AAF

See annual adjustment factor (US Dept of HUD)

AAHU

Average annual habitat units. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AAM

Annual arithmetic mean. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aberrant

Atypical, departing from the normal type or structure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

abiotic

The absence of living organisms. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ablation

The process by which ice and snow waste away owing to melting and evaporation. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

above-grade wall

A wall that is not a below-grade wall. (Energycodes.gov)

above-grade walls

Those walls (Section 802.2.1) on the exterior of the building and completely above grade or the above-grade portion of a basement or first-story wall that is more than 15% above grade. (Energycodes.gov)

abrasion

Wearing away of surfaces by friction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

absolute advantage

A person, company or country has an absolute advantage if its output per unit of input of all goods and services produced is higher than that of another person, company or country. (Federal Reserve Education)

absolute auction

An open, outcry sale in which assets are sold to the highest bidder regardless of price, with no reserve price and no minimum bid. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

absolute humidity

The ratio of the mass of water vapor to the volume occupied by a mixture of water vapor and dry air. (US Dept of Energy)

absolute pressure

Atmospheric pressure plus gauge pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

absorbed dose

The amount of a chemical that enters the body of an exposed organism. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

absorbed water

Water held mechanically in a soil or rock mass and having physical properties not substantially different from ordinary water at the same temperature and pressure. See adsorbed water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

absorbent

A material that extracts one or more substances from a fluid (gas or liquid) medium on contact, and which changes physically and/or chemically in the process. The less volatile of the two working fluids in an absorption cooling device. (US Dept of Energy)

absorber

The component of a solar thermal collector that absorbs solar radiation and converts it to heat, or, as in a solar photovoltaic device, the material that readily absorbs photons to generate charge carriers (free electrons or holes). (US Dept of Energy)

absorption

A general term for the process by which incident flux is converted to another form of energy, usually heat. (Energy Star.gov) The entrance of water into the soil or rocks by all natural processes. It includes the infiltration of precipitation or snowmelt, gravity flow of streams into the valley alluvium (seeBank storage) into sinkholes or other large openings, and the movement of atmospheric moisture. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) The passing of a substance or force into the body of another substance. (US Dept of Energy) Taking in of fluids or other substances through, or as if through, cells or tissues. The uptake of water or dissolved chemicals by a cell or an organism (as tree roots absorb dissolved nutrients in the soil). Should not be confused with adsorption. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

absorption chiller

A type of air cooling device that uses absorption cooling to cool interior spaces. (US Dept of Energy)

absorption coefficient

In reference to a solar energy conversion devices, the degree to which a substance will absorb solar energy. In a solar photovoltaic device, the factor by which photons are absorbed as they travel a unit distance through a material. (US Dept of Energy)

absorption cooling

A process in which cooling of an interior space is accomplished by the evaporation of a volatile fluid, which is then absorbed in a strong solution, then desorbed under pressure by a heat source, and then recondensed at a temperature high enough that the heat of condensation can be rejected to a exterior space. (US Dept of Energy)

absorption factor

The fraction of a chemical making contact with an organism that is absorbed by the organism. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

absorption rate

The ratio of the number of properties in an area that have been sold against the number available. Used to show the volatility of a market. (HardwickAssociates)

absorption refrigeration

A system in which a secondary fluid absorbs the refrigerant, releasing heat, then releases the refrigerant and reabsorbs the heat. Ammonia or water is used as the vapor in commercial absorption cycle systems, and water or lithium bromide is the absorber. (US Dept of Energy)

absorptivity

In a solar thermal system, the ratio of solar energy striking the absorber that is absorbed by the absorber to that of solar energy striking a black body (perfect absorber) at the same temperature. The absorptivity of a material is numerically equal to its emissivity. (US Dept of Energy)

abstract of title

A historical summary provided by a title insurance company of all records affecting the title to a property. (Ginnie Mae) Documents recording the ownership of property throughout time (US Dept of HUD) A condensed history or summary of all transactions affecting a particular tract of land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

abstraction method

This method of estimating the value of property uses similar properties available in the same market to extract the value of a parcel of land. (HardwickAssociates)

abutment

That part of the valley wall against which the dam is constructed. The part of a dam that contacts the riverbank. A structure that supports the ends of a dam or bridge. An artificial abutment is sometimes constructed, as a concrete gravity section, to take the thrust of an arch dam where there is no suitable natural abutment. Action or place of abutting; the part of a structure that is the terminal point or receives thrust or pressure. Defined in terms of left and right as looking away from the reservoir, looking downstream (i.e., left abutment, right abutment). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AC

Alternate current. (Energycodes.gov) Ft - acre-foot, acre-feet. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation) Acre. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

academic consultants

An advisory group initiated by the Board in the 1960?s to provide a forum for the exchange of views between the Federal Reserve Board and members of the academic community in economics and banking. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

ACC

See annual contribution contract (US Dept of HUD)

accelerated dividend

A dividend paid to proven creditors of the receivership based on a projection of future funds available. Accelerated dividends are calculated based on estimates of asset collections, less projections of administrative expenses, other liabilities, and contingent liabilities. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

Accelerated Resolution Program

(aka ARP) A means of resolving a failed thrift institution in which there is an expedited transfer of the insolvent thrift�s assets and deposit liabilities to a healthy institution, without first placing the failed thrift in conservatorship. This approach, initiated jointly by the OTS and the RTC in 1990, was similar to FDIC resolutions at the time. The program was designed to allow thrifts that were below FIRREA mandated capital levels, but that otherwise were perceived as having substantial franchise value, to continue to operate throughout the resolution process. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

acceleration

The right of the lender to demand payment on the outstanding balance of a loan (US Dept of HUD) In terms of flow, acceleration is the time rate of change of the velocity vector, either of magnitude or direction or both. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acceleration clause

A clause that allows a lender to declare the entire outstanding balance of a loan immediately due and payable should a borrower violate specific loan provisions or default on the loan. (Ginnie Mae) A stipulation in a loan contract stating that the entire balance becomes due immediately if other contract conditions are not met. (Federal Reserve Education) A provision in a mortgage that gives the lender the right to demand immediate payment of the outstanding loan balance under certain circumstances. Usually when the borrower defaults on the loan. (HardwickAssociates)

accelerogram

The record from an accelerometer showing acceleration as a function of time. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

accent lighting

Directional lighting used to emphasize or draw attention to an object or area. (Energy Star.gov) Draws attention to special features or enhances the aesthetic qualities of an indoor or outdoor environment. (US Dept of Energy)

acceptable daily intake

(aka ADI) Estimate of the largest amount of a chemical to which a person can be exposed on a daily basis that is not anticipated to result in adverse effects (usually expressed in mg/kg/day). The daily exposure level which, during an entire lifetime of a human, appears to be without appreciable risk on the basis of all facts known at the time. See RFD. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acceptance

The written approval of the buyer's offer by the seller (US Dept of HUD)

access

The right to enter and leave a tract of land from a public way. Can include the right to enter and leave over the lands of another. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

access charge

A charge levied on a power supplied, or its customer, for access to a utility's transmission or distribution system. It is a charge for the right to send electricity over another's wires. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

access control point

A location staffed to restrict entry of unauthorized personnel into a risk area during emergency and/or disaster events. Access control is normally performed just outside of the risk area and involves use of vehicles, barricades, or other measures to deny access to a particular area. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

access shaft

Concrete portion of an outlet works between the shaft house and the gate chamber. The access shaft provides vertical access to the gates. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

accession number

An identification number that used to be assigned (for cataloging purposes) to volumes of studies submitted to OPP. This has been replaced by the Master Record Identification (MRID) system, which identifies each individual study. See also, Master Record Identification System. (US EPA- Pesticides)

accessory building

A building separate from the main structure on a property. Often used for a specific purpose, such as a workshop, storage shed or garage. (HardwickAssociates)

accessory use

The use of a building, structure, or land that is subordinate to, customarily incidental to, and ordinarily found in association with, the principal use it serves. (US Dept of HUD)

accident

An incident involving a moving vehicle. Includes collisions with a vehicle, object, or person (except suicides) and derailment/left roadway. (FTA2) Occurrence in a sequence of events that produces unintended injury, death or property damage. Accident refers to the event, not the result of the event. (NSC1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) (aircraft) As defined by the National Transportation Safety Board, an occurrence incidental to flight in which, as a result of the operation of an aircraft, any person (occupant or nonoccupant) Receives fatal or serious injury or any aircraft receives substantial damage. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

accident assessment

The evaluation of the nature, severity, and impact of an accident. Dam operating personnel are primarily responsible for accident assessment for incidents at Reclamation dams. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acclimation

Adjustment of an organism to a new habitat or environment. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

account

A precise list or enumeration of monetary transactions. (Federal Reserve Education)

account agreement

The contract governing your open-end credit account, it provides information on changes that may occur to the account. (Help With My Bank)

account history

The payment history of an account over a specific period of time, including the number of times the account was past due or over limit. (Help With My Bank)

account holder

Any and all persons designated and authorized to transact business on behalf of an account. Each account holder's signature needs to be on file with the bank. The signature authorizes that person to conduct business on behalf of the account. (Help With My Bank)

accretion

The slow build-up of lands by natural forces such as wind or water. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The natural growth of a piece of land resulting from forces of nature (HardwickAssociates) Process of growth whereby material is added to the outside of nonliving matter. The gradual increase in flow of a stream attributable to seepage, ground water discharge, or tributary inflow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

accretion of discount

A straight-line accumulation of capital gains on discount bonds in anticipation of being paid par at maturity. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

accrual method of accounting

See cash method of accounting. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

accrued interest

Interest that has been earned but not received or recorded. (Federal Reserve Education) Interest that has been earned but not yet paid. (Help With My Bank)

accumulator

A component of a heat pump that stores liquid and keeps it from flooding the compressor. The accumulator takes the strain off the compressor and improves the reliability of the system. (US Dept of Energy)

accuracy

Accuracy in wetland mapping is a measure of both errors of omission and commission. (US Fish & Wildlife Service) How closely an instrument measures the true or actual value of the process variable being measured or sensed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACEC

Area of critical environmental concern. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACER

Assistant Commissioner - Engineering and Research. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACES

Automated Coastal Engineering System. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACGIH

American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACH

Stands for Automated Clearing House and relates to electronic payments processing. (National Credit Union Administration) Air changes per hour. (Energycodes.gov) Air changes per hour. The amount of air in a building that leaks out or is removed by a fan and is replaced by outdoor air. Usually listed as a fraction of one air change per hour, such as .35 ACH. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

ACHP

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acid

A substance that has a pH value between 0 and 7. ACID - Anderson-Cottonwood Irrigation District. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acid�

Term applied to water with a pH less than 5.5. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

acid aerosol

Acidic liquid or solid particles that are small enough to become airborne. High concentrations of acid aerosols can be irritating to the lungs and have been associated with some respiratory diseases, such as asthma. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

acid rain

A term used to describe precipitation that has become acidic (low pH) due to the emission of sulfur oxides from fossil fuel burning power plants. (US Dept of Energy) Precipitation which has been rendered acidic by airborne pollutants. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acidic

The condition of water or soil which contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acidified

The addition of an acid (usually nitric or sulfuric) to a sample to lower the pH below 2.0. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acknowledgment

The act by which a party executing a legal document goes before an authorized officer or notary public and declares the same to be his or her voluntary act and deed. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

acoustical tile

Special tile for walls and ceilings made of mineral, wood, vegetable fibers, cork, or metal. Its purpose is to control sound volume, while providing cover. (Publications- USA.gov)

acquiring bank

In a merger, the bank that absorbs the bank acquired. (Help With My Bank)

acquiring institution

A healthy bank or thrift institution that purchases some or all of the assets and assumes some or all of the liabilities of a failed institution in a purchase and assumption transaction. The acquiring institution is also referred to as the assuming institution. (Also see assuming institution.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

acquisition

Something acquired or gained by purchase, exchange or gift. (Federal Reserve Education)

ACR

Alkali-carbonate reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acre

43,560 square feet (about the size of a football field). (US Dept of HUD) A tract of land 208.71 feet square and containing 43,560 square feet of land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A unit of measurement of land. It is equal to the area of land inside a square that is about 209 feet on each side (43,560 square feet). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Unit for measuring land, equal to 43,560 sq. ft., 4840 sq. yds., or 160 sq. rds. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acre actual farm revenue

The actual commodity farm yield X the�ACRE national average market price. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre actual state revenue

The ACRE actual State yield X the ACRE national average market price. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre actual state yield

The crop year commodity production (quantity) produced in the State per planted acre. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre benchmark farm revenue

The 5-yr Olympic average farm crop yields X� [ACRE program guarantee price � crop insurance premiums per acre] (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre benchmark state yield

The 5-year Olympic average commodity yield per planted acre in the State. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre farm-specific productivity ratio

A ratio of the 5-year Olympic average farm crop yield divided by the ACRE benchmark State yield. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre national average market price

The greater of (A) the national average commodity market price received by producers during the 12-month marketing year; or (B) the reduced marketing assistance commodity loan rate. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre program guarantee

The optional ACRE program guarantee of 90 percent of the [5-year ACRE benchmark State yield X 2-year ACRE program guarantee price] for the crop year and respective commodity. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre program guarantee price

The commodity-specific 2-year national average market price received by producers. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acreage reduction program (arp)

An annual land retirement system for wheat, feed grains, cotton, or rice in which farmers participating in Federal commodity programs idled a crop-specific, nationally set portion of their crop acreage base in order to be eligible for benefits such as Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) crop loans and deficiency payments. No deficiency payments were made on the idled ARP land. The 1996 and 2002 Farm Acts did not reauthorize ARPs. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

acre-foot

A unit for measuring the volume of water, is equal to the quantity of water required to cover 1 acre to a depth of 1 foot and is equal to 43,560 cubic feet or 325,851 gallons. The term is commonly used in measuring volumes of water used or stored. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey) (aka ac-ft) A term used in measuring the volume or amount of water needed to cover 1 acre (43,560 square feet) 1 foot deep (325,851 gallons or 1,233.5 cubic meters). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACRM

Assistant Commissioner-Resources Management. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ACS

See American Community Survey. (US Dept of HUD)

actinomycetes

A large group of bacteria that grow in long filaments that are too small to see without magnification. Actinomycetes generate the smell of �healthy soil,� and are important in decomposing cellulose, chitin, and other hard-to-decompose compounds, especially at higher pH levels. Many produce antibiotics. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

action level

A term used to identify the level of indoor radon at which remedial action is recommended. (EPA's action level is 4 picocurries per litre (pCi/L) in air.) (US Environmental Protection Agency)

action packet

In reference to the IAQ Tools for Schools Action Kit - contains numerous products to assist school personnel to implement an effective yet simple IAQ program in their school. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

activated carbon

Adsorptive particles or granules of carbon usually obtained by heating carbon (such as wood). These particles or granules have a high capacity to selectively remove certain trace and soluble materials from water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

active capacity

The reservoir capacity normally usable for storage and regulation of reservoir inflows to meet established reservoir operating requirements. It extends from the highest of either the top of exclusive flood control capacity, the top of joint use capacity, or the top of active conservation capacity, to the top of inactive capacity. It is also the total capacity less the sum of the inactive and dead capacities. The reservoir capacity that can be used for irrigation, power, municipal and industrial use, fish and wildlife, recreation, water quality, and other purposes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

active conservation capacity (active storage)

