B/C

Benefit-cost ratio. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BA

Biological assessment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

back end ratio (debt ratio)

A ratio that compares the total of all monthly debt payments (mortgage, real estate taxes and insurance, car loans, and other consumer loans) to gross monthly income. (US Dept of HUD)

back pressure

A pressure that can cause water to backflow into the water supply when a user's water system is at a higher pressure than the public water system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

back to back escrow

Arrangements that an owner makes to oversee the sale of one property and the purchase of another at the same time. (US Dept of HUD)

backdrafting

A condition caused by negative pressure in the home in which the exhaust from combustion equipment such as hot water heaters, fireplaces, or furnaces, is sucked back down the flue and into the house. (US Environmental Protection Agency) The flow of air down a flue/chimney and into a house caused by low indoor air pressure that can occur when using several fans or fireplaces and/or if the house is very tight. (US Dept of Energy)

backfill

The gravel or earth replaced in the space around a building wall after foundations are in place. (Publications- USA.gov) The slope of the ground around a house. (HardwickAssociates) Material used in refilling excavation, or the process of such refilling. Material used to fill an excavated trench. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

backfill concrete

Concrete used in refilling excavation in lieu of earth material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

backflow

A reverse flow in water pipes. A difference in water pressures pulls water from sources other than the well into a home�s water system, for example waste water or flood water. Also called back siphonage. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) A reverse flow condition, created by a difference in water pressures, which causes water to flow back into the distribution system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

backfurrow

The first cut of a plow, from which the slice is laid on undisturbed soil. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

backsiphonage

A form of backflow caused by a negative or below atmospheric pressure within a water system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

backup energy system

A reserve appliance; for example, a stand-by generator for a home or commercial building. (US Dept of Energy)

backwater

Water backed up or retarded in its course as compared with its normal or natural condition of flow. In stream gaging, a rise in stage produced by a temporary obstruction such as ice or weeds, or by the flooding of the stream below. The difference between the observed stage and that indicated by the stage-discharge relation, isreported as backwater. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) A small, generally shallow body of water with little or no current of its own. Stagnant water in a small stream or inlet. Water moved backward or held back by a dam, tide, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bacteria

Microscopic living organisms; some are helpful and some are harmful. �Good� bacteria aid in pollution control by consuming and breaking down organic matter and other pollutants in septic systems, sewage, oil spills, and soils. However, �bad� bacteria in soil, water, or air can cause human, animal, and plant health problems. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) Microscopic organisms that live on water and on land. They help break down organic materials into simpler nutrients in a process called decay. Bacteria release nutrients to the soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Microscopic, single-celled organisms. They include the photosynthetic cyanobacteria (formerly called blue-green algae), and actinomycetes (filamentous bacteria that give healthy soil its characteristic smell). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Single-celled organisms, free-living or parasitic, that break down the wastes and bodies of dead organisms, making their components available for reuse by other organisms. (US Dept of Energy)

bacterial-dominated food web

A soil food web in which the ratio of fungal biomass to bacterial biomass is less than one. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

bactericide

A pesticide used to control or destroy bacteria, typically in the home, schools, or on hospital equipment. (US EPA- Pesticides)

baffle

A device, such as a steel plate, used to check, retard, or divert a flow of a material. (US Dept of Energy) A flat board or plate, deflector, guide or similar device constructed or placed in flowing water to cause more uniform flow velocities, to absorb energy, and to divert, guide, or agitate the flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

baffle block (dentate)

One of a series of upright obstructions designed to dissipate energy as in the case of a stilling basin or drop structure. A block, usually of concrete, constructed in a channel or stilling basin to dissipate the energy of water flowing at high velocity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bagasse

The fibrous material remaining after the extraction of juice from sugarcane; often burned by sugar mills as a source of energy. (US Dept of Energy)

baghouse

An air pollution control device used to filter particulates from waste combustion gases; a chamber containing a bag filter. (US Dept of Energy)

bailer

A 10- to 20-foot-long pipe equipped with a valve at the lower end. A bailer is used to remove slurry from the bottom or the side of a well as it is being drilled. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

balance

The amount owed on a loan or credit card or the amount in a savings or investment account. (Federal Reserve Education)

balance of payments

An accounting statement of the money value of international transactions between one nation and the rest of the world over a specific time period. The statement shows the sum of transactions of individuals, businesses and government agencies located in one nation, against those of all other nations. (Federal Reserve Education)

balance of trade

That part of a nation's balance of payments dealing with imports and exports, which is trade in goods and services, over a given period. If exports of goods exceed imports, the trade balance is said to be favorable; if imports exceed exports, the trade balance if said to be unfavorable. (Federal Reserve Education)

balance point

An outdoor temperature, usually 20 to 45 degrees Fahrenheit, at which a heat pump's output equals the heating demand. Below the balance point, supplementary heat is needed. (US Dept of Energy)

balance sheet

A financial statement that shows assets, liabilities, and net worth as of a specific date. (Federal Trade Commission) A financial statement showing a "snapshot" of the assets, liabilities and net worth of an individual or organization on a given date. (Federal Reserve Education) A financial statement that shows the assets, liabilities and net worth of an individual or company. (US Dept of HUD)

balance transfer

The process of moving an outstanding balance from one credit card to another. This is usually done to obtain a lower interest rate on the outstanding balance. Transfers are sometimes subjected to a Balance Transfer Fee. (Help With My Bank)

balanced head condition

The condition in which the water pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of an object are equal (such as an emergency or regulating gate). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

balance-of-system

In a renewable energy system, refers to all components other than the mechanism used to harvest the resource (such as photovoltaic panels or a wind turbine). Balance-of-system costs can include design, land, site preparation, system installation, support structures, power conditioning, operation and maintenance, and storage. (US Dept of Energy)

balancing item

�Represents differences between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of the components of natural gas disposition. These differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions off low data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data reporting systems that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents. (US Energy Information Administration)

balancing, air

Adjusting air flow rates through air distribution system devices, such as fans and diffusers, by manually adjusting the position of dampers, splitter vanes, extractors, etc., or by using automatic control devices, such as constant air volume or variable air volume boxes. (Energycodes.gov)

balancing, hydronic

Adjusting water flow rates through hydronic distribution system devices, such as pumps and coils, by manually adjusting the position valves, or by using automatic control devices, such as automatic flow control valves. (Energycodes.gov)

baling

A means of reducing the volume of a material by compaction into a bale. (US Dept of Energy)

ball cock valve

The valve inside a toilet tank that controls the filling of the tank. (HardwickAssociates)

ballast

An electrical device designed to control the current delivered to a fluorescent or HID lamp. Most ballasts also convert the line voltage into the proper voltage and waveform needed to start and operate the lamp. (Energy Star.gov) A collection of electronic parts that regulates the electric current through a fluorescent lamp. (Energy Star.gov) A device used in conjunction with an electric-discharge lamp to cause the lamp to start and operate under the proper circuit conditions of voltage, current, wave form, electrode heat, etc. (Energycodes.gov) A device used to control the voltage in a fluorescent lamp. (US Dept of Energy)

ballast efficacy factor

(aka BEF) The ratio of the ballast factor, specified as a percentage, to the ballast input power in watts. Ballast efficacy factor is only meaningful when used to compare ballasts operating the same type and number of lamps. Also called the ballast efficiency factor. (Energy Star.gov) The measure of the efficiency of fluorescent lamp ballasts. It is the relative light output divided by the power input. (US Dept of Energy)

ballast factor

(aka BF) The luminous flux of a fluorescent or HID lamp (or lamps) operated on a ballast divided by the luminous flux of the same lamp when operated on the standard (reference) ballast specified for rating lamp lumens. (Energy Star.gov) The ratio of light output of a fluorescent lamp operated on a ballast to the light output of a lamp operated on a standard or reference ballast. (US Dept of Energy)

ballast housing

The casing that covers the ballast, usually made from plastic fire-retardant material. (Energy Star.gov)

ball-milling

The repeated churning action of cobbles, gravel, and sand caused by the force of water in a stilling basin or other structure by which severe concrete abrasion can occur. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

balloon mortgage

Mortgage with a final lump sum payment that is greater than preceding payments and pays the loan in full. (Ginnie Mae) A mortgage with monthly payments based on a 30-year amortization schedule, with the unpaid balance due in a lump sum payment at the end of a specific period of time (usually 5 or 7 years). The mortgage contains an option to "reset" the interest rate to the current market rate and to extend the due date if certain conditions are met. (Freddie Mac) A mortgage with monthly payments often based on a 30-year amortization schedule, with the unpaid balance due in a lump sum payment at the end of a specific period of time (usually 5 or 7 years). The mortgage may contain an option to �reset� the interest rate to the current market rate and to extend the due date if certain conditions are met. (Federal Trade Commission) A mortgage loan that requires a large payment due upon maturity (for example, at the end of ten years). (Making Home Affordable) Type of mortgage loan in which the final payment is significantly larger than the payments that are made over the mortgage term. Borrowers might choose a balloon mortgage if they anticipate refinancing at the end of the term or if they have enough money to pay off the balance of a mortgage loan in a lump sum. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A balloon payment is due on a mortgage that usually offers a low monthly payment for an initial period of time. After that period of time elapses, the balance must be paid by the borrower or the amount must be refinanced. The large sum payable at the end of the loan term is called the �balloon payment.� (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) A mortgage that typically offers low rates for an initial period of time (usually 5, 7, or 10) years; after that time period elapses, the balance is due or is refinanced by the borrower. (US Dept of HUD) A mortgage that is amortized over a specific period of years, but requires a lump sum payment in full at an earlier date. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A mortgage loan in which the monthly payments are not large enough to repay the loan by the end of the term. So at the end of the term, the remaining balance comes due in a single large payment. (HardwickAssociates)

balloon note

A loan calling for periodic payments which are insufficient to fully amortize the face amount of the note prior to maturity, so that a principal sum known as a "balloon" is due at maturity. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

