a heating or cooling appliance, rows of tubing or pipe with fins attached through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated and to deliver heat or cooling energy to a building. (US Dept of Energy)

coincidence factor

The ratio of the coincident, maximum demand or two or more loads to the sum of their noncoincident maximum demand for a given period; the reciprocal of the diversity factor, and is always less than or equal to one. (US Dept of Energy)

coincident demand

The demand of a consumer of electricity at the time of a power supplier's peak system demand. (US Dept of Energy)

coinsurance

A penalty imposed on the loss payment unless the amount of insurance carried on the damaged building is at least 80 percent of its replacement cost or the maximum amount of insurance available for that building under the NFIP, whichever is less. Coinsurance applies only to building coverage under the Residential Condominium Building Association Policy. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

coke oven gas

��The mixture of permanent gases produced by the carbonization of coal in a coke oven at temperatures in excess of 1,000 degrees Celsius. (US Energy Information Administration)

cold joint

An unplanned joint resulting when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch is placed against it. Fresh concrete placed on harden concrete. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

cold night sky

The low effective temperature of the sky on a clear night. (US Dept of Energy)

cold-water fishery

Water or water system which has an environment suitable for salmonoid fishes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

coliform

Organisms common to the intestinal tract of humans and animals; the organisms' presence in waste water is an indicator of pollution. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

collar

The open end of a drill hole. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

collar beam

A horizontal beam fastened above the lower ends of rafters to add rigidity. (Publications- USA.gov)

collaring

Starting a drill hole. When the hole is deep enough to hold the bit from slipping out of it, it is said to be collared. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

collateral

Something of value pledged as security for a loan. In mortgage lending the property itself serves as collateral for a mortgage loan. (Ginnie Mae) Property which is used as security for a debt. In the case of a mortgage, the collateral would be the house and property. (Freddie Mac) An asset that is pledged as security for a loan. The borrower risks losing the asset if the loan is not repaid according to the terms of the loan agreement. In the case of a mortgage, the collateral would be the house and real property. (Federal Trade Commission) Property that is offered to secure a loan or other credit and that becomes subject to seizure on default. Also called security. (Federal Reserve Education) Assets that are offered to secure a loan or other credit. For example, if you get a real estate mortgage, the bank's collateral is typically your house. Collateral becomes subject to seizure on default. (Help With My Bank) Something pledged as security for a debt. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) An item of value that a lender can take as compensation if a borrower fails to repay a mortgage loan as scheduled. Borrowers generally are required to secure a mortgage loan with real or personal property as collateral. On mortgage loans, the property that the borrower purchases usually serves as collateral. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) Security in the form of money or property pledged for the payment of a loan. For example, on a home loan, the home is the collateral and can be taken away from the borrower if mortgage payments are not made. (US Dept of HUD) An asset which is placed at risk to secure the repayment of a loan. (HardwickAssociates)

collateralized mortgage obligation

(aka CMO) A corporate bond backed by a pool of mortgages in which the cash flows of the pool are channeled into two or more series of bonds. Interest payments generally are made to the purchasers of such securities. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

collected funds

Cash deposits or checks that have been presented for payment and for which payment has been received. (Help With My Bank)

collection

The process a lender takes to pursue a borrower who is delinquent on his payments in order to bring the mortgage current again. Includes documentation that may be used in foreclosure. (HardwickAssociates)

collection account

An unpaid debt referred to a collection agency to collect on the bad debt. This type of account is reported to the credit bureau and will show on the borrower's credit report. (US Dept of HUD)

collection agency

A company hired by a creditor to collect a debt that is owed. Creditors typically hire a collection agency only after they have made efforts to collect the debt themselves, usually through letters and telephone calls. (Help With My Bank)

collection items

Items-such as drafts, notes, and acceptances-received for collection and credited to a depositor's account after payment has been received. Collection items are usually subject to special instructions and may involve additional fees. Most banks impose a special fee, called a collection charge, for handling collection items. (Help With My Bank)

collections

The efforts a lender takes to collect past due payments. (Making Home Affordable)

collector

The component of a solar energy heating system that collects solar radiation, and that contains components to absorb solar radiation and transfer the heat to a heat transfer fluid (air or liquid). (US Dept of Energy)

collector (highway)

In rural areas, routes that serve intracounty rather than statewide travel. In urban areas, streets that provide direct access to neighborhoods and arterials. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

collector efficiency

The ratio of solar radiation captured and transferred to the collector (heat transfer) fluid. (US Dept of Energy)

collector fluid

The fluid, liquid (water or water/antifreeze solution) or air, used to absorb solar energy and transfer it for direct use, indirect heating of interior air or domestic water, and/or to a heat storage medium. (US Dept of Energy)

collector tilt

The angle that a solar collector is positioned from horizontal. (US Dept of Energy)

colloidal particles

Soil particles that are so small that the surface activity has an appreciable influence on the properties of the aggregate. Particles smaller than 0.001 mm. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

colloidal suspension

A method of sediment transport in which water turbulence (movement) supports the weight of the sediment particles, thereby keeping them from settling out or being deposited. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

collusion

An agreement, usually secretive, which occurs between two or more persons to deceive, mislead, or defraud others of their legal rights, or to obtain an objective forbidden by law, typically involving fraud or gaining an unfair advantage. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