The reservoir capacity assigned to regulate reservoir inflow for irrigation, power, municipal and industrial use, fish and wildlife, navigation, recreation, water quality, and other purposes. It does not include exclusive flood control or joint use capacity. It extends from the top of the active conservation capacity to the top of the inactive capacity (or dead capacity where there is no inactive capacity). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

active cooling

The use of mechanical heat pipes or pumps to transport heat by circulating heat transfer fluids. (US Dept of Energy)

active earth pressure

The minimum value of earth pressure. This condition exists when a soil mass is permitted to yield sufficiently to cause its internal shearing resistance along a potential failure surface to be completely mobilized. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

active fault

A fault which, because of its present tectonic setting, can undergo movement from time to time in the immediate geologic future. A fault, which has moved during the recent geologic past (Quarternary) and, thus, may move again. It may or may not generate earthquakes. See capable fault. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

active ingredient

The chemical or substance component of a pesticide product that can kill, repel, attract, mitigate or control a pest or that acts as a plant growth regulator, desiccant, or nitrogen stabilizer. The remainder of a formulated pesticide product consists of one or more �inert ingredients� (such as water, solvents, emulsifiers, surfactants, clay and propellants), which are there for reasons other than pesticidal activity. (US EPA- Pesticides)

Active Partners Performance System

(aka APPS) Software program that allows HUD's business partners to submit their Previous Participation Certification (form 2530) request to HUD for processing via the Internet. (US Dept of HUD)

active power

The power (in Watts) used by a device to produce useful work. Also called input power. (US Dept of Energy)

active solar heater

A solar water or space-heating system that use pumps or fans to circulate the fluid (water or heat-transfer fluid like diluted antifreeze) from the solar collectors to a storage tank subsystem. (US Dept of Energy)

active transport

An energy-expending mechanism by which a cell moves a chemical across the cell membrane from a point of lower concentration to a point of higher concentration, against the diffusion gradient. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

activity

The ratio of the plasticity index to the percent by dry mass of soil particles finer than 0.002 mm (2 microns) in size. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acts

Action Correspondence Tracking System. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

actual age

The amount of time that has passed since a building or other structure was built. See also: EFFECTIVE AGE (HardwickAssociates)

actual cash value

An amount equal to the replacement value of damaged property minus depreciation. (Freddie Mac) The cost to replace an insured item of property at the time of loss, less the value of physical depreciation. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

acute

Occurring over a short period of time; used to describe brief exposures and effects which appear promptly after exposure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acute effect

An adverse effect on any living organism in which severe symptoms develop rapidly and often subside after the exposure stops. (US EPA- Pesticides)

acute exposure

A single exposure to a toxic substance which results in severe biological harm or death. Acute exposures are usually characterized as lasting no longer than a day. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

acute toxicity

Adverse effects that result from a single dose or single exposure of a chemical; any poisonous effect produced within a short period of time, usually less than 96 hours. This term normally is used to describe effects in experimental animals. (US EPA- Pesticides) The ability of a substance to cause poisonous effects resulting in severe biological harm or death soon after a single exposure or dose. Also, any severe poisonous effect resulting from a single short-term exposure to a toxic substance. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ad valorem real property taxes

Taxes imposed on real property based on its value. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

ad valorem tax

Taxes assessed based on the value of the land and improvements (HardwickAssociates)

adaptation

Adjustment to environmental conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

addendum

A supplement to any document that contains additional information pertinent to the subject. Appraisers use an addendum to further explain items for which there was inadequate space on the standard appraisal form. (HardwickAssociates)

addition

An extension or increase in the height, conditioned floor area, or conditioned volume of a building. The code applies to additions to existing buildings. (Energycodes.gov)

additional or buy-up coverage

Any coverage level greater than catastrophic coverage. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

additional peanuts

See Peanuts, additional. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

additional principal payment

Money paid to the lender in addition to the established payment amount used directly against the loan principal to shorten the length of the loan (US Dept of HUD)

additive effect

Combined effect of two or more chemicals equal to the sum of their individual effects. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adhesion

Shearing resistance between soil and another material under zero externally applied pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ADI

Acceptable daily intake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adiabatic

Without loss or gain of heat to a system. An adiabatic change is a change in volume and pressure of a parcel of gas without an exchange of heat between the parcel and its surroundings. In reference to a steam turbine, the adiabatic efficiency is the ratio of the work done per pound of steam, to the heat energy released and theoretically capable of transformation into mechanical work during the adiabatic expansion of a unit weight of steam. (US Dept of Energy)

adit

A nearly horizontal underground excavation in an abutment having an opening in only one end. An opening in the face of a dam for access to galleries or operating chambers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adjustable mortgage loan

A mortgage instrument that allows maximum flexibility in selecting the terms under which interest rates and payments may be adjusted over the maturity of the loan. Includes adjustable rate mortgages, renegotiated rate mortgages, variable rate mortgages. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

adjustable rate mortgage

A variable or flexible rate mortgage with an interest rate that varies according to the financial index it is based upon. To limit the borrower's risk, the ARM may have a payment or rate cap. See also: Cap. (Ginnie Mae) Also known as a variable-rate loan, an ARM usually offers a lower initial rate than a fixed-rate loan. The interest rate can change at a specified time, known as an adjustment period, based on a published index that tracks changes in the current finance market. Indexes used for ARMs include the LIBOR index and the Treasury index. ARMs also have caps or a maximum and minimum that the interest rate can change at each adjustment period. (Freddie Mac) A mortgage that does not have a fixed interest rate. The rate changes during the life of the loan based on movements in an index rate, such as the rate for Treasury securities or the Cost of Funds Index. ARMs usually offer a lower initial interest rate than fixed-rate loans. The interest rate fluctuates over the life of the loan based on market conditions, but the loan agreement generally sets maximum and minimum rates. When interest rates increase, generally your loan payments increase; when interest rates decrease, your monthly payments may decrease. For more information on ARMs, see the�Consumer Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages. (Federal Trade Commission- Shopping for a Mortgage) Also known as variable-rate mortgages. The initial interest rate is usually below that of conventional fixed-rate loans. The interest rate may change over the life of the loan as market conditions change. �There is typically a maximum (or ceiling) and a minimum (or floor) defined in the loan agreement. If interest rates rise, so does the loan payment. If interest rates fall, the loan payment may as well. (Help With My Bank) A mortgage loan with an interest rate that is subject to change and is not fixed at the same level for the life of the loan. These types of loans usually start off with a lower interest rate but can subject the homeowner to payment uncertainty when the rate adjusts. (Making Home Affordable) A type of mortgage in which the interest rate is reset at regular intervals, typically at a spread over a stated short-term interest rate index. The most frequently used indexes have been the one-year U.S. Treasury constant maturity yield and the Eleventh District Cost of Funds Index. Because the interest rate paid by the borrower fluctuates with the general level of interest rates in the marketplace, ARMs shift most of the interest rate risk from the lender to the borrower. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) A mortgage that does not have a fi xed interest rate. The rate changes during the life of the loan based on movements in an index rate, such as the rate for Treasury securities or the Cost of Funds Index. ARMs usually off er a lower initial interest rate than fixed-rate loans. The interest rate fl uctuates over the life of the loan based on market conditions, but the loan agreement generally sets maximum and minimum rates. When interest rates increase, generally your loan payments increase; and when interest rates decrease, your monthly payments may decrease. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages) A mortgage loan that allows the interest rate to be changed, usually based on an established index, at specific intervals over the maturity of the loan. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) Adjustable rate mortgages (ARMs) usually start with a lower interest rate than a fixed rate mortgage, therefore lowering monthly payments. This allows the borrower to qualify for a larger mortgage than would be possible with a fixed-rate mortgage. The interest rate on an ARM is adjusted periodically based on an index that reflects changing market interest rates. When the interest rate is adjusted, the monthly payment goes up or down. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A mortgage loan or Deed of Trust which allows the lender to periodically adjust the interest rate in accordance with a specified index. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) 1) a mortgage loan subject to changes in interest rates; when rates change, ARM monthly payments increase or decrease at intervals determined by the lender; the change in monthly payment amount, however, is usually subject to a cap; 2) a mortgage loan that does not have a fixed interest rate. During the life of the loan the interest rate will change based on the index rate. Also referred to as adjustable mortgage loans (AMLs) or variable-rate mortgages (VRMs) (US Dept of HUD) A mortgage in which the interest rate is adjusted periodically based on an index. Also called a variable rate mortgage. Typically the rate will not adjust for at least the first two years of the loan. Having an adjustable rate loan is a rarity with a USDA Home Loan (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) A type of mortgage where the interest rate varies based on a particular index, normally the prime lending rate. (HardwickAssociates)

adjustable speed drive

An electronic device that controls the rotational speed of motor-driven equipment such as fans, pumps, and compressors. Speed control is achieved by adjusting the frequency of the voltage applied to the motor. (US Dept of Energy)

adjusted basis

The value of an asset (property or otherwise) that includes the original price plus the value of any improvement, and less any applicable depreciation. (HardwickAssociates)

adjusted gross revenue

A plan of insurance that bases coverage on adjusted gross revenue calculated from Schedule F income tax data. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

adjusted sales price

An opinion of a property's sales price, after adjustments have been made to account for differences between it and another comparable property. (HardwickAssociates)

adjusted world price, cotton (awp)

As part of the upland cotton marketing assistance loan program, a loan repayment rate that USDA calculates and publishes weekly. The AWP is the prevailing world price for upland cotton, adjusted to account for U.S. quality and location. Producers who have taken out USDA marketing assistance loans may choose to repay them at either the lesser of the established commodity loan rate for upland cotton, plus interest, or the announced AWP for that week. The AWP for cotton also was used for determining Step 2 cotton program payments prior to suspension of Step 2 in 2006. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

adjusted world price, rice (awp)

As part of the rice marketing assistance loan program, a loan repayment rate, for each class of milled rice (long grain, medium grain, and short grain), that USDA calculates and publishes based on the prevailing world market price for each of the classes, modified to reflect U.S. quality and the U.S. cost of exporting milled rice. USDA sets this prevailing market price after reviewing milled rice prices in major world markets, and taking into account the effects of supply-demand changes, government-assisted sales, and other relevant price indicators. The steps for calculating and announcing the world prices are prescribed in more detail in Federal regulations. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

adjuster control office

An NFIP claims office similar to a Flood Insurance Claims Office (FICO) with the exception that the Adjuster Control Office does not house insured files, maintain a claims examiner staff at the site, or issue claim payments. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

adjustment date

The actual date that the interest rate is changed for an ARM. (US Dept of HUD) The date the interest rate changes on an adjustable rate mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

adjustment index

The published market index used to calculate the interest rate of an ARM at the time of origination or adjustment (US Dept of HUD)

adjustment interval

The time between the interest rate change and the monthly payment for an ARM. The interval is usually every one, three or five years depending on the index (US Dept of HUD)

adjustment period

The time between interest rate adjustments for an ARM. There is usually an initial adjustment period, beginning from the start date of the loan and varying from 1 to 10 years. After the first adjustment period, adjustment periods are usually 12 months, which means that the interest rate can change every year. (Freddie Mac)

administering organization

The recognized, voluntary, private sector, consensus standards body with specific experience in developing model residential building codes and standards involving all disciplines regarding construction and safety that administers the consensus standards through a development process. (42 USC 5401 Chapter 70 (Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards))

administrative code

A compilation of general and permanent state regulations that have the force of law. Administrative codes present a collated version of the regulation, incorporating all additions and deletions. Like statutory codes, administrative codes are organized by subject matter and are updated regularly. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

administrator

A person appointed by a probate court to settle the affairs of an individual dying without a will. The term is "administratrix" if such a person is a woman. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

adobe

A building material made from clay, straw, and water, formed into blocks, and dried; used traditionally in the southwestern U.S. (US Dept of Energy)

adopting authority

The agency or agent that adopts a code or standard. (Energycodes.gov)

adsorbate

The material being removed by the adsorption process. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adsorbed water

Water in a soil or rock mass, held by physico-chemical forces, having physical properties substantially different from absorbed water or chemically combined water, at the same temperature and pressure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adsorbent

The material (for example activated carbon) that is responsible for removing the undesirable substance in the adsorption process. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adsorption

The process by which chemicals are held on the surface of a mineral or soil particle. The adherence of a gas, liquid, or dissolved material on the surface of a solid. An increase in concentration of gas or solute at the interface of a two-phase system. Should not be confused with absorption. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ADT

Average daily traffic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

advance dividend

A payment made to an uninsured depositor or creditor after a bank or thrift failure. The amount of the advance dividend represents the FDIC�s conservative estimate of the ultimate value of the receivership. Cash dividends equivalent to the board-approved advance dividend percentage (of total outstanding deposit claims) are paid to uninsured depositors, thereby giving them an immediate return of a portion of their uninsured deposit. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

advanced decision support system (adss)

Computer software designed to provide easy access to and allow efficient use of methods of analysis and information management. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

adversary proceeding

A lawsuit arising in or related to a bankruptcy case that is commenced by filing a complaint with the court. A nonexclusive list of adversary proceedings is set forth in Fed. R. Bankr. P. 7001. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

adverse action

Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, a creditor's refusal to grant credit on the terms requested, termination of an existing account, or an unfavorable change in an existing account. (Help With My Bank)

adverse action notice

The notice required by the Equal Credit Opportunity Act advising a credit applicant or existing debtor of the denial of their request for credit or advising of a change in terms considered unfavorable to the account holder. (Help With My Bank)

adverse domination

A legal doctrine advanced by the FDIC and the RTC in professional liability suits against the officers and directors of a failed institution. Under the doctrine of adverse domination, in a lawsuit against corporate wrongdoers, the statute of limitations does not run during the period when the defendants were in control of the board of directors of the failed institution. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

adverse possession

A claim made against the lands of another by virtue of open and notorious possession of said lands by the claimant. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

advertisement

A commercial message in any medium that promotes, directly or indirectly, a credit transaction. (FDIC- TILA Act (Regulation Z))

advisory

Of, or pertaining to giving advice; empowered to advise. (Federal Reserve Education)

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP)

Executive agency responsible for ensuring requirements of National Historic Preservation Act and 36 CFR Part 800 are met. Visit the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation web site. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

advocacy

Representing the cause or interest of another. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

AEB

Elephant Butte Power and Storage Division (Truth or Consequences, NM). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aeolian