balloon payment

A final lump sum payment that is due, often at the maturity date of a balloon mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission) A large extra payment that may be charged at the end of a loan or lease. (Federal Reserve Education) A large extra payment that may be charged at the end of a mortgage loan or lease. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages) The final payment on a loan, when that payment is greater than the preceding installment payments and pays the loan in full. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The final lump sum payment due at the end of a balloon mortgage. (US Dept of HUD) The final large payment at the end of a balloon mortgage term. (HardwickAssociates)

balusters

Upright supports of a balustrade rail. (Publications- USA.gov)

balustrade

A row of balusters topped by a rail, edging a balcony or a staircase. (Publications- USA.gov)

band gap

In a semiconductor, the energy difference between the highest valence band and the lowest conduction band. (US Dept of Energy)

band gap energy

The amount of energy (in electron volts) required to free an outer shell electron from its orbit about the nucleus to a free state, and thus promote it from the valence to the conduction level. (US Dept of Energy)

bank

A business establishment in which money is kept for saving or commercial purposes or is invested, supplied for loans, or exchanged. (Federal Reserve Education) The margins of a channel. Banks are called right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

bank custodian

A bank custodian is responsible for maintaining the safety of clients' assets held at one of the custodian's premises, a sub-custodian facility or an outside depository. (Help With My Bank)

bank examination

Examination of a bank's assets, income, and expenses-as well as operations by representatives of Federal and State bank supervisory authority-to ensure that the bank is solvent and is operating in conformity with banking laws and sound banking principles. (Help With My Bank)

bank full

An established river stage at a given location along a river which is intended to represent the maximum safe water level that will not overflow the river banks or cause any significant damage within the river reach. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bank holding company

(aka BHC) Company that owns, or has controlling interest in, one or more banks. A company that owns more than one bank is known as a multibank holding company. The Board of Governors is responsible for regulating and supervising bank holding companies, even if the bank owned by the holding company is under the primary supervision of a different federal agency (the Comptroller of the Currency or the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation). (Federal Reserve Education)

Bank holiday

The practice of closing banks on a given day to avoid "runs" by depositors seeking to liquidate their accounts during recessions or depressions. (Federal Reserve Education)

Bank Insurance Fund

(aka BIF) One of the two federal deposit insurance funds created by Congress in 1989 and placed under the FDIC�s administrative control. The BIF insures deposits in most commercial banks and many savings banks. The FDIC�s �permanent insurance fund,� which had been in existence since 1934, was dissolved when the BIF was established. The money for a deposit insurance fund comes from the assessments contributed by member banks and also from investment income earned by the fund. (Also see Savings Association Insurance Fund.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

bank note

A term used synonymously with paper money or currency issued by a bank. Notes are, in effect, a promise to pay the bearer on demand the amount stated on the face of the note. Today, only the Federal Reserve Banks are authorized to issue bank notes, i.e., Federal Reserve notes, in the United States. (Federal Reserve Education)

bank regulation

The formulation and issuance by authorized agencies of specific rules or regulations, under governing law, for the conduct and structure of banking. (Federal Reserve Education)

bank run

(aka bank panic) A series of unexpected cash withdrawals caused by a sudden decline in depositor confidence or fear that the bank will be closed by the chartering agency, i.e. many depositors withdraw cash almost simultaneously. Since the cash reserve a bank keeps on hand is only a small fraction of its deposits, a large number of withdrawals in a short period of time can deplete available cash and force the bank to close and possibly go out of business. (Federal Reserve Education)

bank statement

Periodically the bank provides a statement of a customer's deposit account. It shows all deposits made, all checks paid, and other debits posted during the period (usually one month), as well as the current balance. (Help With My Bank)

bank storage

The water absorbed into the banks of a stream channel, when the stages rise above the water table in the bank formations, then returns to the channel as effluent seepage when the stages fall below the water table. (After Houk, 1951, p. 179.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Water that has inflitrated from a reservoir into the surrounding land where it remains in storage until water level in the reservoir is lowered. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bank supervision

Oversight of individual banks to ensure that they are operated prudently and in accordance with applicable statutes and regulations. (Federal Reserve Education)

banker's acceptance

Banker's acceptances are negotiable time drafts, or bills of exchange, that have been accepted by a bank which, by accepting, assumes the obligation to pay the holder of the draft the face amount of the instrument on the maturity date specified. They are used primarily to finance the export, import, shipment or storage of goods. (Federal Reserve Education)

bankfull stage

Stage at which a stream first overflows its natural banks. (See also Flood stage. Bankfull stage is a hydraulic term, whereas flood stage implies damage.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

banking day

A business day during which an office of a bank is open to the public for substantially all of its banking functions. (Help With My Bank)

bankrupt

A bankrupt person, firm, or corporation has insufficient assets to cover their debts. The debtor seeks relief through a court proceeding to work out a payment schedule or erase debts. In some cases, the debtor must surrender control of all assets to a court-appointed trustee. (Help With My Bank)

bankruptcy

Legally declared unable to pay your debts. Bankruptcy can severely impact your credit and your ability to borrow money. (Freddie Mac) Legally declared unable to pay your debts. Bankruptcy can severely impact your credit and your ability to borrow money. (Federal Trade Commission) A legal proceeding declaring that an individual is unable to pay debts. Chapters 7 and 13 of the federal bankruptcy code govern personal bankruptcy. (Federal Reserve Education) The legal proceedings by which the affairs of a bankrupt person are turned over to a trustee or receiver for administration under the bankruptcy laws. There are two types of bankruptcy:�Involuntary bankruptcy-one or more creditors of an insolvent debtor file a petition having the debtor declared bankrupt. Voluntary bankruptcy-the debtor files a petition claiming inability to meet financial obligations and willingness to be declared bankrupt. (Help With My Bank) A federal law whereby a person's assets are turned over to a trustee and used to pay off outstanding debts; this usually occurs when someone owes more than they have the ability to repay. (US Dept of HUD) A federal court proceeding in which debtors are relieved of liability for their debts after surrender of their assets to a court appointed trustee . (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) When a person or business is unable to pay their debts and seeks protection of the state against creditors. Bankruptcies remain on credit records for up to ten years and can prevent a person from being able to get a loan. (HardwickAssociates) A legal procedure for dealing with debt problems of individuals and businesses; specifically, a case filed under one of the chapters of title 11 of the United States Code (the Bankruptcy Code). (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankruptcy administrator

An officer of the judiciary serving in the judicial districts of Alabama and North Carolina who, like the U.S. trustee, is responsible for supervising the administration of bankruptcy cases, estates, and trustees; monitoring plans and disclosure statements; monitoring creditors' committees; monitoring fee applications; and performing other statutory duties. Compare U.S. trustee. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankruptcy code

The informal name for title 11 of the United States Code (11 U.S.C. �� 101-1330), the federal bankruptcy law. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankruptcy court

The bankruptcy judges in regular active service in each district; a unit of the district court. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankruptcy estate

All legal or equitable interests of the debtor in property at the time of the bankruptcy filing. (The estate includes all property in which the debtor has an interest, even if it is owned or held by another person.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankruptcy judge

A judicial officer of the United States district court who is the court official with decision-making power over federal bankruptcy cases. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankruptcy petition

The document filed by the debtor (in a voluntary case) or by creditors (in an involuntary case) by which opens the bankruptcy case. (There are official forms for bankruptcy petitions.) (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

bankwire

An electronic communications network owned by an association of banks and used to transfer messages between subscribing banks. Bankwire also offers a clearing service called Cashwire that includes a settlement facility. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

bar�

An elongated landform generated by waves and currents, usually running parallel to the shore, composed predominantly of unconsolidated sand, gravel, stones, cobbles, or rubble and with water on two sides. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

barrage (gate-structure dam)

A barrier built across a river, comprising a series of gates which when fully open allow the flood to pass without appreciably increasing the flood level upstream of the barrage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

barrel

A volumetric unit of measure for crude oil and petroleum products equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

barrel (petroleum)

42 U.S. gallons (306 pounds of oil, or 5.78 million Btu). (US Dept of Energy)

barren land

A Land cover/use category used to classify lands with limited capacity to support life and having less than 5 percent vegetative cover. Vegetation, if present, is widely spaced. Typically, the surface of barren land is sand, rock, exposed subsoil, or salt-affected soils. Subcategories include salt flats; sand dunes; mud flats; beaches; bare exposed rock; quarries, strip mines, gravel pits, and borrow pits; riverwash; oil wasteland; mixed barren lands; and other barren land. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

barter

The direct exchange of goods and services among people. No money is used in the exchange. (Federal Reserve Education)

basal metabolism

The amount of heat given off by a person at rest in a comfortable environment; approximately 50 Btu per hour (Btu/h). (US Dept of Energy)

basalt

Fine-grained, dark-colored volcanic rock rich in iron-bearing minerals. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bascule gate

See flap gate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base

The end of a lamp containing electrical contacts. (Energy Star.gov) End of the light bulb that inserts into the lamp socket. (Energy Star.gov) A substance that has a pH value between 7 and 14. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base acreage

(aka crop acreage base) A farm's crop-specific acreage of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, rice, oilseeds, pulse crops, or peanuts eligible to participate in commodity programs. Base acreage includes land that would have been eligible to receive production flexibility contract payments in 2002 and acreage (specified in legislation) planted to other covered commodities (oilseed and peanut producers). Base acreage refers to cropland on a farm, not to specific parcels of land. For a description of rules for determining base see Crop Acreage Bases and Program Payment Yields, 1981 Through 2002 Farm Acts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

base course

A layer of specified or selected material of planned thickness constructed on the subgrade or subbase for the purpose of serving one or more functions such as distributing load, providing drainage, minimizing frost action, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base discharge (for peak discharge)