colluvium

A general term applied to loose and incoherent deposits, usually at the foot of a slope and brought there chiefly by gravity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

color rendering

A general expression for the effect of a light source on the color appearance of objects in comparison with their color appearance under a reference light source. (Energy Star.gov)

color rendering index

A measure of the degree of color shift objects undergo when illuminated by the light source as compared with those same objects when illuminated by a reference source of comparable color temperature. (Energy Star.gov) (aka CRI) Ability of the CFL to show colors compared to an incandescent. The ENERGY STAR criteria require a CRI of at least 80 for qualified CFLs. Incandescent light bulbs have a CRI of 100; commercial linear fluorescent tubes typically have a CRI around 75. (Energy Star.gov) A measure of light quality. The maximum CRI value of 100 is given to natural daylight and incandescent lighting. The closer a lamp's CRI rating is to 100, the better its ability to show true colors to the human eye. (US Dept of Energy)

color rendition

How colors appear when illuminated by a light source. Color rendition is generally considered to be a more important lighting quality than color temperature. Most objects are not a single color, but a combination of many colors. Light sources that are deficient in certain colors may change the apparent color of an object. The Color Rendition Index (CRI) is a 1�100 scale that measures a light source's ability to render colors the same way sunlight does. The top value of the CRI scale (100) is based on illumination by a 100-watt incandescent light bulb. A light source with a CRI of 80 or higher is considered acceptable for most indoor residential applications. (US Dept of Energy)

Color Rendition Index

See color rendering index (US Dept of Energy)

color temperature

The absolute temperature of a blackbody radiator having the same apparent color as the light source. (Energy Star.gov) The absolute temperature (in degrees kelvin) of an incandescent blackbody radiator that radiates the red-orange end of the spectrum. Higher color temperatures are near the blue-violet end of the spectrum. (Energycodes.gov) The color of the light source. By convention, yellow-red colors (like the flames of a fire) are considered warm, and blue-green colors (like light from an overcast sky) are considered cool. Color temperature is measured in Kelvin (K) temperature. Confusingly, higher Kelvin temperatures (3600�5500 K) are what we consider cool and lower color temperatures (2700�3000 K) are considered warm. Cool light is preferred for visual tasks because it produces higher contrast than warm light. Warm light is preferred for living spaces because it is more flattering to skin tones and clothing. A color temperature of 2700�3600 K is generally recommended for most indoor general and task lighting applications. (US Dept of Energy)

co-maker

A person who signs a note to guarantee a loan made to another person and is jointly liable with the maker for repayment of the loan. (Also known as a Co-signer.) (Help With My Bank) A second party who signs a loan, along with the borrower, and becomes liable for the debt should the borrower default. (HardwickAssociates)

combination construction and permanent loan

A guaranteed loan that becomes effective at the time construction of an eligible multifamily property begins. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

combination foundations

Buildings constructed with more than one foundation type; e.g., basement/crawlspace or basement/slab-on-grade. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

combination truck

A power unit (truck tractor) and one or more trailing units (a semitrailer or trailer). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

combined cycle plant

A plant which achieves higher efficiency by employing two cycles in tandem. For example, heat rejected from a gas-fired turbine is used to generate steam to operate a steam turbine. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Combined Statistical Area

(aka CSA) May comprise two or more metropolitan statistical areas, a metropolitan statistical area and a micropolitan statistical area, two or more micropolitan statistical areas, or multiple metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas that have social and economic ties as measured by commuting, but at lower levels than are found among counties within metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. (US Dept of HUD)

combined-cycle power plant

A power plant that uses two thermodynamic cycles to achieve higher overall system efficiency; e.g.: the heat from a gas-fired combustion turbine is used to generate steam for heating or to operate a steam turbine to generate additional electricity. (US Dept of Energy)

combustion

The process of burning; the oxidation of a material by applying heat, which unites oxygen with a material or fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

combustion air

Air that provides the necessary oxygen for complete, clean combustion and maximum heating value. (US Dept of Energy)

combustion chamber

Any wholly or partially enclosed space in which combustion takes place. (US Dept of Energy)

combustion gases

The gaseous byproducts of the combustion of a fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

combustion power plant

A power plant that generates power by combusting a fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

combustion turbine

A turbine that generates power from the combustion of a fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

comfort zone

A frequently used room or area that is maintained at a more comfortable level than the rest of the house; also known as a &quot;warm room.&quot; (US Dept of Energy)

consistency limits

(aka Atterberg limits) The boundaries (determined by laboratory tests) of moisture content in a soil between the liquid state and plastic state (known as liquid limit), between the plastic state and the semisolid state (known as the plastic limit), and between the semisolid state and the solid state (known as the shrinkage limit). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

crop acreage base

(aka base acreage) A farm's crop-specific acreage of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, rice, oilseeds, pulse crops, or peanuts eligible to participate in commodity programs. Base acreage includes land that would have been eligible to receive production flexibility contract payments in 2002 and acreage (specified in legislation) planted to other covered commodities (oilseed and peanut producers). Base acreage refers to cropland on a farm, not to specific parcels of land. For a description of rules for determining base see Crop Acreage Bases and Program Payment Yields, 1981 Through 2002 Farm Acts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

cubic feet per second per square mile

(aka cfsm) The average number of cubic feet of water per second flowing from each square mile of area drained by a stream, assuming that the runoff is distributed uniformly in time and area. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)