(also spelled eolian) Materials carried, deposited, produced, or eroded by the wind. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aeolian deposits

Wind-deposited material such as dune sands and loess deposits. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aerate

To impregnate with gas, usually air. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aeration

The process of adding air to water by either passing air through water or passing water through air. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aerial cover

Ground area circumscribed by the perimeter of the branches and leaves of a given plant or group of plants (generally used as a measure of relative density). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aerial photograph

A photograph of the earth�s surface taken from airborne equipment. Sometimes called aerial photo or air photograph. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

aerobic

With oxygen. Aerobic organisms, including animals and most soil organisms, require environments with oxygen. See anaerobic. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) A condition in which free (atmospheric) or dissolved oxygen is present in water. The opposite of anaerobic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aerobic bacteria

Microorganisms that require free oxygen, or air, to live, and that which contribute to the decomposition of organic material in soil or composting systems. (US Dept of Energy)

aesthetic value

The additional value a property enjoys based on subjective criteria such as look or appeal. (HardwickAssociates)

af

Acre-feet. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

af/yr

Acre-feet per year. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

affected environment

Existing biological, physical, social, and economic conditions of an area subject to change, both directly and indirectly, as the result of a proposed human action. Also, the chapter in an environmental impact statement describing current environmental conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

affidavit

A sworn statement in writing before a proper official, such as a notary public. (Help With My Bank) A signed, sworn statement made by the buyer or seller regarding the truth of information provided (US Dept of HUD) A sworn statement in writing. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

affirmation

A declaration that a certain set of facts are truthful. (HardwickAssociates)

affordability analysis

A calculation used to determine an individual's likelihood of being able to meet the obligations of a mortgage for a particular property. Takes into account the down payment, closing costs and on-going mortgage payments. (HardwickAssociates)

affordable housing

In general, housing for which the occupant(s) is/are paying no more than 30 percent of his or her income for gross housing costs, including utilities. Please note that some jurisdictions may define affordable housing based on other, locally determined criteria, and that this definition is intended solely as an approximate guideline or general rule of thumb. (US Dept of HUD)

Affordable Housing Program (AHP)

A competitive program of the Federal Home Loan Bank (FHLBanks) system that provides grants twice a year through financial institutions for investment in low- or moderate-income housing initiatives. The program is flexible, so that AHP funds can be used in combination with other programs and funding sources, thus promoting a project's feasibility. (US Dept of HUD) An FDIC program that increases the stock of affordable housing through disposition of eligible residential properties to low- and moderate-income families. The RTC program was known as the Affordable Housing Disposition Program (AHDP). The affordable housing created comes from the agency�s inventory of owned real estate. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

affordable market value

(aka AMV) A valuation model used to determine the sales price of multi-family residential property sold in the FDIC AHP. The affordable market value was determined by subtracting the cost to cure physical deficiencies and operating deficits from the maximum supportable loan amount, which was determined by applying a debt service coverage factor to the projected net operating income of the property. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

AFO

Auburn-Folsom Office (Auburn, CA). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AFRP

Anadromous Fish Restoration Program. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

afterbay (tailrace)

The body of water immediately downstream from a powerplant or pumping plant. A reservoir or pool that regulates fluctuating discharges from a hydroelectric power plant or a pumping plant. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

afterbay dam (reregulating dam)

A dam located downstream from a large hydroelectric powerplant used to regulate discharges downstream. See regulating dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AFUE

Annual fuel utilization efficiency; combustion heating equipment efficiency is expressed in terms of AFUE. New equipment typically ranges from about 78% to 96% AFUE. Higher AFUE ratings indicate more efficient equipment. (Energycodes.gov)

afy

Acre-feet per year. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ag

Agriculture (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

age tank

(aka day tank) A tank used to store a chemical solution of known concentration for feed to a chemical feeder. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

agency swap program

A method of securitization in which single family residential mortgages conforming to agency underwriting guidelines are swapped for mortgage backed securities issued by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

agent

The Agencies� appraisal regulations do not specifically define the term ?agent. However, the term is generally intended to refer to one who undertakes to transact business or to manage business affairs for another. According to the Agencies� appraisal regulations, fee appraisers must be engaged directly by the federally regulated institution or its agent,65 and have no direct or indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or the transactions. The Agencies do not limit the arrangements that federally regulated institutions have with their agents, provided those arrangements do not place the agent in a conflict of interest that prevents the agent from representing the interests of the federally regulated institution. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A person or company that has the power to act on behalf of another or to transact business for another, e.g., a title agent under contract with Old Republic Title to issue policies of title insurance. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A person who has been appointed to act on behalf of another for a particular transaction. (HardwickAssociates)

aggradation

Geologic process wherein streambeds, floodplains, sandbars, and the bottom of water bodies are raised in elevation by the deposition of sediment; the opposite of degradation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aggregate

Any total (e.g., the gross national product; the sum of monthly sales). (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) Crushed rock or gravel screened to sizes for use in road surfaces, concrete, or bituminous mixes. A mass or cluster of soil particles, often having a characteristic shape. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aggregate exposure

The sum total of all exposure to pesticides through inhalation, or dermal, oral, or optic contact. (US EPA- Pesticides)

aggregate stability

The ability of soil aggregates to resist degradation. An aggregate is many soil particles held together in a small mass. In a �well-aggregated soil� the aggregates and pores between them hold up well to forces such as rain, wind, and compaction. (Compare to slake test.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

AGM

Annual geometric mean. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

agreement corporation

Corporation chartered by a state to engage in international banking: so named because the corporation enters into an "agreement" with the Fed's Board of Governors that it will limit its activities to those permitted by an Edge Act Corporation. (Federal Reserve Education) Corporation chartered by a state to engage in international banking; so named because the corporation enters into an �agreement� with the Board of Governors to limit its activities to those permitted an Edge Act corporation. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF)

agreement of sale

Same or similar to "contract to purchase." See "contract to purchase" under "mortgage." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

Agricultural Act of 1949

P.L. 89-439 (October 31, 1949), along with the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, makes up the major part of permanent law that mandates commodity price and farm income support. The original 1949 Act designated mandatory support for basic commodities and the following nonbasic commodities: wool and mohair, tung nuts, honey, Irish potatoes (excluded in the Agricultural Act of 1954), as well as milk, butterfat, and their products. Provisions of this law are generally superseded by more current legislation. If the current legislation expires and new legislation is not enacted, the law reverts back to the permanent provisions of the 1938 and 1949 Acts, unless Congress enacts an extension of current legislation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938

P.L. 75-430 (February 16, 1938) was enacted to replace farm subsidy policies found unworkable in the AAA legislation of 1933. The 1938 Act was the first to make price support mandatory for corn, cotton, and wheat to help maintain a sufficient supply in low production periods, along with marketing quotas to keep supply in line with market demand. It established permissive supports for butter, dates, figs, hops, turpentine, rosin, pecans, prunes, raisins, barley, rye, grain sorghum, wool, winter cover-crop seeds, mohair, peanuts, and tobacco for the 1938-40 period. Title V of the Act established the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation. The 1938 Act is considered part of permanent legislation for commodity programs and farm income support (along with the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act and the Agricultural Act of 1949). Provisions of the law are generally superseded by more current legislation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

agricultural and food science

Defined by Congress as basic, applied and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

agricultural bank

Banks of the Farm Credit System and certain other farm-oriented commercial banks, typically located in the farm belt states, that specialize in providing credit to the farming industry. (Also see Loan Loss Amortization Program.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

agricultural drainage

The process of directing excess water away from root zones by natural or artificial means, such as by using a system of pipes and drains placed below ground surface level (also called subsurface drainage). The water drained away from irrigated farmland. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Agricultural Management Assistance program

(aka AMA) Established under the Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000 and amended under the 2002 Farm Act, the Agricultural Management Assistance program provides financial assistance for conserving practices under 3- to 10-year contracts. The program focuses on producers in 15 States where participation in the Federal Crop Insurance Program has historically been low. The 2008 Farm Act added Hawaii to the list of designated states. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Agricultural Market Transition Act

(aka AMTA) Title I of the 1996 Act allowed farmers who participated in the wheat, feed grain, cotton, and rice programs in any one of the previous 5 years to enter into 7-year production flexibility contracts for 1996-2002 and receive payments based on the enrolled acreage. Total production flexibility contract payment levels for each fiscal year were fixed. The AMTA allowed farmers to plant 100 percent of their total contract acreage to any crop, except for limitations on fruits and vegetables, and receive a full payment. Land had to be maintained in agricultural uses, including idling or conserving uses. Unlimited haying and grazing were allowed, as was the planting and harvesting of alfalfa and other forage corps--with no reduction in payments. Production flexibility contract payments, also referred to as AMTA payments, were replaced with direct payments in the 2002 Farm Act and the payment rates were fixed. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

Agricultural Risk Protection Act of 2000

(aka ARPA) Federal crop insurance legislation amended to strengthen the safety net for agricultural producers. It included a provision recognizing organic farming as a "good farming practices" that would be covered by Federal crop insurance. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

agricultural use

Refers to cropland planted to an agricultural crop, used for haying or grazing, idled for weather-related reasons or natural disasters, or diverted from crop production to an approved cultural practice that prevents erosion or other degradation. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

agricultural user sector (or market)

Pesticides applied by owner/operators and custom/commercial applicators to farms and facilities involved in production of raw agricultural commodities, principally food, fiber, and tobacco; includes non-crop and post-harvest use as well as crop/field applications. (US EPA- Pesticides)

agrochemical

Synthetic chemicals (pesticides and fertilizers) used in agricultural production. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AHAM

Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. (Energycodes.gov)

AHP

See Affordable Housing Program (US Dept of HUD)

AHRI

Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute. (Energycodes.gov)

AHS

See American Housing Survey (US Dept of HUD) Archaeological and Historical Services. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AI

See Analysis of Impediments (US Dept of HUD)

AIPC

American Indian Program Council. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

air

The mixture of gases that surrounds the earth and forms its atmosphere, composed of, by volume, 21 percent oxygen, 78 percent nitrogen. (US Dept of Energy)

air carrier

The commercial system of air transportation comprising large certificated air carriers, small certificated air carriers, commuter air carriers, on-demand air taxis, supplemental air carriers, and air travel clubs. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

air change

A measure of the rate at which the air in an interior space is replace by outside (or conditioned) air by ventilation and infiltration; usually measured in cubic feet per time interval (hour), divided by the volume of air in the room. (US Dept of Energy)

air cleaning

An IAQ control strategy to remove various airborne particulates and/or gases from the air. The three types of air cleaning most commonly used are particulate filtration, electrostatic precipitation, and gas sorption. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

air collector

In solar heating systems, a type of solar collector in which air is heated in the collector. (US Dept of Energy)

air conditioner

A device for conditioning air in an interior space. A Room Air Conditioner is a unit designed for installation in the wall or window of a room to deliver conditioned air without ducts. A Unitary Air Conditioner is composed of one or more assemblies that usually include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor and condenser combination, and possibly a heating apparatus. A Central Air Conditioner is designed to provide conditioned air from a central unit to a whole house with fans and ducts. (US Dept of Energy)

air conditioning

The control of the quality, quantity, and temperature-humidity of the air in an interior space. (US Dept of Energy)

air diffuser

An air distribution outlet, typically located in the ceiling, which mixes conditioned air with room air. (US Dept of Energy)

air duct

Pipes that carry warm air and cold air to rooms and back to furnace or air conditioning system. (Publications- USA.gov) A hollow conduit or tube (square or round) that circulates air from a forced-air heating and/or cooling system to a room (supply duct) or returns air back to the main system from a room (return duct). (Energy Star.gov)

air economizer

A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that together allow a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather. (Energycodes.gov)

air economizer systems

Ducting arrangements and automatic control systems that allow a cooling supply fan system to supply outdoor (outside) air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical refrigeration during mild or cold weather. (Energycodes.gov)

air exchange rate

The rate at which outside air replaces indoor air in a space. Expressed in one of two ways: the number of changes of outside air per unit of time air changes per hour (ACH); or the rate at which a volume of outside air enters per unit of time - cubic feet per minute (cfm). (US Environmental Protection Agency)

air handling unit

(aka AHU) Equipment that includes a blower or fan, heating and/or cooling coils, and related equipment such as controls, condensate drain pans, and air filters. Does not include ductwork, registers or grilles, or boilers and chillers. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

air infiltration measurement

A building energy auditing technique used to determine and/or locate air leaks in a building shell or envelope. (US Dept of Energy)

air leak

A hole, crack, or gap where air can leak in or out of a house. Air leaks can make a home feel drafty or uncomfortable and waste energy. (Energy Star.gov)

air passages

Openings through or within walls, through floors and ceilings, and around chimney flues and plumbing chases, that permit air to move out of the conditioned spaces of the building. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

air pollution

The presence of contaminants in the air in concentrations that prevent the normal dispersive ability of the air, and that interfere with biological processes and human economics. (US Dept of Energy)

air pollution control

The use of devices to limit or prevent the release of pollution into the atmosphere. (US Dept of Energy)

air quality

Measure of the health-related and visual characteristics of the air, often derived from quantitative measurements of the concentrations of specific injurious or contaminating substances. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

air quality conformity

The link between air quality planning and transportation planning (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

air quality standards

The prescribed level of pollutants allowed in outside or indoor air as established by legislation. (US Dept of Energy)

air register

The component of a combustion device that regulates the amount of air entering the combustion chamber. (US Dept of Energy)

air release valve

A valve, usually manually operated, which is used to release air from a pipe or fitting. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

air retarder/barrier

A material or structural element that inhibits air flow into and out of a building's envelope or shell. This is a continuous sheet composed of polyethylene, polypropylene, or extruded polystyrene. The sheet is wrapped around the outside of a house during construction to reduce air in-and exfiltration, yet allow water to easily diffuse through it. (US Dept of Energy)

air rights

The right to ownership of everything above the physical surface of the land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

air slaking

The process of breaking up or sloughing when an indurated soil is exposed to air. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

air space

The area between the layers of glazing (panes) of a window. (US Dept of Energy)

air waves

Air borne vibrations caused by explosions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

airlock entry

A building architectural element (vestibule) with two airtight doors that reduces the amount of air infiltration and exfiltration when the exterior most door is opened. (US Dept of Energy)

airplane

An engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings. (14CFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

airport

A landing area regularly used by aircraft for receiving or discharging passengers or cargo. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

airship

An engine-driven lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered. (14CFR1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

air-source heat pump

A type of heat pump that transfers heat from outdoor air to indoor air during the heating season, and works in reverse during the cooling season. (US Dept of Energy)

air-space ratio

Ratio of volume of water that can be drained from a saturated soil or rock under the action of force of gravity to total volume of voids. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

airtight drywall approach

(aka ADA) A building construction technique used to create a continuous air retarder that uses the drywall, gaskets, and caulking. Gaskets are used rather than caulking to seal the drywall at the top and bottom. Although it is an effective energy-saving technique, it was designed to keep airborne moisture from damaging insulation and building materials within the wall cavity. (US Dept of Energy)

air-to-air heat pump

See Air-Source Heat Pump. (US Dept of Energy)

air-to-water heat pump

A type of heat pump that transfers heat in outdoor air to water for space or water heating. (US Dept of Energy)

air-void ratio

The ratio of the volume of airspace to the total volume of voids in a soil mass. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AIS