In the Geological Survey's annual reports on surface-water supply, the discharge above which peak discharge data are published. The base discharge at each station is selected so that an average of about three peaks a year will be presented. (See also Partial-duration flood series.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

base exchange

The physicochemical process whereby one species of ions adsorbed on soil particles is replaced by another species. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base flood

A flood having a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) The flood having a one percent chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given year. This term is used in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to indicate the minimum level of flooding to be used by a community in its flood plain management regulations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base flood depth

(aka BFD) The depth shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map for Zone AO that indicates the depth of water above highest adjacent grade resulting from a flood that has a one percent chance of equaling or exceeding that level in any given year. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

base flood elevation

(aka BFE) The elevation of surface water resulting from a flood that has a 1 percent chance of equaling or exceeding that level in any given year. The BFE is shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) for zones AE, AH, A1�A30, AR, AR/A, AR/AE, AR/A1� A30, AR/AH, AR/AO, V1�V30, and VE. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

base flood plain

The flood plain innundated by the 100-year flood. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base flow

See Base runoff. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) Ground water inflow to the river. Portion of stream discharge that is derived from natural storage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base gas

The quantity of natural gas needed to maintain adequate reservoir pressures and deliverability rates throughout the withdrawal season. Base gas usually is not withdrawn and remains in the reservoir. All natural gas native to a depleted reservoir is included in the base gas volume. (US Energy Information Administration)

base imagery

The ortho-rectified imagery (aerial photography/satellite imagery) that is used as the base image (map) to overlay wetlands data. Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quads (DOQQs) at 1:12,000 scale are currently the most widely-used base imagery. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

base power

Power generated by a power generator that operates at a very high capacity factor. (US Dept of Energy)

base runoff

Sustained or fair weather runoff. In most streams, base runoff is composed largely of groundwater effluent. (Langbein and others, 1947, p. 6.) The term base flow is often used in the same sense as base runoff. However, the distinction is the same as that between streamflow and runoff. When the concept in the terms base flow and base runoff is that of the natural flow in a stream, base runoff is the logical term. (See alsoGround-water runoff and Direct runoff.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

base safety condition

The level of loading above which a dam failure does not contribute an incremental loss of life. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base thickness

(See also base wide) The maximum thickness or width of a dam measured horizontally between upstream and downstream faces and normal to the axis or centerline crest of the dam, but excluding projections for outlets or other appurtenant structures. The base thickness of the crown cantilever of an arch dam. In general, the term thickness is used for gravity or arch dams, and width is used for other dams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

base width

(See also base thickness) The maximum thickness or width of a dam measured horizontally between upstream and downstream faces and normal to the axis or centerline crest of the dam, but excluding projections for outlets or other appurtenant structures. The base thickness of the crown cantilever of an arch dam. In general, the term thickness is used for gravity or arch dams, and width is used for other dams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

baseboard

A board along the floor against walls and partitions to hid gaps. (Publications- USA.gov)

baseboard radiator

A type of radiant heating system where the radiator is located along an exterior wall where the wall meets the floor. (US Dept of Energy)

baseline

The initial soil condition before monitoring soil quality over time. Subsequent measurements on the same soil are compared to the baseline measurement. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

baseline (condition or alternative)

Conditions that would prevail if no actions were taken. See future without. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

baseline profile

Used for a survey of the environmental conditions and organisms existing in a region prior to unnatural disturbances. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

baseload

Minimum load in a power system over a given period of time. The minimum constant amount of load connected to the power system over a given time period, usually on a monthly, seasonal, or yearly basis. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

baseload capacity

The power output of a power plant that can be continuously produced. (US Dept of Energy)

baseload demand

The minimum demand experienced by a power plant. (US Dept of Energy)

baseload plant

Powerplant normally operated to carry baseload; consequently, it operates essentially at a constant load. A plant, usually housing high-efficiency steam-electric units, which is normally operated to take all or part of the minimum load of a system, and which consequently produces electricity at an essentially constant rate and runs continuously. These units are operated to maximize system mechanical and thermal efficiency and minimize system operating costs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

baseload power plant

A power plant that is normally operated to generate a base load, and that usually operates at a constant load; examples include coal fired and nuclear fueled power plants. (US Dept of Energy)

baseloading

Running water through a powerplant at a roughly steady rate, thereby producing power at a steady rate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

basement

Any area of the building, including any sunken room or sunken portion of a room, having its floor below ground level (subgrade) on all sides. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) The conditioned or unconditioned space below the main living area or primary floor of a building. (US Dept of Energy)

basement wall

Basement walls that enclose heated spaces are part of the building envelope. Basement wall refers to the opaque portion of the wall (excluding windows and doors). To be considered a basement wall, at least 50% of the wall's total wall area (including openings) must be below grade. Treat walls on each side of the basement individually when determining if they are above-grade or basement walls. For any individual wall less than 50% below grade, include the entire opaque wall area of that individual wall as part of the above-grade walls. (Energycodes.gov)

basic hydrologic data

Includes inventories of features of land and water that vary only from place to place (topographic and geologic maps are examples), and records of processes that vary with both place and time. (Records of precipitation, streamflow, ground-water, and quality-of-water analyses are examples.) Basic hydrologic information is a broader term that includes surveys of the water resources of particular areas and a study of their physical and related economic processes, interrelations and mechanisms. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

basic-stage flood series

See Partial duration flood series. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

basin runoff model

Any one of the computer programs that mathematically models basin characteristics to forecast reservoir inflow from rainfall and/or streamflow data. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

basin states

Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

batch heater

This simple passive solar hot water system consists of one or more storage tanks placed in an insulated box that has a glazed side facing the sun. A batch heater is mounted on the ground or on the roof (make sure your roof structure is strong enough to support it). Some batch heaters use "selective" surfaces on the tank(s). These surfaces absorb sun well but inhibit radiative loss. Also known as bread box systems or integral collector storage systems. (US Dept of Energy)

batch process

A process for carrying out a reaction in which the reactants are fed in discrete and successive charges. (US Dept of Energy)

batt

Insulation in the form of a blanket, rather than loose filling. (Publications- USA.gov)

batt/blanket

A flexible roll or strip of insulating material in widths suited to standard spacings of building structural members (studs and joists). They are made from glass or rock wool fibers. Blankets are continuous rolls. Batts are pre-cut to four or eight foot lengths. (US Dept of Energy)

batten

Small thin strips covering joints between wider boards on exterior building surfaces. (Publications- USA.gov)

batter

Inclination from the vertical. A pile driven at an angle to widen the area of support and to resist thrust. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

battery

An energy storage device composed of one or more electrolyte cells. (US Dept of Energy)

battery energy storage

Energy storage using electrochemical batteries. The three main applications for battery energy storage systems include spinning reserve at generating stations, load leveling at substations, and peak shaving on the customer side of the meter. (US Dept of Energy)

BDD

Business decision document. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BEA

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

beach

A sloping landform on the shore of larger water bodies, generated by waves and currents and extending from the water to a distinct break in landform or substrate type (e.g., a foredune, cliff, or bank). (US Fish & Wildlife Service) A Barren land subcategory. Includes the area adjacent to the shore of an ocean, sea, large river, or lake that is washed by the tide or waves. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

beaching

The action of water waves by which beach materials settle into the water because of removal of finer materials. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

beadwall

A form of movable insulation that uses tiny polystyrene beads blown into the space between two window panes. (US Dept of Energy)

beam

One of the principal horizontal wood or steel members of a building. (Publications- USA.gov) A structural supporting member. (HardwickAssociates)

beam radiation

Solar radiation that is not scattered by dust or water droplets. (US Dept of Energy)

bearing wall

A wall that supports a floor or roof of a building. (Publications- USA.gov) A wall that carries ceiling rafters or roof trusses. (US Dept of Energy)

bear-trap gate

Any of a family of crest gates consisting of two leaves, an upstream leaf hinged and sealed at the upstream edge and a downstream leaf hinged and sealed on its downstream edge. The two leaves have a sliding seal at their juncture. When lowered the leaves are in a horizontal position. Gate is raised by admitting water from the forebay into the space beneath the leaves. Probably the first gate operated on the principal of application of headwater pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bed elevation

Height of streambed above a specified level. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bed layer

The flow layer, several grain diameters thick (usually taken as two grain diameters thick), immediately above the bed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bed load

Sediment that moves by rolling or sliding along the bed and is essentially in contact with the streambed in the bed layer. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bed material

Unconsolidated material, or sediment mixture, of which a streambed is composed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bedding

Ground, or layer of such, for support purposes on which pipe is laid. Soil placed beneath and beside a pipe to support the load on the pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bedding plane

A separation or weakness between two layers of rock, caused by changes during the building up of the rock-forming material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bedload

Coarse sediments carried along near the bottom of a river. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bed-load discharge

The quantity of bed load passing a cross section of a stream in a unit of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bed-material discharge

That part of the total sediment discharge which is composed of grain sizes found in the bed. The bed-material discharge is assumed equal to the transport capability of the flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bedrock

A more or less solid layer of rock found on the surface of the land or below the soil. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) The solid rock at the surface or underlying other surface materials. Rock of relatively great thickness and extent in its native location. A general term for any solid rock, not exhibiting soil-like properties, that underlies soil or other unconsolidated surficial materials. As distinguished from boulders. The consolidated body of natural solid mineral matter which underlies the overburden soils. The solid rock that underlies all soil, sand, clay, gravel, and other loose materials on the earth's surface. Any sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic material represented as a unit in geology; being a sound and solid mass, layer, or ledge of mineral matter; and with shear wave velocities greater than 2500 feet per second. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BEF