Automated Information System. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AISC

American Institute of Steel Construction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aka

Also known as. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Albedo

The ratio of light reflected by a surface to the light falling on it. (US Dept of Energy)

alcohol

A group of organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; a series of molecules composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; includes methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol and others. (US Dept of Energy)

alcohol concentration

(aka ac) The concentration of alcohol in a person's blood or breath. When expressed as a percentage it means grams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood or grams of alcohol per 210 liters of breath. (49CFR383) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

alevin

A young fish which has not yet absorbed its yolk sac. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

algae

Non-vascular photosynthetic plant-like organisms, some of which live in or on the soil. They are informally divided into groups by their dominant pigments (i.e., green, blue-green, etc.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Primitive plants, usually aquatic, capable of synthesizing their own food by photosynthesis. (US Dept of Energy) Simple plants containing chlorophyll; most live submerged in water. Microscopic plants which contain chlorophyll and live floating or suspended in water. They also may be attached to structures, rocks or other submerged surfaces. They are food for fish and small aquatic animals. Excess algal growths can impart tastes and odors to potable water. Algae produce oxygen during sunlight hours and use oxygen during the night hours. Their biological activities appreciably affect the pH and dissolved oxygen of the water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

algae bloom

A heavy growth of algae in and on a body of water as a result of high phosphate concentration from farm fertilizers and detergents. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

algal bloom

Rapid and flourishing growth of algae. Sudden, massive growths of microscopic and macroscopic plant life, such as green or bluegreen algae, which develop in lakes and reservoirs. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

algicide

A pesticide that controls algae in swimming pools and water tanks. (US EPA- Pesticides) Any substance or chemical specifically formulated to kill or control algae. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aliquot

Portion of a sample. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alkali

A soluble salt obtained from the ashes of plants. A substance having marked basic properties. Various soluble salts, principally of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium, that have the property of combining with acids to form neutral salts and may be used in chemical water treatment processes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alkali-aggregate reaction

(aka AAR) A deterioration of concrete by which the alkali in the cement paste in the concrete reacts chemically with the silica or carbonate present in some aggregates. In the presence of free moisture, the gel (product of the reaction) Will expand and manifest into cracking and differential movement in structures as well as other deleterious effects such as reduction in freeze-thaw durability and compressive and tensile strength. Three forms of alkali-aggregate reaction have been identified, see alkali-silica reaction, the slow/late-expanding type of reaction referred to as alkali-silicate reaction, and the alkali-carbonate reaction. Visit the Alkali-Aggregate Reactions database. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alkali-carbonate reaction

(aka ACR) Reaction of alkalis which occurs between certain argillaceous dolomitic limestones and the alkaline pore solution in the concrete and causes expansion and extensive cracking. Expansive dolomite limestones are characterized by a matrix of fine calcite and clay minerals with scattered dolomite rhobohedra. This reaction usually occurs early and structures may show cracking within 5 years after construction. See alkali-aggregate reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alkaline

Term applied to water with a pH greater than 7.4. (US Fish & Wildlife Service) Having a pH of 7.0 or above. The condition of water or soil which contains a sufficient amount of alkali substances to raise the pH above 7.0. The quality of being bitter due to alkaline content. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alkali-silica reaction

(aka ASR) Reaction of alkalis with aggregate with various forms of poorly crystalline reactive silica: opal, chert, flint and chalcedony and also tridymite, crystoblite and volcanic glasses. Aggregate containing such materials (e.g., some cherty gravels) may cause deterioration of concrete when present in amounts of 1% to 5%. Concrete made of these aggregates is characterized by the early onset of a relatively rapid expansion. Cracking of structures is often observed within 10 years of construction. See alkali-aggregate reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alkali-silicate/silica reaction

(aka ASSR) Reaction of alkalis with strained quartz is thought to be one reactive component of aggregates causing this reaction. A wide variety of quartz-bearing rocks have been found to be reactive including graywackes, argillites, quartzwackes, quartzarenites, quartzites, hornfels, quartz biotite, gneiss, granite, phyllite, arkose and sandstone. This type of reaction is characterized by a delayed onset of expansion and cracking may not become evident for up to 20 years after construction. See alkali-aggregate reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

allelopathy

Influence of plants upon each other caused by products of metabolism, e.g., creosote bushes produce a toxic substance which inhibits the growth of other plants in the immediate vicinity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

allergen

A substance, such as mold, that can cause an allergic reaction. (US Environmental Protection Agency) A substance capable of causing an allergic reaction because of an individual's sensitivity to that substance. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

allergic rhinitis

Inflammation of the mucous membranes in the nose that is caused by an allergic reaction. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

all-inclusive deed of trust

Similar to a "wraparound mortgage." See also "wraparound mortgage." (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

allocation

An administrative distribution of funds for programs that do not have statutory distribution formulas. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

allochthonous

Exotic species of a given area. Also refers to deposits of material that originated elsewhere, e.g., drifted plant material on the bottom of a lake. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

allopatric

Having separate and mutually exclusive areas of geographical distribution. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

allowable bearing capacity

The maximum pressure that can be permitted on foundation soil, giving consideration to all pertinent factors, with adequate safety against rupture of the soil mass or movement of the foundation of such magnitude that the structure is impaired. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

allowable claim amount

The total losses incurred by the holder of guarantee, as calculated pursuant to Subpart J of Part 3565. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

allowable pile bearing load

The maximum load that can be permitted on a pile with adequate safety against movement of such magnitude that the structure is endangered. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alluvial

Related to, composed of, or found in alluvium. Sedimentary material transported and deposited by the action of flowing water, such as in a riverbed, flood plain, or delta. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alluvial fan

A large fan-shaped accumulation of sediment deposited by streams where they emerge at the front of a mountain range. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alluvium

Material transported and deposited by flowing water, such as clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Soil, the constituents of which have been transported in suspension by flowing water and subsequently deposited by sedimentation. A stratified bed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay deposited by flowing water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ALM

Stands for Asset Liability Management. A structured process for assessing risks related to matching timing, interest rate, repricing of a credit union's assets and liabilities. (National Credit Union Administration)

ALTA

American Land Title Association, a national association of title insurance companies, abstractors and attorneys specializing in real property law. Its headquarters are in Washington, D.C. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

alteration

Any change involving an erasure or rewriting in the date, amount, or payee of a check or other negotiable instrument. (Help With My Bank) Any construction, renovation, or change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition, or change to the arrangement, type, or purpose of the original installation. (Energycodes.gov)

alternating current

A type of electrical current, the direction of which is reversed at regular intervals or cycles; in the U.S. the standard is 120 reversals or 60 cycles per second; typically abbreviated as AC. (US Dept of Energy) An electric current that reverses its direction (positive/negative values) at regular intervals. See direct current. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alternative fuels

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 defines alternative fuels as methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohol; mixtures containing 85 percent or more (but not less than 70 percent as determined by the Secretary of Energy by rule to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels. Includes compressed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels other than alcohols derived from biological materials, electricity, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines by rule is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security and environmental benefits. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) A popular term for "non-conventional" transportation fuels derived from natural gas (propane, compressed natural gas, methanol, etc.) or biomass materials (ethanol, methanol). (US Dept of Energy)

alternative mortgage instrument

(aka AMI) Any mortgage other than a fixed interest rate, level payment, amortizing loan. Includes variable rate mortgages, rollover loans, graduated payment mortgages, shared appreciation mortgages, adjustable rate mortgages, growing equity mortgages. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

alternative rating

A rating method used when a building is Pre-FIRM, the FIRM zone is unknown, and the community in which the building is located has no V zones. May also be used for renewal of policies in communities that have converted from the Emergency Program to the Regular Program during a policy�s term. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

alternatives

Courses of action that may meet the objectives of a proposal at varying levels of accomplishment, including the most likely future conditions without the project or action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

alternator

A generator producing alternating current by the rotation of its rotor, and which is powered by a primary mover. (US Dept of Energy)

altitude

The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point measured in feet Above Ground Level (AGL) or from Mean Sea Level (MSL). 1) MSL Altitude. Altitude expressed in feet measured from mean sea level. 2) AGL Altitude. Altitude expressed in feet measured above ground level. 3) Indicated Altitude. The altitude as shown by an altimeter. On a pressure or barometric altimeter it is altitude as shown uncorrected for instrument error and uncompensated for variation from standard atmospheric conditions. (FAA4) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

alum

Aluminum sulfate. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AMAC

NCUA's Asset Management Assistance Center. AMAC oversees liquidation payouts, managing assets acquired from liquidations and management of recoveries for the National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund. AMAC also provides assistance and advice pertaining to conservatorships, real estate and consumer loans, appraisals, bond claim analysis and reconstructing accounting records. (National Credit Union Administration)

amalgam

A mixture that puts mercury in a solid form. (Energy Star.gov)

amber box policies

See amber box policies in ERS WTO Briefing Room Glossary. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

ambient

Any unconfined portion of the atmosphere; open air; outside surrounding air. (US EPA- Pesticides) Surrounding natural conditions or environment at a given place and time. Environmental or surrounding conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ambient air

The air external to a building or device. (US Dept of Energy)

ambient lighting

Lighting throughout an area that produces general illumination. (Energy Star.gov) Provides general illumination indoors for daily activities, and outdoors for safety and security. (US Dept of Energy)

ambient temperature

The temperature of a medium, such as gas or liquid, which comes into contact with or surrounds an apparatus or building element. (US Dept of Energy) Temperature of the surrounding air (or other medium). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ambursen dam

A buttress dam in which the upstream part is a relatively thin flat slab usually made of reinforced concrete. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AMCR

Alternative management control review. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

amenities

Features of your home that fit your preferences and can increase the value of your property. Some examples include the number of bedrooms, bathrooms, or vicinity to public transportation. (Ginnie Mae)

amenity

A feature of the home or property that serves as a benefit to the buyer but that is not necessary to its use; may be natural (like location, woods, water) or man-made (like a swimming pool or garden). (US Dept of HUD) Any feature of a property that increases its value or desirability. These might include natural amenities such as location or proximity to mountains, or man-made amenities like swimming pools, parks or other recreation. (HardwickAssociates)

American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials

A nationwide survey designed to provide communities with a fresh look at how they are changing. It is a critical element in the 19: Census Bureau's reengineered 2010 19: Census plan. The ACS collects information such as age, race, income, commute time to work, home value, veteran status, and other important data from U.S. households. (US Dept of HUD) (aka AASHTO) A nonprofit, nonpartisan association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. It represents all five transportation modes: air, highways, public transportation, rail and water. Its primary goal is to foster the development, operation and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

American Housing Survey

(aka AHS) Contains data on apartments, single-family homes, mobile homes, vacant homes, family composition, income, housing and neighborhood quality, housing costs, equipment, fuels, size of housing units, and recent movers. National data are collected every other year, from a fixed sample of about 50,000 homes, plus new construction each year. The survey started in 1973 and has relied on the same sample since 1985, allowing users to view statistical changes in homes and households over the years. In some metropolitan areas, additional samples (every four to six years) measure local conditions. (US Dept of HUD)

American Institute of Certified Planners

(aka AICP) The American Planning Association's professional institute that provides recognized leadership nationwide in the certification of professional planners, ethics, professional development, planning education, and the standards of planning practice. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

American Planning Association

(aka APA) A nonprofit public interest and research organization committed to urban, suburban, regional, and rural planning. APA and its professional institute, the American Institute of Certified Planners, advance the art and science of planning to meet the needs of people and society. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

American Public Transportation Association

(aka APTA) Acting as a leading force in advancing public transportation, APTA serves and leads its diverse membership through advocacy, innovation, and information sharing to strengthen and expand public transportation. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

American Society of Appraisers

An organization of appraisal professionals and others interested in the appraisal profession. (HardwickAssociates)

American Society of Home Inspectors

The American Society of Home Inspectors is a professional association of independent home inspectors. Phone: (800) 743-2744 (US Dept of HUD)

Americans With Disabilities Act

(aka ADA) The legislation defining the responsibilities of and requirements for transportation providers to make transportation accessible to individuals with disabilities. (FTA1) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

ammonia

A colorless, pungent, gas (NH3) that is extremely soluble in water, may be used as a refrigerant; a fixed nitrogen form suitable as fertilizer. (US Dept of Energy)

ammonium

One form of nitrogen that is usable by plants. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

amoozemeter

A tool that uses a constant head of water to measure the rate of water movement in a saturated soil, and thus estimates saturated hydraulic conductivity. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

amorphous semiconductor

A non-crystalline semiconductor material that has no long-range order. (US Dept of Energy)

amortization

The liquidation of a debt by regular, usually monthly, installments of principal and interest. An amortization schedule is a table showing the payment amount, interest, principal and unpaid balance for the entire term of the loan. (Ginnie Mae) Paying off a loan over the period of time and at the interest rate specified in a loan document. The amortization of a loan includes the payment of interest and a part of the amount borrowed in each mortgage payment. (Freddie Mac) The process of fully paying off indebtedness by installments of principal and earned interest over a definite time. (Federal Reserve Education) The process of reducing debt through regular installment payments of principal and interest that will result in the payoff of a loan at its maturity. (Help With My Bank) The process of paying off a debt by making regular installment payments over a set period of time, at the end of which the loan balance is zero. (Making Home Affordable) Payment of a debt in equal installments of principal and interest, rather than interest only payments. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The gradual repayment of a mortgage loan by making regular payments over time. To be �fully amortizing,� payments must cover both the principal amount and interest due on the mortgage loan for the given period. An amortization schedule is an established timetable for making payments. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A payment plan that enables you to reduce your debt gradually through monthly payments. The payments may be principal and interest, or interest-only. The monthly amount is based on the schedule for the entire term or length of the loan. (US Dept of HUD) The repayment of a loan through regular periodic payment. (HardwickAssociates)

amortization schedule

A table showing the payment amount, interest, principal and unpaid balance for the entire term of the loan. (Ginnie Mae) Provided by mortgage lenders, the schedule shows how over the term of your mortgage the principal portion of the mortgage payment increases and the interest portion of the mortgage payment decreases. (Freddie Mac) The breakdown of individual payments throughout the life of an amortized loan, showing both principal contribution and debt service (interest) fees. (HardwickAssociates)

amortization term

The length of time over which an amortized loan is repaid. Mortgages are commonly amortized over 15 or 30 years. (HardwickAssociates)

amp

Ampere. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

amperage

A measure of electric current describing the magnitude. (HardwickAssociates) The strength of an electric current measured in amperes. The amount of electric current flow, similar to the flow of water in gallons per minute (gpm). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ampere

The rate of flow of electricity through electric wires. (Publications- USA.gov) A unit of measure for an electrical current; the amount of current that flows in a circuit at an electromotive force of one Volt and at a resistance of one Ohm. Abbreviated as amp. (US Dept of Energy) A unit of electric current or rate of flow of electrons. One volt across 1 ohm of resistance causes a current flow of 1 ampere. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

amperometric

Based on the electric current that flows between two electrodes in a solution. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

amphibian

Vertebrate animals that have life stages both in water and on land (e.g., salamanders, frogs, and toads). Animals capable of living either in water or land. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

amp-hours

A measure of the flow of current (in amperes) over one hour. (US Dept of Energy)

amplification

Modification of the input bedrock ground motion by the overlying unconsolidation materials. Amplification causes the amplitude of the surface ground motion to be increased in some range of frequencies and decreased in others. Amplification is a function of the shear wave velocity and damping of the unconsolidated materials, its thickness and geometry, and the strain level of the input rock motion. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Amtrak

Operated by the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, this rail system was created by the Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-518, 84 Stat. 1327) and given the responsibility for the operation of intercity, as distinct from suburban, passenger trains between points designated by the Secretary of Transportation. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

anabranch

A diverging branch of a river which reenters the mainstream. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

anadromous

Fish that migrate from salt water to freshwater to breed. Going up rivers to spawn. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anaerobic

Without oxygen. Anaerobic organisms, including some soil bacteria, need oxygen-free environments such as saturated soils. Facultative anaerobes can function as either aerobes or anaerobes depending on environmental conditions. See aerobic. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) A condition in which free (atmospheric) or dissolved oxygen is not present in water. The opposite of aerobic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anaerobic bacteria

Microorganisms that live in oxygen deprived environments. (US Dept of Energy)

anaerobic digester

A device for optimizing the anaerobic digestion of biomass and/or animal manure, and possibly to recover biogas for energy production. Digester types include batch, complete mix, continuous flow (horizontal or plug-flow, multiple-tank, and vertical tank), and covered lagoon. (US Dept of Energy)

anaerobic digestion

The complex process by which organic matter is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria. The decomposition process produces a gaseous byproduct often called "biogas" primarily composed of methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide. (US Dept of Energy)

anaerobic lagoon

A holding pond for livestock manure that is designed to anaerobically stabilize manure, and may be designed to capture biogas, with the use of an impermeable, floating cover. (US Dept of Energy)

analysis of alternatives

Understanding how the transportation system and its components work such as information on the costs, benefits and impacts of potential chances to the system. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

analysis of impediments

(aka AI) A review of impediments or barriers that affect the rights of fair housing choice. It covers public and private policies, practices, and procedures affecting housing choice. The AI serves as the basis for fair housing planning, provides essential information to policymakers, administrative staff, housing providers, lenders, and fair housing advocates, and assists in building public support for fair housing efforts. (US Dept of HUD)

anchor block

See thrust block. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anchor ice

Ice in the bed of a stream or upon a submerged body or structure. (See also Schaefer, V. J., 1950, p. 888. ) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

anchored

Adequately secured to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

ancillary services

Other energy-related services that are required to control system frequency, to meet changing scheduling requirements, to react to changing loads and unexpected contingencies, and to ensure system stability (i.e. preventing blackouts). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

andesite

Fine-grained, medium gray volcanic rock of intermediate composition between rhyolite and basalt. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anemometer

An instrument for measuring the force or velocity of wind; a wind gauge. (US Dept of Energy)

angle of external friction

(aka angle of wall friction) Angle between the abscissa and the tangent of the curve representing the relationship of shearing resistance to normal stress acting between soil and surface of another material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angle of incidence

In reference to solar energy systems, the angle at which direct sunlight strikes a surface; the angle between the direction of the sun and the perpendicular to the surface. Sunlight with an incident angle of 90 degrees tends to be absorbed, while lower angles tend to be reflected. (US Dept of Energy)

angle of inclination

In reference to solar energy systems, the angle that a solar collector is positioned above horizontal. (US Dept of Energy)

angle of internal friction

(aka angle of shear resistance) The angle between the axis of normal stress and the tangent to the Mohr envelope at a point representing a given failure-stress condition for solid material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angle of obliquity

The angle between the direction of the resultant stress or force acting on a given plane and the normal to that plane. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angle of repose

Angle between the horizontal and the maximum slope that a particular soil or geologic material assumes through natural processes. For dry granular soils, the effect of the height of slope is negligible; for cohesive soils, the effect of height of slope is so great that the angle of repose is meaningless. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angle of shear resistance

(aka angle of internal friction) The angle between the axis of normal stress and the tangent to the Mohr envelope at a point representing a given failure-stress condition for solid material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angle of wall friction

(aka angle of external friction) Angle between the abscissa and the tangent of the curve representing the relationship of shearing resistance to normal stress acting between soil and surface of another material. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angler-day

The time spent fishing by one person for any part of a day. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

angstrom unit

A unit of length named for A.J. Angstome, a Swedish spectroscopist, used in measuring electromagnetic radiation equal to 0.000,000,01 centimeters. (US Dept of Energy)

anhydrous ethanol

One hundred percent alcohol; neat ethanol. (US Dept of Energy)

animal dander

Tiny scales of animal skin. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

anion

A negatively charged ion in an electrolyte solution, attracted to the anode under the influence of a difference in electrical potential. See cation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anisotropic mass

A mass having different properties in different directions at any given point. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anisotropy

Flow conditions vary with direction. Most aquifers are anisotropic. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annex (functional)

An emergency operations plan element that describes the jurisdiction's plan for functioning in that component area of activity during emergencies. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annotated code

A compilation of general and permanent state statutes that are currently in force, organized by subject matter. Annotated codes also include commentary on the statutes and case law relating to the application of the statutes. In some states, the official state code is designated as an annotated code; in others, the annotated code is an unofficial code published by a private legal publisher. Both official and unofficial codes present complete compilations of state law. (Glossary of Statutory, Legislative and Regulatory Terms )

annual adjustment factor

(aka AAF) Section 8 of the U.S. Housing Act of 1937 provides for annual rent adjustments for housing units assisted under this section. HUD develops the rent adjustment factors, called AAFs, on the basis of Consumer Price Index (CPI) data on changes in residential rent and utility costs. HUD publishes the AAFs annually in the Federal Register. (US Dept of HUD)

annual cap

See also: Cap (Ginnie Mae) A limit on the amount of adjustment in the interest rate on an adjustable rate mortgage over a twelve-month period. Also called cap, payment cap. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

annual contribution contract

(aka ACC) Annual contracts with Public Housing Authorities for payments toward rent, financing debt service, and financing for modernization. (US Dept of HUD)

annual energy cost

Variable costs relating to energy production in a year, usually espressed in mills per kilowatt-hour. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annual failure probability

The probability of the load multiplied by the probability of failure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annual flood

The highest peak discharge in a water year. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

annual flood series

A list of annual floods. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

annual fuel utilization efficiency

(aka AFUE) The measure of seasonal or annual efficiency of a residential heating furnace or boiler. It takes into account the cyclic on/off operation and associated energy losses of the heating unit as it responds to changes in the load, which in turn is affected by changes in weather and occupant controls. (US Dept of Energy)

annual funding agreement

A negotiated annual written funding agreement between a Self-Governance Indian Tribal Government (ITG) and the Secretary of the Interior, authorizing the ITG to plan, conduct, consolidate, and administer programs, services, functions, and activities or portions thereof previously administered by the Department of the Interior through the BIA, and other programs for which appropriations are made available for the ITG through the Secretary of the Interior from agencies other than Department of the Interior (DOI). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

annual income

The HOME Program allows the use of three income definitions for the purpose of determining applicant eligibility: �Annual income as defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (24 CFR 5.609); �Annual income as reported under the 19: Census Long Form for the most recent decennial 19: Census; or �Adjusted gross income as defined for purposes of reporting under Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form 1040 series for individual federal annual income tax purposes. The definitions are collectively referred to as "annual income" and are also used in the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program. (US Dept of HUD)

annual inspection

(aka AI) Annual inspections of a dam and appurtenant facilities are conducted by the local operating office. These examinations address both O&M and dam safety issues and use an "Annual Inspection Checklist" to aid in the examination and formal documentation of the inspection. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annual load factor

This factor is equal to energy generated in a year divided by the product of the peak demand for that year and the number of total hours in a year. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annual load fraction

That fraction of annual energy demand supplied by a solar system. (US Dept of Energy)

annual mortgagor statement

Yearly statement to borrowers detailing the remaining principal and amounts paid for taxes and interest. (US Dept of HUD)

annual operating cost

This is a general term which is sometimes called annual operating expense and includes all annual operation and maintenance expense, wheeling, purchased power, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annual percentage rate

The actual interest rate, taking into account points and other finance charges, for the projected life of a mortgage. Disclosure of APR is required by the Truth-in-Lending Law and allows borrowers to compare the actual costs of different mortgage loans. (Ginnie Mae) How much a loan costs annually. The APR includes the interest rate, points, broker fees and certain other credit charges a borrower is required to pay. (Freddie Mac) The cost of credit expressed as a yearly rate. For closed-end credit, such as car loans or mortgages, the APR includes the interest rate, points, broker fees, and certain other credit charges that the borrower is required to pay. An APR, or an equivalent rate, is not used in leasing agreements. (Federal Trade Commission- Shopping for a Mortgage) The cost of a loan or other financing as an annual rate. The APR includes the interest rate, points, broker fees and certain other credit charges a borrower is required to pay. (Federal Trade Commission) The cost of credit on a yearly basis expressed as a percentage. (Federal Reserve Education) The cost of credit on a yearly basis expressed as a percentage. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) The cost of credit on a yearly basis, expressed as a percentage. (Help With My Bank) The cost of credit expressed as a yearly rate. For closed-end credit, such as car loans or mortgages, the APR includes the interest rate, points, broker fees, and other credit charges that the borrower is required to pay. An APR, or an equivalent rate, is not used in leasing agreements. (Federal Reserve Board- Handbook on Adjustable Rate Mortgages) Measured as the percentage of a mortgage loan�s principal that would be paid in finance charges if the mortgage loan was carried for one year. APR includes both interest costs and fees charged on a mortgage loan. Disclosure of the APR of mortgage loans is necessary so that borrowers can better understand the cost of the credit. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts) A measure of the cost of credit, expressed as a yearly rate. It includes interest as well as other charges. Because all lenders, by federal law, follow the same rules to ensure the accuracy of the annual percentage rate, it provides consumers with a good basis for comparing the cost of loans, including mortgage plans. APR is a higher rate than the simple interest of the mortgage. (US Dept of HUD) A figure that states the total yearly cost of a mortgage as expressed by the actual rate of interest paid. The APR includes the base interest rate, points, and any other add-on loan fees and costs. As a result the APR is invariably higher for the rate of interest that the lender quotes for the mortgage but gives a more accurate picture of the likely cost of the loan. Keep in mind, however, that most mortgages are not held for their full 15 or 30 year terms, so the effective annual percentage rate is higher than the quoted APR because the points and loan fees are spread out over fewer years (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) The rate of annual interest charged on a loan. (HardwickAssociates)

annual percentage yield

(aka APY) A percentage rate reflecting the total amount of interest paid on a deposit account based on the interest rate and the frequency of compounding for a 365-day year. (Help With My Bank)

annual solar savings

The annual solar savings of a solar building is the energy savings attributable to a solar feature relative to the energy requirements of a non-solar building. (US Dept of Energy)

annual work plan

Annual budget document that describes proposed work to be performed at a specific Bureau of Reclamation project, and details the amount of funds required. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annualized loss of life

The sum of the probability of dam failure multiplied by the annual probability of the loading and the estimated number of lives that would be lost (consequences) for each dam failure scenario under a particular loading category (i.e. (probability of failure)(probability of load)(potential loss of life)). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annuity

An amount paid yearly or at other regular intervals, often at a guaranteed minimum amount. Also, a type of insurance policy in which the policy holder makes payments for a fixed period or until a stated age, and then receives annuity payments from the insurance company. (Federal Trade Commission) A series of equal payments made at regular intervals, with interest compounded at a specified rate. (Federal Reserve Education) A life insurance contract sold by insurance companies, brokers, and other financial institutions. It is usually sold as a retirement investment. An annuity is a long-term investment and can have steep surrender charges and penalties for withdrawal before the annuity's maturity date. (Annuities are not FDIC insured.) (Help With My Bank) A sum of money paid at regular intervals, often annually. (HardwickAssociates)

annular

Ring-shaped. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

annular space

A ring-shaped space located between two circular objects, such as two pipes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anode

The positive pole or electrode of an electrolytic cell, vacuum tube, etc. (see also sacrificial anode). (US Dept of Energy) The positive pole or electrode of an electrolytic system. The anode attracts negatively charged particles or ions (anions). See cathode. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anoxic

Without oxygen. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ANSI

American National Standards Institute. (Energycodes.gov)

antecedent flood

A flood or series of floods assumed to occur prior to the occurrence of an inflow design flood (IDF). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

antecedent precipitation index

An index of moisture stored within a drainage basin before a storm. (Linsley and others, 1949, p. 414.) (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

anthracite (coal)

A hard, dense type of coal, that is hard to break, clean to handle, difficult to ignite, and that burns with an intense flame and with the virtual absence of smoke because it contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. (US Dept of Energy)

anthropogenic

Generated by humans. Used to indicate soil conditions, disturbances, or stresses that are created by people. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service) Referring to alterations in the environment due to the presence or activities of humans. (US Dept of Energy) Human-created. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

anticline

A fold in rocks that curves upward in a convex way. Upward fold in rock layers that creates an arched or domelike uplift of sedimentary layers. See syncline. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

antifreeze solution

A fluid, such as methanol or ethylene glycol, added to vehicle engine coolant, or used in solar heating system heat transfer fluids, to protect the systems from freezing. (US Dept of Energy)

antimicrobial

Agent that kills microbial growth (i.e., chemical or substance that kills mold or other organisms). See "Biocide" and "Fungicide." (US Environmental Protection Agency) Agent that kills microbial growth. See "disinfectant," "sanitizer," and "sterilizer." (US Environmental Protection Agency)

anti-microbial pesticide

Any chemical substance which can be used to kill microorganisms. (US EPA- Pesticides)

antireflection coating

A thin coating of a material applied to a photovoltaic cell surface that reduces the light reflection and increases light transmission. (US Dept of Energy)

APCD

Air Pollution Control District. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

APE

Area of potential effect. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aperture

An opening; in solar collectors, the area through which solar radiation is admitted and directed to the absorber. (US Dept of Energy)

apparent day

A solar day; an interval between successive transits of the sun's center across an observer's meridian; the time thus measured is not equal to clock time. (US Dept of Energy)

apparent power (kVa)