Ballast efficacy factor or ballast efficiency factor (Energy Star.gov)

before-tax income

Income before taxes are deducted. Also known as �gross income.� (Federal Trade Commission)

beginning farmer or rancher

These are farmers and ranchers (or all members of the entity) who (a) have not operated a farm or ranch for more than 10 consecutive years, and (b) will materially or substantially participate in the operation of the farm or ranch. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

beginning farmer or rancher loans

To qualify as a beginning farmer or rancher under USDA's Farm Service Agency guidelines, the loan applicant must be an individual or entity who (1) has not operated a farm or ranch for more than 10 years; (2) meets the loan eligibility requirements of the program to which he/she is applying; and (3) substantially participates in the operation. For farm ownership (FO) loan purposes, the applicant cannot own a farm greater than 30 percent of the average size farm in the county. For direct FO loans, applicant must have participated in business operation of a farm for at least 3 years. If the applicant is an entity, all members must be related by blood or marriage, and all stockholders in a corporation must be eligible beginning farmers. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

behavior

Reaction of an animal to its environment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

beige book

Eight times a year, prior to FOMC meetings, each Federal Reserve Bank gathers anecdotal information on current economic conditions in its District through reports from Bank and Branch directors and interviews with key businesses, economists, market experts and other sources. The Beige Book summarizes this information by District and sector. (Federal Reserve Education)

bell

An expanded, or enlarged, end of a pipe section, into which the next pipe fits. See spigot. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

below-grade wall

That portion of a wall in the building envelope that is entirely below the finish grade and in contact with the ground. (Energycodes.gov)

below-grade walls

Basement or first-story walls (Section 802.2.8) associated with the exterior of the building that are at least 85% below grade. (Energycodes.gov)

bench

A working level or step in a cut. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bench mark

(aka BM) A permanent or temporary monument of known elevation above sea level, used for vertical control at a construction site. A point of known or assumed elevation used as a reference in determining other elevations. A permanent reference point (elevation) used in a survey. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

benchmark response

(aka BMR) A designated level or percent of response relative to the control level of response used in calculating a BMD. (US EPA- Pesticides)

benchmark soil

A benchmark soil is one of large extent, holds a key position in the soil classification system, or is of special significance to farming, engineering, forestry, livestock production, or other uses. The purpose of benchmark soils is to focus data collection and research efforts on soils that have the greatest potential for expansion of data and interpretations. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

bend

A change of direction in piping. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

beneficial interest

When a producer controls the commodity and retains the ability to make all decisions affecting the commodity, including movement, sale and the request for and repayment of a loan or LDP. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

beneficial use

Water loss through use for the betterment of society, e.g. irrigation or municipal use. See consumptive use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

beneficiary

A person who is entitled to receive the benefits or proceeds of a will, trust, insurance policy, retirement plan, annuity, or other contract. (Help With My Bank) Any individual, entity, or governmental agency (local, State, or Federal) that benefits from a Reclamation project. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

benefit-cost ratio (B/C)

The ratio of the present value of project benefits to the present value of the project costs, used in economic analysis. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

benefits charge

The addition of a per unit tax on sales of electricity, with the revenue generated used for or to encourage investments in energy efficiency measures and/or renewable energy projects. (US Dept of Energy)

benthic

Adjective from benthos, the biogeographic region that includes the bottom of a lake, sea, or ocean, and the littoral and supralittoral zones of the shore. (US Fish & Wildlife Service) Bottom of rivers, lakes, or oceans; organisms that live on the bottom of water bodies. Bottom- or depth-inhabiting. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

benthos

Organisms living in or on the bottom of a lake, pond, ocean, stream, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bentonitic clay (bentonite)

A clay with a high content of the mineral montmorillonite, usually characterized by high swelling on wetting and shrinkage on drying. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

berm

A horizontal strip or shelf built into an embankment or cut to break the continuity of the slope, usually for the purpose of reducing erosion or to increase the thickness of the embankment at a point of change in a slope or defined water surface elevation. A horizontal step in the sloping profile of an embankment dam. A shelf that breaks the continuity of a slope, or artificial ridge of earth. A ledge or shoulder, as along the edge of a road or canal. An artificial ridge of earth. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

best gate

The gate opening where the peak efficiency of a turbine occurs at a particular head. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BF

Ballast factor (Energy Star.gov)

BIA

U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BIA area certification acceptance plan

A plan prepared by a specific area office which delineates how it will meet certification acceptance requirements under 23 U.S.C., Section 117(a). {This section of law was deleted in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. CA is being replaced by Stewardship Agreements.} (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

BIA atlas map

A series of maps which depict the IRR/BIA road system by reservation and jurisdictions. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

BIA classification of roads

An identification of specific roads or trails that take into account current and future traffic generators, and relationships to connecting or adjacent BIA, State, county, Federal, and/or local roads. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

BIA roads system

Those existing and proposed roads for which the BIA has or plans to obtain legal right(s)-of-way. This includes only roads for which the BIA has the primary responsibility to construct, improve, and maintain. Any additions or deletions to this system must be supported by resolution from the ITG. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

BIA/FHWA memorandum of agreement

An agreement between the BIA and the FHWA which contains mutually agreeable roles and responsibilities for the administration of the IRR and Highway BridgeReplacement and Rehabilitation programs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

bias

A preference or inclination that precludes an appraiser�s impartiality, independence, or objectivity in an assignment. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

bib or bibcock

A water faucet to which a hose may be attached, also called a hose bib or sill cock. (Publications- USA.gov)

bicycle

A vehicle having two tandem wheels, propelled solely by human power, upon which any person or persons may ride. (23CFR217) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

biennial

Plant which produces seeds during its second year and then dies. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bikeway

1) Any road, path, or way which in some manner is specifically designated as being open to bicycle travel, regardless of whether such facilities are designated for the exclusive use of bicycles or are to be shared with other transportation modes. (23CFR217) 2) A facility designed to accommodate bicycle travel for recreational or commuting purposes. Bikeways are not necessarily separated facilities; they may be designed and operated to be shared with other travel modes. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

bilateralism

An international policy having as its objective the achievement of particular balances of trade between two nations by means of discriminatory tariffs, exchange, or other controls. The initiative is usually taken by the country having an �unfavorable� balance of trade. Extensive bilateralism results in a shift of international trade away from channels that would result from the principle of comparative advantage. See also multilateralism. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

bilevel switching

Refers to light-switching capabilities that enable two or more different light levels in a given area. For example, in a system with three-lamp fluorescent fixtures, one switch may operate the center lamp in each fixture, while another operates the outer lamps. This arrangement makes three lighting levels possible (one, two, or all three lamps lit), yet the term "bilevel" is still used to describe it. (Energy Star.gov)

bill

A short-term direct obligation of the U.S. Treasury (13, 26, or 52 weeks� maturity). See also note and bond. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) The principal vehicle employed by lawmakers for introducing proposed laws or proposals to repeal laws in one house of a legislature. Bills are generally designated by the house in which they are first introduced ("H" for House of Representatives, "S" for Senate) and numbered in order of introduction. They address either matters of general interest ("public bills") or narrow interest ("private bills"), such as individual claims against the federal government or a state. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust

See Emerson Humanitarian Trust. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

bill of sale

A physical receipt indicating the sale of property. (HardwickAssociates)

billing cycle

(aka cycle) The interval between the days or dates of regular periodic statements. These intervals shall be equal and no longer than a quarter of a year. An interval will be considered equal if the number of days in the cycle does not vary more than four days from the regular day or date of the periodic statement. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z)) The time interval between the dates on which regular periodic statements are issued. (Help With My Bank)

billing date

The month, date, and year when a periodic or monthly statement is generated. Calculations have been performed for appropriate finance charges, minimum payment due, and new balance. (Help With My Bank)

billing error

A charge that appears on a periodic statement associated with an extension of credit (e.g., credit card) that�was not authorized by the cardholder or the cardholders' designee, is not properly identified, and was not accepted by the cardholder or the cardholder's designee. A billing error can also be caused by a creditor's failure to credit a payment or other credit to an account as well as accounting and clerical errors. (Help With My Bank)

bimetal

Two metals of different coefficients of expansion welded together so that the piece will bend in one direction when heated, and in the other when cooled, and can be used to open or close electrical circuits, as in thermostats. (US Dept of Energy)

bin method

A method of predicting heating and/or cooling loads using instantaneous load calculation at different outdoor dry-bulb temperatures, and multiplying the result by the number of hours of occurrence of each temperature. (US Dept of Energy)

binary cycle

Combination of two power plant turbine cycles utilizing two different working fluids for power production. The waste heat from the first turbine cycle provides the heat energy for the operation of the second turbine, thus providing higher overall system efficiencies. (US Dept of Energy)

binary cycle geothermal plants

Binary cycle systems can be used with liquids at temperatures less than 350 F (177 C). In these systems, the hot geothermal liquid vaporizes a secondary working fluid, which then drives a turbine. (US Dept of Energy)

binder (soil binder)

Portion of soil passing a No. 40 (0.425 mm) United States Standard sieve. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

binder or certificate of insurance

A temporary agreement between company, producer, and insured that the policy is in effect. The NFIP does not recognize binders. However, the NFIP recognizes Certificates of Insurance for renewal policies. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

binomial

Scientific name of plants or animals which has two parts: a genus and a species name. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bioaccumulation

The intake and retention of nonfood substances by a living organism from its environment, resulting in a build-up of the substances in the organism. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bioaccumulation/biomagnification

A process where chemicals are retained in fatty body tissue and increase in concentration over time. Biomagnification is the increase of tissue accumulation in species higher in the natural food chain as contaminated food species are eaten. (US EPA- Pesticides)

bioassay

A method of testing a material's effects on living organisms. (US EPA- Pesticides) Test which determines the effect of a chemical on a living organism. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bioassimilation

The accumulation of a substance within a habitat. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biochemical oxygen demand

The weight of oxygen taken up mainly as a result of the oxidation of the constituents of a sample of water by biological action; expressed as the number of parts per million of oxygen taken up by the sample from water originally saturated with air, usually over a period of five days at 20 degrees centigrade. A standard means of estimating the degree of contamination of water. (US Dept of Energy)

biochemicals

Chemicals that are either naturally occurring or identical to naturally occurring substances. Examples include hormones, pheromones, and enzymes. Biochemicals function as pesticides through non-toxic, non-lethal modes of action, such as disrupting the mating pattern of insects, regulating growth, or acting as repellants. Biochemicals tend to be environmentally compatible and are thus important to Integrated Pest Management programs. (US EPA- Pesticides)

biocide

A substance or chemical that kills organisms such as mold. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

bioconversion

The conversion of one form of energy into another by the action of plants or microorganisms. The conversion of biomass to ethanol, methanol, or methane. (US Dept of Energy)

bioenergy

The conversion of the complex carbohydrates in organic material into energy. (US Dept of Energy)

biogas

A combustible gas created by anaerobic decomposition of organic material, composed primarily of methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. (US Dept of Energy)

biogasification

(aka biomethanization) The process of decomposing biomass with anaerobic bacteria to produce biogas. (US Dept of Energy)

biological contaminants

1) Living organisms, such as viruses, bacteria, or mold (fungi), 2) the remains of living organisms, or 3) debris from or pieces of dead organisms. Biological contaminants can be small enough to be inhaled, and may cause many types of health effects including allergic reactions and respiratory disorders. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Agents derived from, or that are, living organisms (e.g., viruses, bacteria, fungi, and mammal and bird antigens) that can be inhaled and can cause many types of health effects including allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases, and infectious diseases. Also referred to as "microbiologicals" or "microbials." (US Environmental Protection Agency)

biological diversity

Number and kinds of organisms per unit area or volume; the composition of species in a given area at a given time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biological growth

The activity and growth of any and all living organisms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biological magnification

(aka biomagnification) Step by step concentration of substances in successive levels of food chains. The enhancement of a substance (usually a contaminant) in a food web such that the organisms eventually contain higher concentrations of the substance than their food sources. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biological opinion

(aka BO) Document stating the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) opinion as to whether a Federal action is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biological pesticide

A chemical which is derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, or other non-man-made synthesis and which can be used for pest control. (US EPA- Pesticides) Certain microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa that are effective in controlling target pests. These agents usually do not have toxic effects on animals and people and do not leave toxic or persistent chemical residues in the environment. Comb. with above (US EPA- Pesticides)

biological processes

Processes characteristic of, or resulting from, the activities of living organisms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biological soil crust

Also called microbiotic, microphytic, cryptobiotic or cryptogamic crusts. A living community of bacteria, microfungi, cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, and lichens that grow on or just below the soil surface. Biological crusts can heavily influence the morphology of the soil surface, stabilize soil, fix carbon and nitrogen, and can either increase or decrease infiltration. The percent cover and the components of the crust can vary across short distances. Identification of biological crust organisms is simplified through the use of three broad morphological groups: The cyanobacteria group includes cyanobacteria and green algae. The moss group includes short and tall mosses, but not club moss mats, such as those in northern latitudes, or spike moss. The lichen group includes crustose, gelatinous, squamulose, foliose, and fruiticose lichen, as well as liverworts. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

biology

The scientific study of life. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biomagnification

(aka biological magnification) Step by step concentration of substances in successive levels of food chains. The enhancement of a substance (usually a contaminant) in a food web such that the organisms eventually contain higher concentrations of the substance than their food sources. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biomass

Organic nonfossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source. (US Energy Information Administration) As defined by the Energy Security Act (PL 96-294) of 1980, "any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants." (US Dept of Energy) Total mass or amount of living organisms in a particular area or environment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biomass energy

Energy produced by the conversion of biomass directly to heat or to a liquid or gas that can be converted to energy. (US Dept of Energy)

biomass fuel

Biomass converted directly to energy or converted to liquid or gaseous fuels such as ethanol, methanol, methane, and hydrogen. (US Dept of Energy)

biomass gasification

The conversion of biomass into a gas, by biogasification (see above) or thermal gasification, in which hydrogen is produced from high-temperature gasifying and low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass. (US Dept of Energy)

biomethanization

(aka biogasification) The process of decomposing biomass with anaerobic bacteria to produce biogas. (US Dept of Energy)

biophotolysis

The action of light on a biological system that results in the dissociation of a substrate, usually water, to produce hydrogen. (US Dept of Energy)

biosphere

Portion of the solid and liquid earth where organisms live. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biota

Plant and animal life of a region. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biotic potential

Inherent capacity of an organism to reproduce and survive, which is pitted against limiting influences of the environment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biotic pyramid

Set of all food chains or hierarchic arrangements of organisms as eaters and eaten in a prescribed area when tabulated by numbers or by biomasses, usually takes the form of an inverted pyramid. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biotope

Smallest geographical unit of a habitat, characterized by a high degree of uniformity in the environment and its plant and animal life, e.g., a decaying stump. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biotype

Genetically homogeneous population composed only of closely similar individuals; a genotypic race or group of organisms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bituminous

Containing asphalt or tar. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

biweekly mortgage

A loan requiring payments of principal and interest at two-week intervals. This type of loan amortizes much faster than monthly payment loans. The payment for a biweekly mortgage is half what a monthly payment would be. (Ginnie Mae) A mortgage where you make "half payments" every two weeks, rather than one payment per month. This results in making the equivalent of 13 monthly payments per year, rather than 12, significantly reducing the time it takes to pay off a thirty year mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

biweekly payment mortgage

A mortgage with payments due every two weeks (instead of monthly). (Federal Trade Commission) A mortgage paid twice a month instead of once a month, reducing the amount of interest to be paid on the loan. (US Dept of HUD)

black water

Liquid and solid human body waste and the carriage water generated through toilet usage. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

blackbody

A thermal radiator of uniform temperature whose radiant exitance in all parts of the spectrum is the maximum obtainable from any thermal radiator at the same temperature. Such a radiator is called a blackbody because it will absorb all the radiant energy that falls upon it. All other thermal radiators are called nonblackbodies; they radiate less energy in some or all wavelength intervals than a blackbody of the same size and the same temperature. (Energy Star.gov) An ideal substance that absorbs all radiation falling on it, and reflecting nothing. (US Dept of Energy)

blackout

The disconnection of the source of electricity from all the electrical loads in a certain geographical area brought about by an emergency forced outage or other fault in the generation, transmission, or distribution system serving the area. See brownout. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

blade

Usually a part of an excavator which digs and pushes dirt but does not carry it. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

blanket insurance

A single amount of insurance applying to more than one building and/or contents. Blanket insurance is not permitted under the NFIP. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

blanket mortgage

A single mortgage covering more than one parcel of real estate, such as a mortgage covering all the lots of a builder in a subdivision. For this survey, the real estate covered by a blanket mortgage is considered one property. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

blast

To loosen or move rock or soil by means of explosives or an explosion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

blasting mats

A blanket usually composed of woven cable or interlocked rings placed over a blast to reduce flyrock. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bleeding

Seeping of resin or gum from lumber. This term is also used in referring to the process of drawing air from water pipes. (Publications- USA.gov)

blighted area

Any region of a city or town that has fallen into disrepair or otherwise has become undesirable. (HardwickAssociates)

blighted structure

A structure is blighted when it exhibits objectively determinable signs of deterioration sufficient to constitute a threat to human health, safety, and public welfare. (US Dept of HUD)

blights

Diseases that hurt and sometimes destroy plants. Blights will cause a plant to wither, stop growing, or cause all or parts of it to die. (US EPA- Pesticides)

blind spot

An area from which radio transmissions and/or radar echoes cannot be received. The term is also used to describe portions of the airport not visible from the control tower. (FAA4) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

BLM

U.S. Bureau of Land Management. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

blockloading

Providing a consistent amount of electrical power in a stated period of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

blood alcohol concentration

(aka BAC) Is measured as a percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood (grams/deciliter). A positive BAC level (0.01 g/dl and higher) indicates that alcohol was consumed by the person tested. A BAC level of 0.10 g/dl or more indicates that the person was intoxicated. (NHTSA3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

blood alcohol concentration (highway)

A measurement of the percentage of alcohol in the blood by grams per deciliter. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

blower

The device in an air conditioner that distributes the filtered air from the return duct over the cooling coil/heat exchanger. This circulated air is cooled/heated and then sent through the supply duct, past dampers, and through supply diffusers to the living/working space. (US Dept of Energy)

blower door

A device used by energy auditors to pressurize a building to locate places of air leakage and energy loss. (US Dept of Energy)

blown in insulation

(see also loose fill) An insulation product composed of loose fibers or fiber pellets that are blown into building cavities or attics using special pneumatic equipment. (US Dept of Energy)

blue tops

Grade stakes whose tops indicate finish grade level. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BMD10

Benchmark Dose associated with a 10% response adjusted for background. (US EPA- Pesticides)

BO

Biological Opinion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

board of directors

The governing group of volunteers charged with the fiduciary responsibility of establishing policies and providing strategic direction of a credit union. As outlined in the Federal Credit Union Act, this group must consist of an odd number of individuals not less than 5 and not more than 15. (National Credit Union Administration)

Board of Governors

Central, governmental agency of the Federal Reserve System, located in Washington, D.C., and composed of seven members who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Board of Governors is responsible for domestic and international economic analysis; with other components of the System, for the conduct of monetary policy; for supervision and regulation of certain banking organizations; for operation of much of the nation's payments system; and for administration of most of the nation's laws that protect consumers in credit transactions. (Federal Reserve Education)

BOCA

Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (Energycodes.gov)

BOD

Biochemical oxygen demand. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bodily injury