This is the voltage-ampere requirement of a device designed to convert electric energy to a non-electrical form. (US Dept of Energy)

appendix

An emergency operations plan element attached to a functional annex to provide information on special approaches or requirements generated by unique characteristics of specified hazards of particular concern to the jurisdiction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

appliance

A device for converting one form of energy or fuel into useful energy or work. (US Dept of Energy)

appliance energy efficiency ratings

The ratings under which specified appliances convert energy sources into useful energy, as determined by procedures established by the U.S. 44: Department of Energy. (US Dept of Energy)

appliance standards

Standards established by the U.S. Congress for energy consuming appliances in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987, and as amended in the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct). NAECA established minimum standards of energy efficiency for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, room air conditioners, fluorescent lamp ballasts, incandescent reflector lamps, clothes dryers, clothes washers, dishwashers, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, television sets (withdrawn in 1995), and water heaters. The EPAct added standards for some fluorescent and incandescent reflector lamps, plumbing products, electric motors, and commercial water heaters and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems. It also allowed for the future development of standards for many other products. The U.S. 44: Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible establishing the standards and the procedures that manufacturers must use to test their models. These procedures are published in the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR, Ch. II, Part 430), January 1, 1994 (Federal Register). (US Dept of Energy)

applicable federal rate

(aka AFR) The interest rate set by the federal government for federal financing programs pursuant to Section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

applicant

A person who has completed the paperwork for a mortgage loan. (US Dept of HUD- Fair Lending: Learn the Facts)

application

Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), an oral or written request for an extension of credit that is made in accordance with the procedures established by a creditor for the type of credit requested. (Help With My Bank) The submission of a borrower�s financial information in anticipation of a credit decision relating to a federally related mortgage loan, which shall include the borrower�s name, the borrower�s monthly income, the borrower�s social security number to obtain a credit report, the property address, an estimate of the value of the property, the mortgage loan amount sought, and any other information deemed necessary by the loan originator. An application may either be in writing or electronically submitted, including a written record of an oral application. (US Dept of HUD- RESPA Act: Final Rule) The first step in the official loan approval process; this form is used to record important information about the potential borrower necessary to the underwriting process. (US Dept of HUD) The statement made and signed by the prospective policyholder or the agent in applying for an NFIP flood insurance policy. The application gives information used to determine the eligibility of the risk, the kind of policy to be issued, and the correct premium payment. The application is part of the flood insurance policy. For a policy to be issued, the correct premium payment must accompany the application. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) A form used to apply for a mortgage loan that details a potential borrower's income, debt, savings and other information used to determine credit worthiness. (HardwickAssociates)

application efficiency

The ratio of the average depth of irrigation water infiltrated and stored in the root zone to the average depth of irrigation water applied, expressed as a percent. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

application fee

The fee that a mortgage lender charges to apply for a mortgage to cover processing costs. (Freddie Mac) The fee that a mortgage lender or broker charges to apply for a mortgage to cover processing costs. (Federal Trade Commission) A fee charged by lenders to process a loan application. (US Dept of HUD)

application part-load value

(aka APLV) A single number part-load efficiency figure of merit calculated in accordance with the method described in Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Standard 550/590 referenced with the method rating conditions described in those standards. (Energycodes.gov)

applied water

(aka delivered water) Water delivered to a user. Applied water may be used for either inside uses or outside watering. It does not include precipitation or distribution losses. It may apply to metered or unmetered deliveries. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

apportionment

1) A term that refers to a statutorily prescribed division or assignment of funds. An apportionment is based on prescribed formulas in the law and consists of dividing authorized obligation authority for a specific program among the States. 2) The distribution of funds as prescribed by a statutory formula. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

appraisal

(noun) the act or process of developing an opinion of value; an opinion of value. (adjective) Of or pertaining to appraising and related functions such as appraisal practice or appraisal services. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) An estimate of a property's value as of a given date, determined by a qualified professional appraiser. The value may be based on replacement cost, the sales of comparable properties or the property's income-producing ability. (Ginnie Mae) A professional analysis used to estimate the value of the property. This includes examples of sales of similar properties. (Freddie Mac) As defined in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser (state licensed or certified) setting forth an opinion as to the market value of an adequately described property as of a specific date(s), supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A professional analysis used to estimate the value of the property. This includes examples of sales of similar properties. (Federal Trade Commission) The act of evaluating and setting the value of a specific piece of personal or real property. (Help With My Bank) A written estimate of a property's current market value prepared by a professional appraiser. (Making Home Affordable) A document from a professional that gives an estimate of a property's fair market value based on the sales of comparable homes in the area and the features of a property; an appraisal is generally required by a lender before loan approval to ensure that the mortgage loan amount is not more than the value of the property. (US Dept of HUD) The determination of property value based on recent sales information of similar properties. Appraisals are done by state licensed appraisers, and must be ordered thru a third party Appraisal Management Company (AMC) (US Dept of Agriculture- Home Loans) A ''defensible'' and carefully documented opinion of value. Most commonly derived using recent sales of comparable properties by a licensed, professional appraiser. (HardwickAssociates)

appraisal consulting

The act or process of developing an analysis, recommendation, or opinion to solve a problem, where an opinion of value is a component of the analysis leading to the assignment results. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

appraisal estimate

An estimate used in an appraisal study as an aid in selecting the most economical plan by comparing alternative features or for determinimg whether more detailed investigations of a potential project are economically justified. Used to obtain approximate costs in a short period of time with inadequate data. Not to be used for project authorization. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

appraisal fee

The charge for estimating the value of property offered as security. (Federal Reserve Education) The charge for estimating the value of property offered as security. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) Fee charged by an appraiser to estimate the market value of a property. (US Dept of HUD)

Appraisal Foundation

A not-for-profit educational organization established by the appraisal profession in the United States in 1987. It is dedicated to the advancement of professional valuation and responsible for establishing, improving, and promoting the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP). (HardwickAssociates)

Appraisal Institute

A world-wide organization dedicated to real estate appraisal education, publication and advocacy. (HardwickAssociates)

appraisal level of detail

The level of detail necessary to facilitate making decisions on whether or not to proceed with a detailed study and evaluation of any alternative. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

appraisal management company

The Agencies� appraisal regulations do not define the term appraisal management company. For purposes of these Guidelines, an appraisal management company includes, but is not limited to, a third-party entity that provides real property valuation-related services, such as selecting and engaging an appraiser to perform an appraisal based upon requests originating from a regulated institution. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) has a specific definition for this term in connection with transactions secured by a consumer�s principal dwelling or mortgage secondary market transactions. See the Third Party Arrangements section in these Guidelines. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency) A business entity that administers a network of certified and licensed appraisers to fulfill real estate appraisal assignments on behalf of mortgage lending institutions and other entities. The company recruits, qualifies, verifies licensing, and negotiates fees and service-level expectations with a network of third-party appraisers. It also provides administrative duties like order entry and assignment, tracking and status updates, pre-delivery quality control, and preliminary and hard copy report delivery. Furthermore, the AMC oversees ongoing quality control, accounts payable and receivable, market value dispute resolution, warranty administration, and record retention. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council)

appraisal practice

Valuation services performed by an individual acting as an appraiser, including but not limited to appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

appraisal principles

The basic building blocks of the property valuation process, including property inspection, market analysis and basic economics. (HardwickAssociates)

appraisal report

The end result of the appraisal process usually consists of one major standardized form such as, the Uniform Residential Appraisal Report form 1004, as well as all supporting documentation and additional detail information. The purpose of the report is to convey the opinion of value of the subject property and support that opinion with corroborating information. (HardwickAssociates)

appraisal report options

Refer to the definitions for Restricted Use Appraisal Report, Self-Contained Appraisal Report, and Summary Appraisal Report. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

appraisal review

The act or process of developing and communicating an opinion about the quality of another appraiser�s work that was performed as part of an appraisal, appraisal review, or appraisal consulting assignment. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

Appraisal Standards Board (ASB)

An independent board of the APPRAISAL FOUNDATION, which writes, amends, and interprets USPAP. The ASB is composed of up to seven appraisers appointed by the Foundation's Board of Trustees. The ASB holds public meetings throughout the year to interpret and amend USPAP. (HardwickAssociates)

appraisal study (appraisal report)

A study incorporating an appraisal level of detail. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

appraisal threshold

An appraisal is not required on transactions with a transaction value of $250,000 or less. As specified in the Agencies� appraisal regulations, an institution must obtain an evaluation of the real property collateral, if no other appraisal exemption applies. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

appraised equity capital

A regulatory capital item established by the former FHLBB that allowed a savings association to count as part of its regulatory capital the difference between the book value and the fair market value (appraised value) of fixed assets, including owner-occupied real estate. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

appraised value

An estimation of the current market value of a property. (US Dept of HUD) An opinion of the fair market value of a property as developed by a licensed, certified appraiser following accepted appraisal principals. (HardwickAssociates)

appraiser

One who is expected to perform valuation services competently and in a manner that is independent, impartial, and objective. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) A professional who conducts an analysis of the property, including examples of sales of similar properties in order to develop an estimate of the value of the property. The analysis is called an "appraisal." (Freddie Mac) One who is expected to perform valuation services competently and in a manner that is independent, impartial, and objective. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council) A professional who conducts an analysis of the property, including examples of sales of similar properties in order to develop an estimate of the value of the property. The analysis is called an "appraisal." (Federal Trade Commission) A professional with knowledge of real estate markets and skilled in the practice of appraisal, a written estimate of a property�s current market value. When a property is appraised in connection with a loan, the appraiser is selected by the lender, but the appraisal fee is usually paid by the homeowner. (Making Home Affordable) One who is trained and educated in the methods of determining the value of property (appraised value). You will pay a fee for an appraisal report containing an opinion as to the value of your property and the reasoning leading to this opinion. (US Dept of HUD- HUD's Settlement Cost Booklet) A qualified individual who uses his or her experience and knowledge to prepare the appraisal estimate. (US Dept of HUD) An educated, certified professional with extensive knowledge of real estate markets, values and practices. The appraiser is often the only independent voice in any real estate transaction with no vested interest in the ultimate value or sales price of the property. (HardwickAssociates)

appraiser�s peers

Other appraisers who have expertise and competency in a similar type of assignment (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

appreciation

A property's increase in value due to inflation or economic factors. (Ginnie Mae) An increase in the market value of a home due to changing market conditions and/or home improvements. (Freddie Mac) An increase in the market value of a home due to changing market conditions and/or home improvements. (Federal Trade Commission) An increase in the value or price. (Federal Reserve Education) See currency appreciation. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) An increase in property value. (US Dept of HUD) The natural rise in property value due to market forces. (HardwickAssociates)

approach channel

The channel upstream from that portion of the spillway having a concrete lining or concrete structure. Channel upstream from intake structure of an outlet works. Channel is generally unlined, excavated in rock or soil, with or without riprap, soil cement or other types of erosion protection. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

appropriation

Authorization of funding expenditures from Congress. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) Amount of water legally set apart or assigned to a particular purpose or use. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

appropriations

An appropriations act of Congress permits USDA or other federal agencies to incur financial obligations to be drawn from the Federal Treasury. Appropriations do not represent cash actually set aside in the Treasury for the purposes specified in the appropriations act; they represent limitations of amounts that agencies may obligate for the purposes and during the time periods specified in the appropriations act. Appropriations may be annual (one year in duration), multiple-year (a definite period in excess of one fiscal year), or no-year (available indefinitely). Appropriations are definite (for a specific amount of money) or indefinite (for an unspecified amount of money), and either current (for the immediate fiscal year in question) or permanent (always available). (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

appropriations act

Action of a legislative body that makes funds available for expenditure with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration. In most cases, it permits money previously authorized to be obligated and payments made, but for the highway program operating under contract authority, the appropriations act specifies amounts of funds that Congress will make available for the fiscal year to liquidate obligations. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

appropriative

Water rights to or ownership of a water supply which is acquired for the beneficial use of water by following a specific legal procedure. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

approved appraiser list

A listing of appraisers who an institution has determined to be generally qualified and competent to perform appraisals and may address the appraiser�s expertise in a particular market and property type. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

approved lender

An eligible lender who has been authorized by the Agency to originate guaranteed multifamily loans under the program (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

APPS

See Active Partners Performance System (US Dept of HUD)

appurtenance

Anything so annexed to land or used with it that it will pass with the conveyance of the land. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

appurtenant structure

A detached garage servicing a 1-4 family dwelling. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)

appurtentant structures

Outlet works, spillways, bridges, drain systems, tunnels, towers, etc. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

APR

See also: Annual Percentage Rate (Ginnie Mae)

apron

A paved area, such as the juncture of a driveway with the street or with a garage entrance. (Publications- USA.gov) (aka fore apron) A section of concrete or riprap constructed upstream or downstream from a control structure to prevent undercutting of the structure. A short ramp with a slight pitch. A floor or lining of concrete, timber, or other suitable material at the toe of a dam, discharge side of a spillway, a chute, or other discharge structure, to protect the waterway from erosion from falling water or turbulent flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AQIA

Air quality impact analysis. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AQMP

Air Quality Management Plan. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aquatic

Living, growing, or occurring in or on the water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aquatic algae

Microscopic plants that grow in sunlit water containing phosphates, nitrates, and other nutrients. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aqueduct

Man-made canal or pipeline used to transport water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aqueous

Something made up of, similar to, or containing water; watery. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aquiclude

A layer of clay which limits the movement of ground water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

aquifer

An underground formation or group of formations in rocks and soils containing enough ground water to supply wells and springs. (US EPA- Water Drinking Water Consumer Information Private Wells Glossary) A water-bearing layer of rock (including gravel and sand) that will yield water in usable quantity to a well or spring. (US EPA- Pesticides) A water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel. A water-bearing formation that provides a ground water reservoir. Underground water-bearing geologic formation or structure. A geologic formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that stores and transmits water and yields significant quantities of water to wells and springs. A natural underground layer of porous, water-bearing materials (sand, gravel) usually capable of yielding a large amount or supply of water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arable

Suitable for farming. Having soil or topographic features suitable for cultivation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arable land

Land which when farmed in adequate size units for the prevailing climatic and economic setting, and provided with the essential on-farm improvements of removing vegetation, leveling, soil reclamation, drainage, and irrigation related facilities, will generate sufficient income under irrigation to pay all farm production expenses; provide a reasonable return to the farm family's labor, management, and capital; and at least pay the operation, maintenance, and replacement costs of associated irrigation and drainage facilities. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arbitration

A process where disputes are settled by referring them to a fair and neutral third party (arbitrator). The disputing parties agree in advance to agree with the decision of the arbitrator. There is a hearing where both parties have an opportunity to be heard, after which the arbitrator makes a decision. (Freddie Mac) A process where disputes are settled by referring them to a fair and neutral third party (arbitrator). The parties agree in advance to agree with the decision of the arbitrator. There is a hearing where both arties have an opportunity to be hear, after which the arbitrator makes a decision. (Federal Trade Commission) A legal method of resolving a dispute without going to court. (US Dept of HUD)

arbuscular mycorrhizae

The group of endomycorrhizal fungi important in non-woody plants, including many agricultural crops. Sometimes called vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM). (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

arch

Buttress dam (or curved buttress dam). A buttress dam which is curved in plan. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation) Gravity dam. An arch dam which is only slightly thinner than a gravity dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arch dam