Injury to the body, sickness, or disease including death resulting from any of these. (49CFR387) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

boiler

A pressurized system in which water is vaporized to steam by heat transferred from a source of higher temperature, usually the products of combustion from burning fuels. Steam thus generated may be used directly as a heating medium or as the working fluid in a prime mover to convert thermal energy to mechanical work, which in turn may be converted to electrical energy. (Energycodes.gov) A vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, fuel oil, or coal is used to generate hot water or steam for applications ranging from building space heating to electric power production or industrial process heat. (US Dept of Energy)

boiler feedwater

The water that is forced into a boiler to take the place of that which is evaporated in the generation of steam. (US Dept of Energy)

boiler horsepower

A unit of rate of water evaporation equal to the evaporation per hour of 34.5 pounds of water at a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit into steam at 212 degrees F. (US Dept of Energy)

boiler pressure

The pressure of the steam or water in a boiler as measured; usually expressed in pounds per square inch gauge (psig). (US Dept of Energy)

boiler rating

The heating capacity of a steam boiler; expressed in Btu per hour (Btu/h), or horsepower, or pounds of steam per hour. (US Dept of Energy)

boiler, packaged

A boiler that is shipped complete with heating equipment, mechanical draft equipment, and automatic controls; usually shipped in one or more sections. A packaged boiler includes factory-built boilers manufactured as a unit or system, disassembled for shipment, and reassembled at the site. (Energycodes.gov)

BOM

U.S. Bureau of Mines. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bona fide

In good faith, without fraud. (Federal Trade Commission) Any genuine offer, made without intent to defraud or deceive. (HardwickAssociates)

bond

A certificate serving as security for payment of a debt. Bonds backed by mortgage loans are pooled together and sold in the secondary market. (Ginnie Mae) A long-term obligation of the U.S. Treasury (more than 10 years� maturity). See also bill and note. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

bond equivalent yield

(aka BEY) A bond, Treasury bill, or other discount instrument�s yield over its life, assuming it is purchased at the asked price and the return is annualized using a simple interest approach. The bond equivalent yield is equal to a bill�s discount, expressed as a fraction of the purchase price multiplied by 365 divided by the number of days to maturity. BEY = (discount/purchase price) x (365/days to maturity) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

bond, U.S. savings

Savings bonds are issued in face value denominations by the U.S. Government in denominations ranging from $50 to $10,000. They are typically long-term, low-risk investment tools. (Help With My Bank)

bone (oven) dry

In reference to solid biomass fuels, such as wood, having zero moisture content. (US Dept of Energy)

bone dry unit

A quantity of (solid) biomass fuel equal to 2,400 pounds bone dry. (US Dept of Energy)

bonnet

The upper portion or the cover of a gate valve body. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

book value

The dollar amount shown on the institution�s accounting records or related financial statements. The �gross book value� of an asset is the value without consideration for adjustments such as valuation allowances. The �net book value� is the book value net of such adjustments. The FDIC restates amounts on the books of a failed institution to conform to the FDIC�s liquidation accounting practices. Therefore, in the FDIC accounting environment, book value generally refers to the unpaid balance of loans or accounts receivable, or the recorded amount of other types of assets (for example, ORE or securities). (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

book value reduction

The decrease in book value of all types of assets resulting from activities such as the collection of loan principal, the sale of an asset, the forgiveness of a debt, and the write-off or donation of an asset. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

book-entry securities

Securities that are recorded in electronic records, called book entries, rather than as paper certificates. Ownership of U.S. government book-entry securities is transferred over Fedwire. (Federal Reserve Education)

books

See publications. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

booster pump

A pump for circulating the heat transfer fluid in a hydronic heating system. (US Dept of Energy)

boot

In heating and cooling system distribution ductwork, the transformation pieces connecting horizontal round leaders to vertical rectangular stacks. (US Dept of Energy)

BOR

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

borderline soils

Soils that have the characteristics of two of the classification groups in the Unified Soil Classification System. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

boring

Rotary drilling. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

boron

The chemical element commonly used as the dopant in solar photovoltaic device or cell material. (US Dept of Energy)

borrow

Material excavated from one area to be used as fill material in another area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

borrow areas

Generally, surface areas, that contain borrow pits. The area from which material for an embankment is excavated. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

borrow pits

Specific site(s) within a borrow area from which material is excavated for use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

borrower

One who receives funds in the form of a loan with the obligation of repaying the loan in full with interest. The borrower may be purchasing property, refinancing an existing mortgage loan, or borrowing against the equity of the property for other purposes. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A person who has been approved to receive a mortgage loan and is then obligated to repay it and any additional fees according to the mortgage loan terms. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A person who has been approved to receive a loan and is then obligated to repay it and any additional fees according to the loan terms. (US Dept of HUD) The entity created for purposes of owning and operating a project. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

bottled gas

A generic term for liquefied and pressurized gas, ordinarily butane, propane, or a mixture of the two, contained in a cylinder for domestic use. (US Dept of Energy)

bottoming-cycle

A means to increase the thermal efficiency of a steam electric generating system by converting some waste heat from the condenser into electricity. The heat engine in a bottoming cycle would be a condensing turbine similar in principle to a steam turbine but operating with a different working fluid at a much lower temperature and pressure. (US Dept of Energy)

boulder�

Rock fragments larger than 60.4 cm (24 inches) in diameter. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

boulder

A rock fragment, usually rounded by weathering or abrasion, with an average dimension of 12 inches or more: will not pass a 12-inch screen. A particle of rock that will not pass a 12-inch (300-mm) square opening. A rock which is too heavy to be lifted readily by hand. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

boulder clay

A geological term used to designate glacial drift that has not been subjected to the sorting action of water and therefore contains particles from boulders to clay sizes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bow

The front of a vessel. (MARAD2) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

box girder

A hollow steel beam with a square or rectangular cross section. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

brace

A piece of wood or other material used to form a triangle and stiffen some part of a structure. (Publications- USA.gov)

braced framing

Construction technique using posts and cross-bracing for greater rigidity. (Publications- USA.gov)

brackish

Mixed fresh and salt waters. Water containing too much salt to be useful to people but less salt than ocean water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

brackish�

Marine and Estuarine waters with Mixohaline salinity. The term should not be applied to inland waters. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

braiding of river channels

Successive division and rejoining (of riverflow ) with accompanying islands is the important characteristic denoted by the synonymous terms, braided or anastomosing stream. (Leopold and Wolman, 1957, p. 40.) A braided stream is composed of anabranches. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

brake

An energy conversion mechanism used to stop, or hold a vehicle stationary. (49CFR393) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

brake horsepower

The brake horsepower of a pump is the actual motor input horsepower required to produce the hydraulic horsepower from a pump (flow and head) taking into account the losses incurred within the pump due to friction, leakage, etc. Brake horsepower is the ratio of hydraulic horsepower to pump efficiency. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

branch

An addition to the main pipe in a piping system. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

branch banking

Multi-office banking. Branch banking occurs when a single bank conducts its business at a number of different offices located in the same or different cities, states, or countries. The ability to operate branches is controlled by state law; most states permit branches within city limits and a few states permit statewide banking. Federal law ties the ability of a national bank to establish and operate branches to the scope of the branching powers granted by state law to the state banks located in the state in which the national bank is situated. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

branch breakup

A resolution strategy that provides bidders with the choice of bidding on the entire franchise or on individual or groups of branches of the failing institution. Marketing failing institutions on both a whole franchise and a branch breakup basis can expand the universe of potential buyers and may result in better bids in the aggregate. In branch breakup transactions, prospective acquirers are required to submit bids on both the �all deposits� and �insured deposits� options except for bids on the entire franchise. The branch breakup resolution strategy was developed by the RTC to allow smaller institutions to participate in the resolution process and to increase competition among the bidders. (Also see core branch P&A and limited branch P&A.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

branch circuit

The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s); the final wiring run to the load. (Energycodes.gov)

brayton cycle

A thermodynamic cycle using constant pressure, heat addition and rejection, representing the idealized behavior of the working fluid in a gas turbine type heat engine. (US Dept of Energy)

breach

A gap, rift, hole, or rupture in a dam; providing a break; allowing water stored behind a dam to flow through in an uncontrolled and unplanned manner. An eroded opening through a dam which drains the reservoir. A controlled breach is a constructed opening. An uncontrolled breach is an unintentional opening which allows uncontrolled discharge from the reservoir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

breach hydrograph

A flood hydrograph resulting from a dam breach. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bread box system

This simple passive solar hot water system consists of one or more storage tanks placed in an insulated box that has a glazed side facing the sun. A bread box system is mounted on the ground or on the roof (make sure your roof structure is strong enough to support it). Some systems use "selective" surfaces on the tank(s). These surfaces absorb sun well but inhibit radiative loss. Also known as batch heaters or integral collector storage systems. (US Dept of Energy)

breakaway wall

A wall that is not part of the structural support of the building and is intended through its design and construction to collapse under specific lateral loading forces, without causing damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

breathing zone

Area of a room in which occupants breathe as they stand, sit, or lie down. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

breccia (volcanic breccia)

Conglomerate-like rock made up of angular pieces of volcanic rock usually bound in volcanic ash. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

brecciated

A rock made up of highly angular, coarse fragments. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

breeding density

Density of sexually mature organisms in a given area during the breeding period. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

breeding potential

Maximum rate of increase in numbers of individuals of a species or population under optimum conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

breeding rate

Actual rate of increase of new individuals in a given population; the breeding potential minus limiting factors. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

brick veneer

Brick used as the outer surface of a framed wall. (Publications- USA.gov)

bridge bank

A temporary national bank established and operated by the FDIC on an interim basis to acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of a failed institution until final resolution can be accomplished. The use of bridge banks generally is limited to situations in which more time is needed to permit the least costly resolution of a large or complex institution. (Also see Competitive Equality Banking Act.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

bridge bank / bridge corporate

A new charter issued for the purpose of continuing payments systems processing after a charter previously providing those services has been liquidated (the good bank in a good bank / bad bank process). (National Credit Union Administration)

bridge financing

An interim loan made to facilitate the purchase of a new home before the buyer's current residence sells and its equity is available to fund the new purchase. (HardwickAssociates)

bridge loan

A loan to "bridge" the gap between the termination of one mortgage and the beginning of another, such as when a borrower purchases a new home before receiving cash proceeds from the sale of a prior home. Also known as a swing loan. (Ginnie Mae) A short-term loan secured by the borrower�s current home (which is usually for sale) that allows the proceeds to be used for building or closing on a new house before the current home is sold. Also known as a �swing loan.� (Federal Trade Commission) A form of interim loan, generally made between a short-term loan and a permanent (long-term) loan, when the borrower needs to have more time before taking the long-term financing. For this survey, this is not a mortgage. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) A short-term loan paid back relatively fast. Normally used until a long-term loan can be processed. (US Dept of HUD)

Bridge Management System

(aka BMS) A systematic process that provides, analyzes, and summarizes bridge information for use in selecting and implementing cost-effective bridge construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance programs (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

bridge, Class A

A bridge located on a Federal-aid highway. Examination of this type of bridge is required every 2 years with an in-depth examination every 6 years. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bridge, Class B

A bridge not located on a Federal-aid highway that is used by the public. Examination of this type of bridge is required every 3 years. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bridge, Class C

A bridge not located on a Federal-aid highway that can be designated as being a private or operating bridge and could be gated or closed to the public, if desired. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bridging

Small wood or metal pieces placed diagonally between floor joists. (Publications- USA.gov) Structural members used between beams to strengthen the structure. (HardwickAssociates)

brine

Water saturated or strongly impregnated with salt. (US Dept of Energy)

British thermal unit

The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at the temperature at which water has its greatest density (approximately 39 degrees Fahrenheit). (US Energy Information Administration) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit; equal to 252 calories. (US Dept of Energy) Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one avoirdupois pound of water 1 degree F at or near 39.2 degrees F. A standard unit for measuring the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

broadband

A descriptive term for communication technologies that can provide consumers integrated access to voice, high-speed data service, video-demand services, and interactive delivery services. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

broad-crested weir

An overflow structure on which the nappe is supported for an appreciable length in the direction of flow. See weir. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

broad-leaved deciduous�

Woody angiosperms (trees or shrubs) with relatively wide, flat leaves that are shed during the cold or dry season; e.g., black ash (Fraxinus nigra). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

broad-leaved evergreen�

Woody angiosperms (trees or shrubs) with relatively wide, flat leaves that generally remain green and are usually persistent for a year or more; e.g., red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

broker

An intermediary between the borrower and the lender. The broker may represent several lending sources and charges a fee or commission for services. (Ginnie Mae) An individual or firm that acts as an agent between providers and users of products or services, such as a mortgage broker or real estate broker. See also �Mortgage Broker.� (Federal Trade Commission) A licensed individual or firm that charges a fee to serve as the mediator between the buyer and seller. Mortgage brokers are individuals in the business of arranging funding or negotiating contracts for a client, but who does not loan the money. A real estate broker is someone who helps find a house. (US Dept of HUD) An individual who facilitates the purchase of property by bringing together a buyer and a seller. (HardwickAssociates)

broker price opinion (BPO)

(aka BPO) An estimate of the probable sales or listing price of the subject property provided by a real estate broker, sales agent, or sales person. A BPO generally provides a varying level of detail about a property�s condition, market, and neighborhood, as well as comparable sales or listings. A BPO is not by itself an appraisal or evaluation, but could be used for monitoring the collateral value of an existing loan, when deemed appropriate. Further, the Dodd-Frank Act provides in conjunction with the purchase of a consumer�s principal dwelling, broker price opinions may not be used as the primary basis to determine the value of a piece of property for the purpose of loan origination of a residential mortgage loan secured by such piece of property. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

broker-dealer

Any person, other than a bank, engaged in the business of buying or selling securities on its own behalf or for others. (Federal Reserve Education)

broker�s loans

Money borrowed by brokers from banks for uses such as financing specialists' inventories of stock, financing the underwriting of new issues of corporate and municipal securities, and financing customer margin accounts. (Federal Reserve Education)

brownfield

Abandoned, idled, and underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion and redevelopment is burdened by real or potential environmental contamination. (US Dept of HUD)

brownout

The partial reduction of electrical voltages. A brownout results in lights dimming and motor-driven devices slowing down. See blackout. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BTU

British Thermal Unit. A unit of measurement used to describe heating or cooling capacity. (HardwickAssociates) British thermal unit, which is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water 1�F. (Energycodes.gov) British Thermal Units. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bucket

A part of an excavator which digs, lifts, and carries dirt. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

budget

An itemized summary of probable income and expenses for a given period. (Federal Reserve Education) A detailed record of all income earned and spent during a specific period of time. (US Dept of HUD)

budget authority

Empowerment by Congress that allows Federal agencies to incur obligations that will result in the outlay of funds. This empowerment is generally in the form of appropriations. However, for most of the highway programs, it is in the form of contract authority. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

budget building design

A computer representation of a hypothetical design based on the actual proposed building design. This representation is used as the basis for calculating the energy cost budget. (Energycodes.gov)

budget resolution

A concurrent resolution passed by Congress presenting the Congressional Budget for each of the succeeding 5 years. A concurrent resolution does not require the signature of the President. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

buffer strips (filter strips, vegetated filter strips, grassed buffers)

Strips of grass or other close-growing vegetation that separates a waterway (ditch, stream, creek) from an intensive land use area (subdivision, farm). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

buffer zone

A segment of land between two disparate municipal zones which acts as a shield to keep one zone from encroaching upon the other. Often used to separate residential districts from commercial areas. (HardwickAssociates)

building

A structure with two or more outside rigid walls and a fully secured roof, that is affixed to a permanent site; or A manufactured home (a "manufactured home," also known as a mobile home, is a structure built on a permanent chassis, transported to its site in one or more sections, and affixed to a permanent foundation); or A travel trailer without wheels, built on a chassis and affixed to a permanent foundation, that is regulated under the community's floodplain management and building ordinances or laws. "Building" does not mean a gas or liquid storage tank or a recreational vehicle, park trailer, or other similar vehicle, except as described above. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) A structure wholly or partially enclosed within exterior walls, or within exterior and partial walls, and a roof, affording shelter to persons, animals, or property. (Energycodes.gov)

building code

Local regulations that set forth the standards and requirements for the construction, maintenance and occupancy of buildings. The codes are designed to provide for the safety, health and welfare of the public. (Federal Trade Commission) A set of building construction requirements developed and administered by national and local bodies to ensure that buildings meet certain minimum standards for structural integrity, safety, design, and durability. (US Dept of HUD) Based on agreed upon safety standards within a specific area, a building code is a regulation that determines the design, construction, and materials used in building. (US Dept of HUD) Regulations that ensure the safety and material compliance of new construction within a municipality. Building codes are localized to ensure they are adequate to meet the risk of common hazards. (HardwickAssociates) Criteria or requirements (i.e., minimum standards) set forth and enforced by a state or local agency for the protection of public health and safety. Is usually based on a model code (see below) and/or Model Standards published by acknowledged organizations or associations. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

building energy ratio

The space-conditioning load of a building. (US Dept of Energy)

building entrance

Any doorway, set of doors, turnstiles, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used to gain access to the building by its users and occupants. (Energycodes.gov)

building envelope

A building envelope includes all components of a building that enclose conditioned space. Building envelope components separate conditioned spaces from unconditioned spaces or from outside air. For example, walls and doors between an unheated garage and a living area are part of the building envelope; walls separating an unheated garage from the outside are not. Although floors of conditioned basements and conditioned crawlspaces are technically part of the building envelope, the code does not specify insulation requirements for these components. (Energycodes.gov) Elements of the building, including all external building materials, windows, and walls, that enclose the internal space. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Elements of the building, including all external building materials, windows, and walls, that enclose the internal space. (US Environmental Protection Agency) The structural elements (walls, roof, floor, foundation) of a building that encloses conditioned space; the building shell. (US Dept of Energy)

building envelope interior

The elements of a building that separate conditioned space from unconditioned space or that enclose semiheated spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the exterior, unconditioned spaces, or conditioned spaces. (Energycodes.gov)

building exit

Any doorway, set of doors, or other form of portal that is ordinarily used only for emergency egress or convenience exit. (Energycodes.gov)

building grounds lighting

Lighting provided through building's electrical service for parking lot, site, roadway, pedestrian pathway, loading dock, and security applications. (Energycodes.gov)

building heat-loss factor

A measure of the heating requirements of a building expressed in Btu per degree-day. (US Dept of Energy)

building in the course of construction

A walled and roofed building (see the General Rules section of the Flood Insurance Manual for exception) that is principally above ground and affixed to a permanent site. It does not include building materials or supplies intended for use in construction, alteration, or repair unless such materials or supplies are within an enclosed building on the premises. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

Building Information Model

(aka BIM) A digital representation of the building process. The BIM facilitates exchange and interoperability of information in digital format. (Energycodes.gov)

building line or setback

The statutory distance between buildings and the property line, imposed by municipalities, home associations, or other agreements. (HardwickAssociates)

building materials

Any element (other than air films and insulation) of the building envelope through which heat flows and that is included in the component U-factor calculations. (Energycodes.gov)

building official

The officer or other designated representative authorized to act on behalf of the authority having jurisdiction. (Energycodes.gov)

building orientation

The relationship of a building to true south, as specified by the direction of its longest axis. (US Dept of Energy)

building overall energy loss coefficient-area product

The factor, when multiplied by the monthly degree-days, that yields the monthly space heating load. (US Dept of Energy)

building overall heat loss rate

The overall rate of heat loss from a building by means of transmission plus infiltration, expressed in Btu per hour, per degree temperature difference between the inside and outside. (US Dept of Energy)

building paper

Heavy paper used in walls or roofs to dampproof. (Publications- USA.gov)

building-related illness

(aka BRI) Diagnosable illness whose symptoms can be identified and whose cause can be directly attributed to airborne building pollutants (e.g., Legionnaire's disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis). Also: A discrete, identifiable disease or illness that can be traced to a specific pollutant or source within a building. (Contrast with "Sick building syndrome"). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

built environment

Human- modified environment, e.g. buildings, roads, and cities. See cultural resource. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

built-ins

Specific items of personal property which are installed in a real estate improvement such that they become part of the building. Built-in microwave ovens and dishwashers are common examples. (HardwickAssociates)

built-up land

See Urban and built-up areas. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

built-up roof

A roofing material applied in sealed, waterproof layers, where there is only a slight slope to the roof. (Publications- USA.gov)

bulb

The glass envelope of a lamp. (Energy Star.gov) The transparent or opaque sphere in an electric light that the electric light transmits through. (US Dept of Energy)

bulb turbine

A type of hydro turbine in which the entire generator is mounted inside the water passageway as an integral unit with the turbine. These installations can offer significant reductions in the size of the powerhouse. (US Dept of Energy)

bulk carrier (water)