A concrete or masonry dam which is curved upstream in plan so as to transmit the major part of the water load to the abutments and to keep the dam in compression. A solid concrete dam curved upstream in plan. An arch dam is most likely used in a narrow site with steep walls of sound rock. See thin arch dam, medium-thick arch dam, thick arch dam, arch-buttress dam, arch-gravity dam, constant angle arch dam, constant radius arch dam, double curvature arch dam, and multiple arch dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

archaic

In American archeology, a cultural stage following the earliest known human occupation in the New World (about 5,500 B.C. to A.D. 100). This stage was characterized by a generalized hunting and gathering lifestyle and seasonal movement to take advantage of a variety of resources. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

archeology

Study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of their material relics. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Archimedean screw

An ancient water-raising device attributed to Archimedes, made up of a spiral tube coiled about a shaft or of a large screw in a cylinder, revolved by hand. A pump consisting of an inclined, revolving, corkscrew-shaped shaft tightly enclosed in a pipe. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arching

The transfer of stress from a yielding part of a soil or rock mass to adjoining less-yielding or restrained parts of the mass. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

area of influence of a well

Area surrounding a well within which the piezometric surface has been lowered when pumping has produced a maximum steady rate of flow. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

area plan of insurance

Crop yield or revenue insurance coverage based on county-level yield or revenue. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

area source

Small stationary and non-transportation pollution sources that are too small and/or numerous to be included as point sources but may collectively contribute significantly to air pollution (e.g., dry cleaners). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

area-capacity curve

A graph showing the relation between the surface area of the water in a reservoir and the corresponding volume. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

area-capacity table

A table giving reservoir storage capacity, and sometimes surface areas, in terms of elevation increments. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

areawide control schedule

An accounting and project management tool that is developed from tribal Transportation Improvement Programs, tribal control schedules, and tribal priority lists to identify detailed project information for the expenditure of IRR funds for the current and next four fiscal years. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

Argon

An inert gas used in CFLs to regulate the environment inside the glass tubing so that the mercury vapor can absorb the electrical currents. (Energy Star.gov) A colorless, odorless inert gas sometimes used in the spaces between the panes in energy efficient windows. This gas is used because it will transfer less heat than air. Therefore, it provides additional protection against conduction and convection of heat over conventional double -pane windows. (US Dept of Energy)

arid

A term describing a climate or region in which precipitation is so deficient in quantity or occurs so infrequently that intensive agricultural production is not possible without irrigation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ARM

See also: Adjustable Rate Mortgage (Ginnie Mae) See Adjustable Rate Mortgage (US Dept of HUD) Adjustable Rate Mortgage. See "Variable Rate Mortgage." (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

armoring

See riprap. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arms length transaction

Any transaction in which the two parties are unconnected and have no overt common interests. Such a transaction most often reflects the true market value of a property. (HardwickAssociates)

ARP

See Accelerated Resolution Program (ARP) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Address resolution protocol. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

array (solar)

Any number of solar photovoltaic modules or solar thermal collectors or reflectors connected together to provide electrical or thermal energy. (US Dept of Energy)

arrestance

The ability of a filter to remove injected standard dust from the test air. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

arroyo

A gully or channel cut by an intermittent stream. A water-carved channel or gulley in an arid area, usually rather small in cross section with steep banks, dry much of the time due to infrequent rainfall and the depth of the cut which does not penetrate below the level of permanent ground water. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arterial

A class of roads serving major traffic movements (high-speed, high volume) for travel between major points. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

arterial highway

A major highway used primarily for through traffic. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

arterial street

A class of street serving major traffic movements (high-speed, high volume) for travel between major points. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

artesian well

Water held under pressure in porous rock or soil confined by impermeable geologic formations. An artesian well is free flowing. See confined aquifer. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

arthropods

Animals that don't have a backbone or spinal cord. Examples are insects with hard shells and spiders. (US EPA- Pesticides) Invertebrate animals with jointed legs. They include insects, crustaceans, sowbugs, springtails, arachnids (spiders), and others. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

artifact

Any human-made or used object, intact or in pieces, 50 years or older. Artifacts are protected by the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

artificial drains

Man-made or constructed drains. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

artificial recharge

Addition of surface water to a ground water reservoir by human activity, such as putting surface water into spreading basins. See ground water recharge, and recharge basin. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ASAP

As soon as possible. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

asbestos

A toxic material that was once used in housing insulation and fireproofing. Because some forms of asbestos have been linked to certain lung diseases, it is no longer used in new homes. However, some older homes may still have asbestos in these materials. (Freddie Mac) A toxic material that was once used in housing insulation and fireproofing. Because some forms of asbestos have been linked to certain lung diseases, it is no longer used in new homes. However, some older homes may still have asbestos in these materials. (Federal Trade Commission)

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

ash

The non-combustible residue of a combusted substance composed primarily of alkali and metal oxides. (US Dept of Energy)

ASHRAE

Formerly referred to as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. (Energycodes.gov) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers is an international group which is organized for the purpose of advancing the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration through research, standards writing, continuing education and publications. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Abbreviation for the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. (US Dept of Energy)

ASHRAE/IES

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers/Illuminating Engineering Society Standard. (Energycodes.gov)

asking price

A seller's stated price for a property. (US Dept of HUD)

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (Energycodes.gov)

asphalt

A dark brown to black cement-like material containing bitumen as the predominant constituent. The definition includes crude asphalt and finished products such as cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions, and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalt. Asphalt is obtained by petroleum processing. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

ASR

Alkali-silica reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

assessed value

Typically the value placed on property for the purpose of taxation. (Federal Trade Commission) The value that a public official has placed on any asset (used to determine taxes). (US Dept of HUD) The value of a property according to jurisdictional tax assessment. (HardwickAssociates)

assessing soil health

Estimating the functional capacity of soil by comparing a soil to a standard such as an ecological site description, a similar soil under native vegetation, a reference soil condition, or quality criteria. The objective of the assessment dictates the standard to be used. (Compare to monitoring.) (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

assessment

Charges levied against a property for tax purposes or to pay for municipal or association improvements such as curbs, sewers, or grounds maintenance. (Ginnie Mae) The imposition of a tax, charge or levy, usually according to established rates. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The function of assigning a value to a property for the purpose of levying taxes. (HardwickAssociates)

assessment ratio

The comparative relationship of a property's assessed value to its market value. (HardwickAssociates)

assessments

The method of placing value on an asset for taxation purposes. (US Dept of HUD)

assessor

A public official who establishes the value of a property for taxation purposes. (Federal Trade Commission) A government official who is responsible for determining the value of a property for the purpose of taxation. (US Dept of HUD) A public official who evaluates property for the purpose of taxation. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) The jurisdictional official who performs the assessment and assigns the value of a property. (HardwickAssociates)

asset

Anything of monetary value that is owned by a person or company. Assets include real property, personal property, stocks, mutual funds, etc. (Federal Trade Commission) Anything an individual or a business owns that has commercial or exchange value. (Federal Reserve Education) Any item of value which a person owns. (HardwickAssociates)

asset liquidation agreement

(aka ALA) An asset management contract between the FDIC and a bank affiliate or private-sector contractor for the management and disposition of distressed assets of all types. The ALA contract was designed for asset pools with an aggregate book value in excess of $1 billion. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset management and disposition agreement

(aka AMDA) A partnership agreement between the FDIC as manager of the FSLIC Resolution Fund (FRF) and the acquirers of certain failed savings and loan institutions, created as a result of the RTC�s review and renegotiation of the FSLIC�s 1988 and 1989 assistance agreements. Assets with a book value of $3.7 billion were assigned to two partnerships under AMDA contracts. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset management contract

A contract with a private-sector asset management contractor for managing and disposing of distressed assets. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset management estate

Entity established to oversee assets and other property acquired from a failed institution. Commonly organized through NCUA's Asset Management Assistance Center created through the exercise of the NCUA Board's statutory authorities providing broad supervisory and management powers over the credit union's assets and operations. These powers include the ability to facilitate fund and disposition of assets. Also known as a liquidation estate. (National Credit Union Administration)

asset manager

A term often used to describe an asset management contractor who manages and disposes of assets (for example, an ALA or SAMDA contractor). The term �asset manager� may also be used in a broad, generic sense to describe a person or entity responsible for the management of an asset or a portfolio of assets. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset pool

A portfolio of assets, often composed of assets with similar characteristics. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset specialist

An FDIC or RTC employee with responsibility for the management and disposition of assets, or for the oversight of asset managers employed under asset management contracts. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset valuation review

(aka AVR) A review of a failing institution�s assets to estimate the liquidation value of the assets. An AVR estimate is used in the least cost analysis that is required by FDICIA. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

asset write downs

Assets are "written down" when price is adjusted downward in formal recognition of expected losses. Suppose, for example, a change in economic environment causes management to recognize that an asset with a book value of $100 is now worth only $60. Changing the carrying value from $100 to $60 is a "write down." Regulatory or accounting conventions force some assets to be "marked to market" ?? that is to have their prices changed up or down to reflect changing economic circumstances. (National Credit Union Administration)

assets

Everything of value an individual owns. (Freddie Mac) Any item with measurable value. (US Dept of HUD)

assignee

One to whom a transfer of interest is made. For example, the assignee of a mortgage or contract. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

assignment

1) An agreement between an appraiser and a client to provide a valuation service; 2) the valuation service that is provided as a consequence of such an agreement. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) The transfer of a contract or a right to buy property at given rates and terms from a mortgagee to another person. (Ginnie Mae) A transfer to another of any property, real or personal, or of any rights or estates in said property. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau) The delivery by a lender to the Agency of the note and any other security instrument securing the guaranteed loan; and any and all liens, interest, or claims the lender may have against the borrower that is party to the note. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development) The transfer by a policyholder of his/her legal right or interest in a policy contract to a third party. In the NFIP, written assignment of a policy is permissible upon transfer of title without the consent of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), except in the case where a residential (household) contents-only policy is involved or a policy was issued to cover a building in the course of construction. (Federal Emergency Management Agency) Transfer of ownership of a mortgage usually when the loan is sold to another company. (HardwickAssociates)

assignment of mortgage

A document evidencing the transfer of ownership of a mortgage from one person to another. (Federal Trade Commission)

assignment results

An appraiser�s opinions and conclusions developed specific to an assignment. (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation)

assignor

One who makes an assignment. For example, the assignor of a mortgage or contract. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

assistance

Financial assistance in the form of a loan guarantee or interest credit received from the Agency. (US Dept of Agriculture- Rural Development)

assistance agreement

An agreement pertaining to a failing institution under which a deposit insurer, such as the FDIC, provides financial assistance to the failing institution or to an acquiring institution. The assistance agreement includes the terms of the purchase of assets and assumption of liabilities of the failing institution by the assuming institution; it may also include provisions regarding a reorganization of the failing institution under new management or a merger of the failing institution into a healthy institution. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

assisted merger

A failing institution is absorbed into an acquiring institution that receives FDIC assistance. In 1950, the FDIC was authorized by section 13(e) of the FDI Act to implement assisted mergers. In 1982, when the FDI Act was amended, the merger authority, as amended, was written into section 13(c) of the FDI Act. Such transactions allow the FDIC to take direct action to reduce or avert a loss to the deposit insurance fund and to arrange the merger of a troubled institution with a healthy FDIC insured institution without closing the failing institution. Assisted merger was the FSLIC�s preferred resolution method. (Also see Federal Deposit Insurance Act.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

ASSR

Alkali-silicate/silica reaction. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

assumable loan

A mortgage loan that allows a buyer to undertake the preexisting obligation and liability of the loan, often with no change in loan terms. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

assumable mortgage

A mortgage loan that can be taken over (assumed) by the buyer when a home is sold. An assumption of a mortgage is a transaction in which the buyer of real property takes over the seller�s existing mortgage; the seller remains liable unless released by the lender from the obligation. If the mortgage contains a due-on-sale clause, the loan may not be assumed without the lender�s consent. (Federal Trade Commission) When a home is sold, the seller may be able to transfer the mortgage to the new buyer. This means the mortgage is assumable. Lenders generally require a credit review of the new borrower and may charge a fee for the assumption. Some mortgages contain a due-on-sale clause, which means that the mortgage may not be transferable to a new buyer. Instead, the lender may make you pay the entire balance that is due when you sell the home. An assumable mortgage can help you attract buyers if you sell your home. (US Dept of HUD) A mortgage which, by its terms, allows a new owner to take over its obligations. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co) A mortgage that can be taken over by the buyer when a home is sold. (HardwickAssociates)

assume

An agreement to continue performing duties under a contract or lease. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

assuming institution

A healthy bank or thrift that purchases some or all of the assets and assumes some or all of the deposits and other liabilities of a failed institution in a purchase and assumption transaction. The assuming institution is also referred to as the acquiring institution. (Also see acquiring institution.) (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

assumption

That which is taken to be true (USPAP -The Appraisal Foundation) An agreement between a buyer and a seller, requiring lender approval, where the buyer takes over the payments for a mortgage and accepts the liability. Assuming a loan can be advantageous for a buyer because there are no closing costs and the loan's interest rate may be lower than current market rates. Depending on what is in the mortgage or deed of trust, the lender may raise the interest rate, require the buyer to qualify for the mortgage, or not permit the buyer to assume the loan at all. (Ginnie Mae) A homebuyer's agreement to take on the primary responsibility for paying an existing mortgage from a home seller. (Freddie Mac) A homebuyer�s agreement to take on the primary responsibility for paying an existing mortgage from a home seller. (Federal Trade Commission) When a buyer takes over, or "assumes" the sellers mortgage. (HardwickAssociates)

assumption clause

A provision in the terms of a loan that allows the buyer to take legal responsibility for the mortgage from the seller. (US Dept of HUD)

assumption fee

A fee a lender charges a buyer who will assume the seller�s existing mortgage. (Federal Trade Commission)

assumption of mortgage

Agreement by a buyer to assume the liability under an existing loan secured by a mortgage or deed of trust. The lender usually must approve the new buyer in order to release the seller from liability. (US Dept of Commerce- Census Bureau)

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials, a consensus-based standard setting organization. (US Environmental Protection Agency) Abbreviation for the American Society for Testing and Materials, which is responsible for the issue of many standard methods used in the energy industry. (US Dept of Energy)