A ship with specialized holds for carrying dry or liquid commodities, such as oil, grain, ore, and coal, in unpackaged bulk form. Bulk carriers may be designed to carry a single bulk product (crude oil tanker) or accommodate several bulk product types (ore/bulk/oil carrier) on the same voyage or on a subsequent voyage after holds are cleaned. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

bulk density

The weight of a material per unit of volume compared to the weight of the same volume of water. (US Dept of Energy)

bulk density (Db or BD)

The density of soil, i.e., the weight of soil divided by its volume. The BD of agricultural soils normally ranges from 1.0 to 1.6 g/cm3. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

bulk sale

The sale of a large number of assets to one purchaser in a single transaction. Also known as a �portfolio sale.� (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

bulkhead

A one-piece fabricated steel unit which is lowered into guides and seals against a frame to close a water passage in a dam, conduit, spillway, etc. An object used to isolate a portion of a waterway for examination, maintenance, or repair. A wall or partition erected to resist ground or water pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bulkhead gate

A gate used either for temporary closure of a channel or conduit before dewatering it for inspection or maintenance or for closure against flowing water when the head difference is small (e.g., for diversion tunnel closure). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bulking

The increase in volume of a material due to manipulation. Rock bulks upon being excavated; damp sand bulks if loosely deposited, as by dumping, because the apparent cohesion prevents movement of the soil particles to form a reduced volume. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bundesbank

Established in 1875, the central bank of West Germany, located in Frankfurt. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

bungalow

A one-story, home-style dating from the early twentieth century. Often characterized by a low-pitched roof. (HardwickAssociates)

burden

In blasting, the distance between the free face and the first row of holes or the distance between rows of holes parallel to the face. Apparent burden is the burden as outlined by the delay pattern. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Bureau of Economic Analysis

(aka BEA) The Bureau of Economic Analysis is an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Bureau of Indian Affairs

(aka BIA) The Bureau of Indian Affairs' mission is to enhance the quality of life, to promote economic opportunity, and to carry out the responsibility to protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. BIA is an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Bureau of Labor Statistics

(aka BLS) A research agency of the U.S. Department of Labor; it compiles statistics on hours of work, average hourly earnings, employment and unemployment, consumer prices and many other variables. (Federal Reserve Education) The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is the principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics. The BLS is an independent national statistical agency that collects, processes, analyzes, and disseminates essential statistical data to the American public, the U.S. Congress, other Federal agencies, State and local governments, business, and labor. The BLS also serves as a statistical resource to the Department of Labor. BLS data must satisfy a number of criteria, including relevance to current social and economic issues, timeliness in reflecting today's rapidly changing economic conditions, accuracy and consistently high statistical quality, and impartiality in both subject matter and presentation. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Bureau of Land Management

The branch of government in charge of surveying and managing public lands. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) (aka BLM) The Bureau of Land Management, an agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior, administers 264 million acres of America's public lands, located primarily in 12 Western States. The BLM sustains the health, diversity, and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Bureau of Reclamation (USBR, Reclamation, BOR)

The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage, develop, and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and economically sound manner in the interest of the American public. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Bureau of Transportation Statistics

(aka BTS) The Bureau was organized pursuant to section 6006 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 (49 U.S.C. 111), and was formally established by the Secretary of Transportation on December 16, 1992. BTS has an intermodal transportation focus whose missions are to compile, analyze and make accessible information on the Nation's transportation systems; to collect information on intermodal transportation and other areas; and to enhance the quality and effectiveness of DOT's statistical programs through research, the development of guidelines, and the promotion of improvements in data acquisition and use. The programs of BTS are organized in six functional areas and are mandated by ISTEA to 1) Compile, analyze, and publish statistics 2) Develop a long-term data collection program 3) Develop guidelines to improve the credibility and effectiveness of the Department's statistics 4) Represent transportation interests in the statistical community 5) Make statistics accessible and understandable and 6) Identify data needs. (OFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

burner capacity

The maximum heat output (in Btu per hour) released by a burner with a stable flame and satisfactory combustion. (US Dept of Energy)

burning point

The temperature at which a material ignites. (US Dept of Energy)

bus

Large motor vehicle used to carry more than 10 passengers, including school buses, intercity buses, and transit buses. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

bus (buswork)

A conductor, or group of conductors, that serve as a common connection for two or more electrical circuits. In powerplants, buswork comprises the three rigid single-phase connectors that interconnect the generator and the step-up transformer(s). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

bus (electrical)

An electrical conductor that serves as a common connection for two or more electrical circuits; may be in the form of rigid bars or stranded conductors or cables. (US Dept of Energy)

bus lane

1) A street or highway lane intended primarily for buses, either all day or during specified periods, but sometimes also used by carpools meeting requirements set out in traffic laws. (APTA1) 2) A lane reserved for bus use only. Sometimes also known as a "diamond lane." (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

busbar

The power conduit of an electric power plant; the starting point of the electric transmission system. (US Dept of Energy) A heavy metal conductor used to carry a large current. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

busbar cost

The cost of producing electricity up to the point of the power plant busbar. (US Dept of Energy)

business day

A day on which the creditor's offices are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of its business functions. However, for purposes of rescission under ���226.15 and 226.23, and for purposes of ���226.19(a)(1)(ii) and 226.31, the term means all calendar days except Sundays and the legal public holidays specified in 5 U.S.C. 6103(a), such as New Year's Day, the Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z)) Any day on which offices of a bank are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of the bank's business. (Help With My Bank) A day on which the offices of the business entity are open to the public for carrying on substantially all of the entity�s business functions. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule)

business enterprise

An entity pursuing an economic activity (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

business equity

The interests, benefits, and rights inherent in the ownership of a business enterprise or a part thereof in any form (including, but not necessarily limited to, capital stock, partnership interests, cooperatives, sole proprietorships, options, and warrants). (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

business loan

As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, a loan or extension of credit to any corporation, general or limited partnership, business trust, joint venture, syndicate, sole proprietorship, or other business entity. A business loan includes extensions to entities engaged in agricultural operations, which is consistent with the Agencies� real estate lending guidelines definition of an improved property loan that include loans secured by farmland, timberland, and ranchland committed to ongoing management and agricultural production. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

business loan threshold

A business loan with a transaction value of $1,000,000 or less does not require an appraisal if the primary source of repayment is not dependent on the sale of, or rental income derived from, real estate. As specified in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, an institution must obtain an evaluation of the real property collateral. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

butt joint

Joining point of two pieces of wood or molding. (Publications- USA.gov) (See also open joint) In pipe, flat ends that meet but do not overlap. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

butterfly valve

A valve designed for quick closure that consists of a circular leaf, slightly convex in form, mounted on a transverse shaft carried by two bearings. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

buttress dam

A dam consisting of a watertight upstream part (such as a concrete sloping slab) supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses (walls normal to the axis of the dam). Buttress dams can take many forms. See arch-buttress dam, flat slab or slab and buttress dam, massive head buttress dam, multiple arch dam, and solid head buttress dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

buy down

The seller pays an amount to the lender so the lender provides a lower rate and lower payments many times for an ARM. The seller may increase the sales price to cover the cost of the buy down. (US Dept of HUD) Extra money paid in a lump sum to reduce the interest rate of a fixed rate mortgage for a period of time. The extra money may be paid by the borrower, in order to have a lower payment at the beginning of the mortgage. Or paid by the seller, or lender, as incentive to buy the property or take on the mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

buydown

A type of mortgage which requires the buyer to pay additional discount points or make a substantial down payment in return for a below market interest rate. Another form of a buy-down is one in which the seller offers 3-2-1 interest payment plans or pays closing costs such as the origination fee. During times of high interest rates buy-downs may induce buyers to purchase property they might otherwise not have purchased. (Ginnie Mae) An arrangement whereby the property developer or another third party provides an interest subsidy to reduce the borrower�s monthly payments typically in the early years of the loan. (Federal Trade Commission) A lump sum payment made to the creditor by the borrower or by a third party to reduce the amount of some or all of the consumer's periodic payments to repay the indebtedness. (Federal Reserve Education) When the seller pays an amount to the lender so that the lender can give you a lower rate and lower payments, usually for an initial period in an ARM. The seller may increase the sales price to cover the cost of the buydown. Buydowns can occur in all types of mortgages, not just ARMs. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages)

buydown account

An account in which funds are held so that they can be applied as part of the monthly mortgage payment as each payment comes due during the period that an interest rate buydown plan is in effect. (Federal Trade Commission)

buyer

A buyer is a person who is acquiring property. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

BW

Body weight. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

BX cable

Electricity cable wrapped in rubber with a flexible steel outer covering. (Publications- USA.gov) Electrical cable shrouded in a galvanized steel outer cover. (HardwickAssociates)

bypass

An alternative path. In a heating duct or pipe, an alternative path for the flow of the heat transfer fluid from one point to another, as determined by the opening or closing of control valves both in the primary line and the bypass line. (US Dept of Energy)