ASTS

Above ground storage tanks. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

asymmetric

Not similar in size, shape, form or arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a line, point or plane. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

asynchronous generator

A type of electric generator that produces alternating current that matches an existing power source. (US Dept of Energy)

atmospheric pressure

The pressure of the air at sea level; one standard atmosphere at zero degrees centigrade is equal to 14.695 pounds per square inch (1.033 kilograms per square centimeter). (US Dept of Energy) Pressure of air enveloping the earth, averaged as 14.7 psi at sea level, or 29.92 inches of mercury as measured by a standard barometer. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

at-rest earth pressure

The value of the earth pressure when the soil mass is in its natural state without having been permitted to yield or without having been compressed. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

atrium

An interior court to which rooms open. (US Dept of Energy)

attached housing

Any number of houses or other dwellings which are physically attached to one another, but are occupied by a number of different people. The individual houses may or may not be owned by separate people as well. (HardwickAssociates)

attachment

Legal seizure of property to force payment of a debt. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

attainment area

An area considered to have air quality that meets or exceeds the U.S. 37: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health standards used in the Clean Air Act. Nonattainment areas are areas considered not to have met these standards for designated pollutants. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

attenuation

Decrease in amplitude of the seismic waves with distance due to geometric spreading, energy absorption and scattering. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

Atterberg limits

(aka consistency limits) The boundaries (determined by laboratory tests) of moisture content in a soil between the liquid state and plastic state (known as liquid limit), between the plastic state and the semisolid state (known as the plastic limit), and between the semisolid state and the solid state (known as the shrinkage limit). (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

attic

The usually unfinished space above a ceiling and below a roof. (US Dept of Energy)

attic and other roofs

All other roofs, including roofs with insulation entirely below (inside of) the roof structure (e.g., attics, cathedral ceilings, and single-rafter ceilings), roofs with insulation both above and below the roof structure, and roofs without insulation but excluding metal building roofs. (Energycodes.gov)

attic fan

A fan mounted on an attic wall used to exhaust warm attic air to the outside. (US Dept of Energy)

attic vent

A passive or mechanical device used to ventilate an attic space, primarily to reduce heat buildup and moisture condensation. (US Dept of Energy)

attorney in fact

One who holds a power of attorney from another allowing him or her to execute legal documents such as deeds, mortgages, etc., on behalf of the grantor of the power. (Old Republic National Title Insurance Co)

attractants

Attractants are traps containing a pesticide and food to lure insects or rodents inside. However, food is not a pesticide even though it certainly attracts pests...like ants at a picnic. (US EPA- Pesticides)

attribute code

For wetland mapping, the attribute codes for wetland and deepwater polygons are from the Cowardin Wetlands Classification Standard. All polygons must have a valid attribute code to depict mapped habitat type. (US Fish & Wildlife Service)

attribute survey

Survey to determine the important components of the recreational experience. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

attributes of soil change

Quantifiable properties used to describe the nature of soil change, including drivers, types, rates, reversibility, and pathways of change. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

ATV

All-terrain vehicle. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

atypical

Not typical. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

auction

A method of determining price and interest. (Federal Reserve Bank- SF) An asset sales strategy in which assets are sold either individually or in pools to the highest bidder in an open-outcry auction. (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

audit

Periodic investigation of financial statements and their relationships to planned or permitted expenditures. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

audit (energy)

The process of determining energy consumption, by various techniques, of a building or facility. (US Dept of Energy)

auger

A rotating drill having a screw thread that carries cuttings away from the face. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

augmentation parameters

(from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) Study) : Augmentation parameters are additional parameters that were measured at some of the buildings in the program.� Augmentation parameters for the BASE study included nicotine, air handling unit continuous air stream carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, biologicals in dust, air infiltration rate.�� Measurements of augmentation parameters were considered for inclusion at selected buildings based on considerations of the research objectives, historical data, integration potential of the measurement results with other studies, and other factors as deemed appropriate by the EPA Program Manager. (US Environmental Protection Agency)

AUM

Animal unit months. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

authority having jurisdiction

The agency or agent responsible for enforcing the code or standard. (Energycodes.gov)

authorization

The issuance of approval, by a credit card issuer, merchant, or other affiliate, to complete a credit card transaction. (Help With My Bank) Legislation that establishes or continues the legal operation of a Federal program or agency, either indefinitely or for a specific period of time, or that sanctions a particular type of expenditure. An authorization normally is a prerequisite for an appropriation or other kind of budget authority. An authorization also may limit the amount of budget authority to be provided, or may authorize the appropriation of "such sums as may be necessary." (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service) Basic substantive legislation or that which empowers an agency to implement a particular program and also establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds that can be appropriated for that program (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration) An act by the Congress of the United States which authorizes use of public funds to carry out a prescribed action. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

authorization act

Basic substantive legislation that establishes or continues Federal programs or agencies and establishes an upper limit on the amount of funds for the program(s). The current authorization act for surface transportation programs is the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

authorized reclamation project

A congressionally approved Bureau of Reclamation project that has been authorized for specific purposes. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

author's signature

This is the signature of the person or persons with primary responsibility for writing the document. Signature of the document by the author(s) signifies that a draft document was provided to team members and that they had an opportunity to comment on the draft. The author's signature also implies that comments were considered and that any critical issues or influencing factors were incorporated into the document. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

auto inspection and maintenance (IM)

Programs require the testing of motor vehicles in parts of the country with unhealthy air and the repair of those that do not meet standards. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

auto operated control damper

A damper that automatically opens and closes. (Energycodes.gov)

automated

To control or operate by automation. (Federal Reserve Education)

Automated Clearing House

(aka ACH) Electronic clearing and settlement system for exchanging electronic transactions among participating depository institutions; such electronic transactions are substitutes for paper checks and are typically used to make recurring payments such as payroll or loan payments. The Federal Reserve Banks operate an automated clearinghouse, as do some private sector firms. (Federal Reserve Education) A computerized facility used by member depository institutions to electronically combine, sort, and distribute inter-bank credits and debits. ACHs process electronic transfers of government securities and provided customer services, such as direct deposit of customers' salaries and government benefit payments (i.e., social security, welfare, and veterans' entitlements), and preauthorized transfers. (Help With My Bank)

Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time

A flood warning system consisting of remote sensors, data transmission by radio, and a computer software package developed by the National Weather Service (NWS). Also, a generic term used for a decision making software package. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

automated teller machine

(aka ATM) Computer-controlled terminal located on the premises of financial institutions or elsewhere, through which customers may make deposits, withdrawals or other transactions as they would through a bank teller. Other terms sometimes used to describe such terminals are customer-bank communications terminal (CBCT) and remote service unit (RSU). Groups of banks sometimes share ATM networks located throughout a region of the country that may include portions of several states. (Federal Reserve Education) A machine, activated by a magnetically encoded card or other medium, that can process a variety of banking transactions. These include accepting deposits and loan payments, providing withdrawals, and transferring funds between accounts. (Help With My Bank)

automated teller machine (ATM) card

A debit card that automatically withdraws money from your account. (Federal Reserve Education)

automated underwriting

An automated process performed by a technology application that streamlines the processing of loan applications and provides a recommendation to the lender to approve the loan or refer it for manual underwriting. (Federal Trade Commission) Loan processing completed through a computer-based system that evaluates past credit history to determine if a loan should be approved. This system removes the possibility of personal bias against the buyer. (US Dept of HUD)

automated valuation model

A computer program that estimates a property�s market value based on market, economic, and demographic factors. Hedonic models generally use property characteristics (such as square footage and room count) and methodologies to process information, often based on statistical regression. Index models generally use geographic repeat sales data over time rather than property characteristic data. Blended or hybrid models use elements of both hedonic and index models. (US Dept of Treasury- Interagency)

automatic

Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some nonmanual influence, such as a change in current strength, pressure, temperature, or mechanical configuration. (Energycodes.gov)

automatic bill payment

A checkless system for paying recurring bills with one authorization statement to a financial institution. For example, the customer would only have to provide one authorization form/letter/document to pay the cable bill each month. The necessary debits and credits are made through an Automated Clearing House (ACH). (Help With My Bank)

automatic control device

A device capable of automatically turning loads off and on without manual intervention. (Energycodes.gov)

automatic damper

A device that cuts off the flow of hot or cold air to or from a room as controlled by a thermostat. (US Dept of Energy)

automatic generation control

(aka AGC) Computerized power system regulation to maintain scheduled generation within a prescribed area in response to changes in transmission system operational characteristics. The function of dedicated generating capacity changing moment to moment to follow the loads in a defined control. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

automatic meter reading system

(aka remote meter reading system) A system that records the consumption of electricity, gas, water, etc, and sends the data to a central data accumulation device. (US Dept of Energy)

automatic stay

An injunction that automatically stops lawsuits, foreclosures, garnishments, and all collection activity against the debtor the moment a bankruptcy petition is filed. (US Courts (Federal Courts)- Bankruptcy Basics)

automatic time-switch controls

Controls that automatically switch lights or equipment on and off. (Energycodes.gov)

automatic transfer service account

(aka ATS account) A depositor's savings account from which funds may be transferred automatically to the same depositor's checking account to cover a check written or to maintain a minimum balance. (Federal Reserve Education)

automatically protected

As of May 1, 2011, up to two months of Federal benefits such as Social Security benefits, Supplemental Security Income benefits, Veteran�s benefits, Railroad Retirement benefits, and benefits from the Office of Personnel Management that are direct deposited to an account may be protected from garnishment. The amount automatically protected will depend upon the balance of the account on the day of review. (Help With My Bank)

automobile

A privately owned and/or operated licensed motorized vehicle including cars, jeeps and station wagons. Leased and rented cars are included if they are privately operated and not used for picking up passengers in return for fare. (FHWA3) (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

auxiliary energy or system

Energy required to operate mechanical components of an energy system, or a source of energy or energy supply system to back-up another. (US Dept of Energy)

auxiliary equipment

Accessory equipment necessary for the operation of a generating station. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

auxiliary spillway

A spillway, usually located in a saddle or depression in the reservoir rim which leads to a natural or excavated waterway, located away from the dam which permits the planned release of excess flood flow beyond the capacity of the service spillway. A control structure is seldom furnished. The crest is set at the maximum water surface elevation for a 100-year flood or some other specific frequency flood. The auxiliary spillway thus has only infrequent use. Any secondary spillway which is designed to be operated very infrequently and possibly in anticipation of some degree of structural damage or erosion to the spillway during operation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

availability

Describes the reliability of power plants. It refers to the number of hours that a power plant is available to produce power divided by the total hours in a set time period, usually a year. (US Dept of Energy)

availability date

Bank's policy as to when funds deposited into an account will be available for withdrawal. (Help With My Bank)

availability policy

Bank's policy as to when funds deposited into an account will be available for withdrawal. (Help With My Bank)

available balance

The balance of an account less any hold, uncollected funds, and restrictions against the account. (Help With My Bank)

available capacity

The amount of water held in the soil that is available to the plants. See water holding capacity. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

available credit

The difference between the credit limit assigned to a cardholder account and the present balance of the account. (Help With My Bank)

available heat

The amount of heat energy that may be converted into useful energy from a fuel. (US Dept of Energy)

available water capacity

Loosely, the amount of water available for plants to use. Specifically, the volume of water released from soil between the time the soil is at field capacity (the maximum water held in soil against the pull of gravity) until the time it is at the wilting point (the amount of water held too tightly in soil for commonly grown crops to extract). Loamy soils and soils high in organic matter have the highest AWC. (US Dept of Agriculture- Natural Resources Conservation Service)

average

The arithmetic mean. The sum of the values divided by the number of values. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

average annual daily traffic

(aka AADT) The total volume of traffic on a highway segment for one year, divided by the number of days in the year. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

average annual daily truck traffic

(aka AADTT) The total volume of truck traffic on a highway segment for one year, divided by the number of days in the year. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

average annual runoff

For a specified area, the average value of annual runoff amounts calculated for a selected period of record that represents average hydrologic conditions. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

average cost

The total cost of production divided by the total quantity produced. (US Dept of Energy)

average crop revenue election

(aka ACRE) An optional revenue-based program provision introduced in the 2008 farm legislation that replaces counter-cyclical payments for those producers who elect to participate in ACRE. Once producers elect to participate, participation continues until 2012. Producers continue to receive reduced direct payments and are eligible for reduced loan deficiency payments. (US Dept of Agriculture- Economic Research Service)

average degree of consolidation

The ratio of the total volume change in a soil mass at a given time to the total volume change anticipated in the soil mass due to primary consolidation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

average demand

The demand on, or the power output of, an electrical system or any of its parts over an interval of time, as determined by the total number of kilowatt-hours divided by the units of time in the interval. (US Dept of Energy)

average discharge

In the annual series of the Geological Survey's reports on surface-water supply--the arithmetic average of all complete water years of record whether or not they are consecutive. Average discharge is not published for less than 5 years of record. The term "average" is generally reserved for average of record and "mean" is used for averages of shorter periods, namely, daily mean discharge. (US Dept of the Interior- US Geological Survey)

average energy

The total power generation produced by a powerplant during all of the years of its actual or simulated operation divided by the number of years of actual or simulated operation. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

average haul

The average distance, in miles, one ton is carried. It is computed by dividing ton-miles by tons of freight originated. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

average passenger trip length (bus/rail)

Calculated by dividing revenue passenger-miles by the number of revenue passengers. (US Dept of Transportation- Federal Highway Administration)

average price

Determining the cost of a home by totaling the cost of all houses sold in one area and dividing by the number of homes sold. (US Dept of HUD)

average wind speed (or velocity)

The mean wind speed over a specified period of time. (US Dept of Energy)

average year supply

The average annual supply of a water development system over a long period. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

average year water demand

Demand for water under average hydrologic conditions for a defined level of development. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

avian

Having to do with birds. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

avoided cost

The incremental cost to an electric power producer to generate or purchase a unit of electricity or capacity or both. (US Dept of Energy)

avoirdupois weight

An English and American system of weights based on a pound of 16 ounces. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

AWG

The abbreviation for American Wire Gauge; the standard for gauging the size of wires (electrical conductors). (US Dept of Energy)

awning

An architectural element for shading windows and wall surfaces placed on the exterior of a building; can be fixed or movable. (US Dept of Energy)

axial fans

Fans in which the direction of the flow of the air from inlet to outlet remains unchanged; includes propeller, tubaxial, and vaneaxial type fans. (US Dept of Energy)

axial flow compressor

A type of air compressor in which air is compressed in a series of stages as it flows axially through a decreasing tubular area. (US Dept of Energy)

axial flow turbine

A turbine in which the flow of a steam or gas is essentially parallel to the rotor axis. (US Dept of Energy)

axis

A straight line around which a shaft or body revolves. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

axis of dam

A vertical plane or curved surface, appearing as a line in plan or cross section, to which horizontal dimensions can be referred. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

axis of dam (concrete)

A vertical reference surface coincident with the upstream face at the top of the dam. (US Dept of the Interior- Bureau of Reclamation)

azimuth (solar)

The angle between true south and the point on the horizon directly below the sun. (US Dept of Energy)